Author(s): Abhishek Singh, Nimisha, Niharika Singh, Rishabh Gupta


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00464   

Address: Abhishek Singh, Nimisha*, Niharika Singh, Rishabh Gupta
Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Lucknow, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Sector 125, Noida, 201313.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 17,      Issue - 6,     Year - 2024

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused pandemic with a rapid spread and became a major public health issue in the world in year 2020. A potentially lethal illness known as coronavirus disease-2019 was produced by this novel coronavirus member (COVID-19). Combatingthe COVID-19/SARS-CoV2 epidemic, which is endangering the foundation of our civilization, resulting in horrific human casualties, and placing a massive economic burden on the whole world, has presented us with an unparalleled task. The creation of novel testing kits and treatment stoco mbatthe pandemic, including the creation of portable, quicklydeployable, and cost-effective diagnostic testing kits, personal protective equipment, mechanical ventilators, vaccines, and data analysis and modelling tools, has become urgently necessary during this trying time. The vaccination of the populace is acknowledged as a public health priority in the current setting of the epidemic caused by SARS-COV-2. The genomic sequencing for SARS-COV2 was completed fast, in just one month. Since then, vaccination has been the focus of research on a global scale. The pandemic has compelled scientists across the globe to research solutions for treatments as well as vaccines to stop COVID-19. Various researches on SARS-CoV and, to a lesser degree, MERS have provided guidance about immunisation tactics regarding this unique coronavirus. It is explained by the statement that the SARS-CoV-2 shares 79% genetic similarity with SARS-CoV and uses human Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (hACE2) receptor on the host cell. There are several platforms for developing vaccines, including virus-vectored vaccines, m-RNA based vaccines, protein subunit vaccines, m-RNA based nanotherapeutics, intranasal vaccines, recombinant spike protein vaccines, self-amplifying m-RNA vaccines and monoclonal antibodies for passive immunisation that are being evaluated for COVID-19. All these platforms have certain pros and cons. The COVID-19 pandemic is possibly the second most deadly in the last century after the Spanish flu that requires a quick assessment of the various target efficacies in inducing immunity in preventing unplanned immune-potentiation. This article aims to give readers a detailed insight intovaccines that will be successful against the new coronavirus that has ravaged the global economy, human health, and quality of life.

Cite this article:
Abhishek Singh, Nimisha, Niharika Singh, Rishabh Gupta. Current Insights on Vaccines available for COVID-19 like Flu Symptoms. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2024; 17(6):2967-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00464

Abhishek Singh, Nimisha, Niharika Singh, Rishabh Gupta. Current Insights on Vaccines available for COVID-19 like Flu Symptoms. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2024; 17(6):2967-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00464   Available on:

1.    Krishnan P, Krishnan K, Qing CB. Knowledge and Perception of Telemedicine and Telerehabilitation on patient data sharing during COVID-19. Res. J. Pharm. Technol. 2023; 16: 3109–14.
2.    Abuelsoud N, Younis N, Wageeh M, Makboul F, Abdallah L, Hany M, et al. The association between Covid-19 Infections, Severity, Complications and Vaccinations and Dyslipidemia in young age population-Clinical Pharmacy Approach. Res. J. Pharm. Technol. 2023; 16: 3475–82.
3.    Haji SA, Alneama RT, Al-Ghazzawi NSS. Acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines and associated barriers among dental students at college of Dentistry, University of Basrah: A cross-sectional study. Res. J. Pharm. Technol. 2023; 16: 3608–14.
4.    Khasbage S, Das SK, Najmi A, Sadasivam B, Singh S. Primary Prophylaxis of COVID-19: A Comprehensive Review of approved vaccines. Res. J. Pharm. Technol. 2023: 917–23.
5.    Lukas S, Ramatillah DL, Aldi Y, Wahyuni FS. The Impact of Body Mass Index on the Antibody Titer after Astra Zeneca Vaccination at UTA’45 Vaccine Center. Res. J. Pharm. Technol. 2023; 16: 2689–93.
6.    Kandra NV, Nagisetty S, Uppala PK, Uttaravelli U, Lavanya B, Balijepalli MK, et al. Covid 19 Vaccine–A Magical Bullet for Corona. Res. J. Pharm. Technol. 2023; 16: 465–9.
7.    Finkenstadt DJ, Handfield R. The influence of supply chain immunity perceptions on COVID-19 vaccine willingness in supply chain professionals. Int J Logist Manag 2023; 34: 84–105.
8.    Li W, Moore MJ, Vasilieva N, Sui J, Wong SK, Berne MA, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus. Nature 2003; 426: 450–4.
9.    Majid L, Radhakrishnan S, Ramachandran V, Muthukumarasamy R. Review on COVID-19 Vaccines. Res. J. Pharm. Technol. 2022; 15: 5868–74.
10.    Bonkalo TI, Shmeleva S V, Kovalchuk DF, Aralova E V, Romanova A V, Tsygankova MN. Semantic Regulation of mental states of the individuals during the SARSCOV-2 Pandemic. Res. J. Pharm. Technol. 2023; 16: 55–61.
11.    Teng Z, Meng L-Y, Yang J-K, He Z, Chen X-G, Liu Y. Bridging nanoplatform and vaccine delivery, a landscape of strategy to enhance nasal immunity. J Control Release 2022; 351: 456–75.
12.    Batteux E, Mills F, Jones LF, Symons C, Weston D. The effectiveness of interventions for increasing COVID-19 vaccine uptake: a systematic review. Vaccines 2022; 10: 386.
13.    Nirmala EC, Sudjarwo SA, Kuncorojakti S, Puspitasari H, A’la R, Wijaya AY, et al. The response of CD59 NK cell and IL-6 level in Cynomolgus macaque immunized with inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate. Res. J. Pharm. Technol. 2023; 16: 2847–53.
14.    Doremalen N van, Purushotham JN, Schulz JE, Holbrook MG, Bushmaker T, Carmody A, et al. Intranasal ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222 vaccination reduces viral shedding after SARS-CoV-2 D614G challenge in preclinical models. Sci. Transl. Med. 2021; 13: eabh0755.
15.    Eedara BB, Alabsi W, Encinas-Basurto D, Polt R, Ledford JG, Mansour HM. Inhalation delivery for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 infection. Pharmaceutics 2021; 13: 1077.
16.    Choudhary OP, Mohammed TA, Singh I. Intranasal COVID-19 vaccines: Is it a boon or bane? Int J Surg 2021;94:106119.
17.    Deng S, Liang H, Chen P, Li Y, Li Z, Fan S, et al. Viral vector vaccine development and application during the COVID-19 pandemic. Microorganisms 2022; 10: 1450.
18.    King RG, Silva-Sanchez A, Peel JN, Botta D, Dickson AM, Pinto AK, et al. Single-dose intranasal administration of AdCOVID elicits systemic and mucosal immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and fully protects mice from lethal challenge. Vaccines 2021; 9: 881.
19.    Li M, Luo Y, Watson R, Zheng Y, Ren J, Tang J, et al. Healthcare workers’(HCWs) attitudes and related factors towards COVID-19 vaccination: a rapid systematic review. Postgrad Med J 2023; 99: 520–8.
20.    Wang Y, Yang C, Song Y, Coleman JR, Stawowczyk M, Tafrova J, et al. Scalable live-attenuated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate demonstrates preclinical safety and efficacy. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2021; 118: e2102775118.
21.    Sharun K, Dhama K. India’s role in COVID-19 vaccine diplomacy. J Travel Med 2021; 28: taab064.
22.    Mueller-Enz M, Woopen C, Rahbani GK Al, Haase R, Dunsche M, Ziemssen T, et al. NVX-CoV2373-induced T-and B-cellular immunity in immunosuppressed people with multiple sclerosis that failed to respond to mRNA and viral vector SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Front Immunol 2023; 14.
23.    Mentzer AJ, O’connor D, Bibi S, Chelysheva I, Clutterbuck EA, Demissie T, et al. Human leukocyte antigen alleles associate with COVID-19 vaccine immunogenicity and risk of breakthrough infection. Nat Med 2023; 29: 147–57.
24.    Vishweshwaraiah YL, Dokholyan N V. mRNA vaccines for cancer immunotherapy. Front Immunol 2022; 13: 1029069.
25.    Fayez N Al, Nassar MS, Alshehri AA, Alnefaie MK, Almughem FA, Alshehri BY, et al. Recent Advancement in mRNA Vaccine Development and Applications. Pharmaceutics 2023; 15: 1972.
26.    Hui DS. Hybrid immunity and strategies for COVID-19 vaccination. Lancet Infect Dis 2023; 23: 2–3.
27.    Keh RYS, Scanlon S, Datta-Nemdharry P, Donegan K, Cavanagh S, Foster M, et al. COVID-19 vaccination and Guillain-Barré syndrome: analyses using the National Immunoglobulin Database. Brain 2023; 146: 739–48.
28.    Hyde JL, Diamond MS. Innate immune restriction and antagonism of viral RNA lacking 2׳-O methylation. Virology 2015; 479: 66–74.
29.    Fong Y, Huang Y, Benkeser D, Carpp LN, Áñez G, Woo W, et al. Immune correlates analysis of the PREVENT-19 COVID-19 vaccine efficacy clinical trial. Nat Commun 2023; 14: 331.
30.    Jackson LA, Anderson EJ, Rouphael NG, Roberts PC, Makhene M, Coler RN, et al. An mRNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2—preliminary report. N Engl J Med 2020; 383: 1920–31.
31.    Rawat K, Kumari P, Saha L. COVID-19 vaccine: A recent update in pipeline vaccines, their design and development strategies. Eur J Pharmacol 2021; 892: 173751.
32.    Yasuhara J, Masuda K, Aikawa T, Shirasu T, Takagi H, Lee S, et al. Myopericarditis after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination among adolescents and young adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatr 2023.
33.    Yonker LM, Swank Z, Bartsch YC, Burns MD, Kane A, Boribong BP, et al. Circulating spike protein detected in post–COVID-19 mRNA vaccine myocarditis. Circulation 2023; 147: 867–76.
34.    Royal A, Ahmad S, Qureshi A, Chaudhary V, Jindal T, Kumar V, et al. An altmetric analysis of online news on India’s first indigenous COVID-19 vaccine. J Educ Health Promot 2021; 10.
35.    Takacs A, Ecsedy M, Nagy ZZ. Possible COVID-19 MRNA vaccine-induced case of unilateral central retinal vein occlusion. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2023; 31: 1145–50.
36.    Liang L, Ahamed A, Ge L, Fu X, Lisak G. Advances in antiviral material development. Chempluschem 2020; 85: 2105–28.
37.    Wijk RC van, Mockeliunas L, Hoogen G van den, Upton CM, Diacon AH, Simonsson USH. Reproducibility in pharmacometrics applied in a phase III trial of BCG-vaccination for COVID-19. Sci. Rep. 2023; 13: 16292.
38.    Richmond P, Hatchuel L, Dong M, Ma B, Hu B, Smolenov I, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of S-Trimer (SCB-2019), a protein subunit vaccine candidate for COVID-19 in healthy adults: a phase 1, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2021; 397: 682–94.
39.    Lin C-S, Chang C-H. Disseminated Herpes Zoster Following Protein Subunit and mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination in Immunocompetent Patients: Report of Two Cases and Literature Review. Medicina (B Aires) 2023; 59: 1542.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available