Author(s): Priyanka Pallapolu, Lahari Kuna, Alokananda Chakraborty, Ghazala Javed, Asim Ali Khan


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00440   

Address: Priyanka Pallapolu1, Lahari Kuna1, Alokananda Chakraborty1*, Ghazala Javed2, Asim Ali Khan2
1National Research Institute of Unani Medicine for Skin Disorders, ESI x Road, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
2Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM), New Delhi, India.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 17,      Issue - 6,     Year - 2024

Introduction: Gastritis, often known as hyperacidity, is a prevalent issue among many people. In Unani Medicine, the disorders associated with stomach (Amraze Meda) are thoroughly documented and it is associated with the Choleric temperament. Oxidative stress is a significant factor to the onset of several gastrointestinal disorders. In the present research CYP3A4 and GST genetic polymorphisms are assessed in gastritis patients with Safrawi (Choleric) temperament. Materials and methods: A total of 200 subjects of which 100 gastritis patients and 100 control subjects with Safrawi (Choleric) temperament were recruited. DNA was isolated and analyzed for CYP3A4 and GST genetic polymorphisms by PCR and RFLP methods. Results: CYP3A4 CC genotype, GSTT1 and GSTM1 null genotypes were predominantly associated with gastritis risk in Safrawi (Choleric) temperament subjects with p<0.001. CYP3A4 recessive model (OR=3.27, 95% CI 1.02-10.52, p < 0.033) was significantly associated with disease susceptibility. In combined analysis CYP3A4 –TT and GST Null (-) were significantly allied with 5.68-fold risk CYP3A4 –TT and GSTT1 Null (-) were significantly allied with 5.68-fold risk whereas CYP3A4 –TT, TC, CC and GSTM1 Null (-) showed significant association with 18.81, 11.68 and 15.57folds risk to develop gastritis. In haplotype analysis, T-GSTT1 (-) -GSTM1 (-), T-GSTT1 (+)-GSTM1 (-) and C-GSTT1 (-)-GSTM1 (-) haplotypes showed significant association with increased risk towards disease susceptibility, corroborating the hypothesis that these SNPs serve a stimulatory role in illness development in Safrawi (Choleric) temperament. Discussion and conclusion: Proper diet and a healthy lifestyle can help prevent gastritis in its early stages. CYP3A4 (TC and CC), GSTT1null and GSTM1null genotypes appear to enhance the risk of gastritis in Safrawi (Choleric) temperament individuals. To reduce illness propensity and reverse pathogenic processes, early diagnosis of these genetic variations is necessary.

Cite this article:
Priyanka Pallapolu, Lahari Kuna, Alokananda Chakraborty, Ghazala Javed, Asim Ali Khan. Association of CYP3A4, GSTT1 and GSTM1 Gene Polymorphisms in early prediction of Gastritis in Choleric Temperament as per Unani Philosophy in Indian population. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2024; 17(6):2804-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00440

Priyanka Pallapolu, Lahari Kuna, Alokananda Chakraborty, Ghazala Javed, Asim Ali Khan. Association of CYP3A4, GSTT1 and GSTM1 Gene Polymorphisms in early prediction of Gastritis in Choleric Temperament as per Unani Philosophy in Indian population. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2024; 17(6):2804-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00440   Available on:

1.    Moalijaat Jild Doom- amraz-e nizam -e-hazam we tawleed we tana sul. Waseem ahmad azmi wazarate terqi insane Wasail Hakumat hind faroog urdu bawan fc-33/9, Institutional Area, Jasooly, New Delhi no.207, 2012.
2.    Shugufta Nisa. Gastritis (Warm-e-meda): A review with Unani approach. International Journal of Advanced Science and Research 2018; 3(3) 43-45.
3.    Suzuki H, Matsuzaki J, Hibi T. Ghrelin and oxidative stress in gastrointestinal tract. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2011; 48: 122–125.
4.    Danielson PB. The cytochrome P450 superfamily: biochemistry, evolution and drug metabolism in humans. Curr Drug Metab 2002; 3: 561–597.
5.    Floriano-Sanchez E, Rodriguez NC, Bandala C, Coballase-Urrutia E, Lopez-Cruz J. CYP3A4 expression in breast cancer and its association with risk factors in Mexican women. Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(8): 3805-9. PubMed PMID: 24870798.
6.    J. D. Hayes and D. J. Pulford, The glutathione S-transferase supergene family: regulation of GST and the contribution of the isoenzymes to cancer chemoprotection and drug resistance, Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1995; 30(6): 445–600.
7.    M. A. Garc´ıa-Gonz´alez, E. Quintero, L. Bujanda et al., Relevance of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms to gastric cancer susceptibility and phenotype, Mutagenesis, 2012; 27(6): 771–777.
8.    S. Tripathi, U. Ghoshal, B. Mittal, D. Chourasia, S. Kumar, and U. C. Ghoshal, “Association between gastric mucosal glutathione- S-transferase activity, glutathione-S-transferase gene polymorphisms and Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric cancer,” Indian Journal of Gastroenterology, 2011; 30(6): 257–263.
9.    Tomomitsu Tahara, Tomoyuki Shibata, Masakatsu Nakamura, Hiromi Yamashita, Daisuke Yoshioka, Masaaki Okubo, Joh Yonemura, Yoshio Kamiya, Takamitsu Ishizuka, Yoshihito Nakagawa, Mitsuo Nagasaka, Masami Iwata, Ichiro Hirata, And Tomiyasu Arisawa. Association between Genetic Polymorphisms Related to DNA Repair or Xenobiotic Pathways and Gastric Premalignant Conditions. Anticancer Res. April 2011; 31(4): 1459-1465.
10.    W. Beil, B. Obst, K.-F. Sewing, and S. Wagner, “Helicobacter pylori reduces intracellular glutathione in gastric epithelial cells,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 2000; 45(9): 1769– 1773,.
11.    G. Suman and Kaiser Jamil. Novel CYP3A4 Gene Polymorphisms in Post Chemo Breast Cancer Patients. International Journal of Cancer Research, 2006; 2: 358-366.
12.    Alokananda Chakraborty, Priyanka Pallapolu, Seelamneni Thulasamma, Lahari Kuna, Shravan Kumar Ghali, Kaiser Jamil, Ghazala Javed, Munawwar Husain Kazmi. Genetic variations in NLRP1 and Glutathione S-Transferase are associated with Generalized Vitiligo of Phlegmatic Clinical Phenotypes in Unani Medicine Philosophy of South Indian Population. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(5): 2221-7.
13.    Lou, Xiang-Yang, Chen, Guo-Bo, Yan, Lei, Ma, Jennie Z., Zhu, Jun, Elston, Robert C., Li, Ming D., et al.,. A generalized combinatorial approach for detecting geneby-gene and gene-by-environment interactions with application to nicotine dependence. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2007; 80(6): 1125–1137 Jun.
14.    Qadri Q, Rasool R, Gulzar GM, Naqash S, Shah ZA. H. pylori infection, inflammation and gastric cancer. J Gastrointest Cancer 2014; 45(2): 126–32. doi: 10.1007/s12029-014-9583-1.
15.    Butcher, L. D., den Hartog, G., Ernst, P. B., and Crowe, S. E. . Oxidative Stress Resulting from Helicobacter pylori Infection Contributes to Gastric Carcinogenesis. Cellular and molecular gastroenterology and hepatology, 2017; 3(3), 316–322.
16.    Suzuki H, Nishizawa T, Tsugawa H, Mogami S, Hibi T. Roles of oxidative stress in stomach disorders. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2012; 50: 35–39.
17.    Bishehsari F, Magno E, Swanson G, Desai V, Voigt RM, Forsyth CB, Keshavarzian A. Alcohol and Gut-Derived Inflammation. Alcohol Res. 2017; 38(2): 163-171. PMID: 28988571; PMCID: PMC5513683.
18.    Joundi H, Pereira KN, Haneef G, Bhandari R, Malik J, Shah RP, Sejdiu A, Mathialagan K. Cannabis Use Disorders Lead to Hospitalizations for Peptic Ulcer Disease: Insights from a Nationwide Inpatient Sample Analysis. Cureus. 2021; Jun 2; 13(6): e15405.
19.    Zuhr I. "Kitabul Taiseer Fil Madawat", (Translated By CCRUM, New Delhi), pp. 126, 1986.
20.    Jasna, D. , Dražen, S. . Oxidative Stress Pathway Driven by Inflammation in Gastric Mucosa. In: Tonino, P., editor. Gastritis and Gastric Cancer - New Insights in Gastroprotection, Diagnosis and Treatments Internet. London: IntechOpen; 2011.
21.    M. Vaishali. Antioxidants in Health and Diseases. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2014; 7(4): 489-493.
22.    Thorn M, Finnstrom N, Lundgren S, Rabe A, Loof L. Cytochromes P450 and MDR1 mRNA expression along the human gastrointestinal tract. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003; 60(1): 54-60.
23.    Von Richter O, Burk O, Fromm MF, Thon KP, Eiechelbaunm M, Kivisto KT. Cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein expression in human small intestinal enterocytes and hepatocytes: A comparative anallysis in paired tissue specimens. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004; 75(3): 172-83.
24.    Banet LZ, Kroett DL, Sheinen LD. Pharmacokinetics. In: Hardaman JG, Limbrid LE, Molinoff PB, Ruddon RW, Gilman AG (eds). Goodman and Gilman’s. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 9th ed. Mc GrawHill. New York 1996.11-16.
25.    M. Sumithra, Avantika Prabhabanik. A Prospective Study of Drug Utilization and Evaluation of Gastro Intestinal Agents. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2017; 10(1): 166-170. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00036.1
26.    Sapone A, Vaira D, Trespidi S, Perna F, Gatta L, Tempieri A, Ricci C, Cantelli-Forti G, Miglioli M, Biagi GL, Paolili M. The clinical role of cytochrome p450 genotypes in Helicobacter pylori management. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003; 98(5): 1010- 15.
27.    Koch I, Weil R, Wolbold R, Brockmöller J, Hustert E, Burk O, Nuessler A, Neuhaus P, Eichelbaum M, Zanger U, Wojnowski L. Interindividual variability and tissue-specificity in the expression of cytochrome P450 3A mRNA. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002; Oct; 30(10): 1108-14.
28.    Zhang F, Wang F, Chen C, Wang T, Hu J, Su R, Li X, Gu B, Tang S, Chen H, Li Y. Prediction of progression of chronic atrophic gastritis with Helicobacter pylori and poor prognosis of gastric cancer by CYP3A4. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020; Mar; 35(3): 425-432. doi: 10.1111/jgh.14844. Epub 2019 Sep 12. PMID: 31441961.
29.    Lao X, Peng, Q, Lu, Y, Li S, Qin X, Chen Z, Chen J. Glutathione S-transferase gene GSTM1, gene-gene interaction, and gastric cancer susceptibility: Evidence from an updated meta-analysis. Cancer Cell Int. 2014; 14: 127.
30.    Tulsi Rani Thakre, Abha Singh, Mitashree Mitra. Investigation on Glutathione-S-transferase M1 and T1 gene polymorphisms as risk factor in Cervical Cancer. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2016; 9(12):2295-2300. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00462.5.
31.    S. Ghatak, R. P. Yadav, F. Lalrohlui et al. Xenobiotic Pathway Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Gastric Cancer in High-Risk Mizo-Mongoloid Population, Northeast India. Helicobacter, 2016; 21(6): 523–535,.
32.    Sergey Kotelevets, Sergey Chekh, Zukhra Karakotova. Modern Possibilities of the Use of Non-Invasive Serological Biomarkers Severe in Population Studies. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(9): 4274-4282. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00735.2
33.    Deepalakshmi M, Ajay Samraj P, Diya C, Jonna Venkatesh, Kamalrathinam R S, Arun K P. Case Report on Mild Anemia and Gastritis due to Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Nevirapine (ZLN) Regimen. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(11): 5911-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.01027
34.    Agudo A. Sala N. Pera G. et al.  Polymorphisms in metabolic genes related to tobacco smoke and the risk of gastric cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2006; 15: 2427–2434.
35.    Shiv Kumar Patel, Moumita Sinha, Mitashree Mitra. Glutathione-S-transferase M1 and T1 gene Polymorphism as Risk Factors of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Preliminary Investigation. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2012; 5(7): 918-920.
36.    Cai L, Yu SZ, Zhang ZF. Glutathione S-transferases M1, T1 genotypes and the risk of gastric cancer: a case-control study. World J Gastroenterol 2001; 7:506–9.
37.    Cai L, Yu SZ, Zhang ZF. Glutathione S-transferases M1, T1 genotypes and the risk of gastric cancer: a case-control study. World J Gastroenterol. 2001; 7: 506–9.
38.    Sukhpal Singh, Amita Mahajan, Jaspreet Kaur. Studies on Status of Oxidative Stress related Molecules and Enzymes in Obese with and without Diabetes in the Northern region of India. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(2): 801-809. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00151.1
39.    Dunna NR, Vure S, Sailaja K, Surekha D, Raghunadharao D, Rajappa S, et al. Deletion of GSTM1 and T1 Genes as a Risk Factor for Development of Acute Leukemia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14: 2221–4. doi: 10.7314/apjcp. 2013.14.4.2221).
40.    Preety Sweta Hembrom, Jisna Jose, Shalini K, Tony Grace. Detection of Variation in Expression of Insecticide Resistance Gene Cyp4d2 involved in Detoxification of Insecticides in Drosophila melanogaster. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(11): 5315-5319. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00921.1
41.    Huda Kadhem Mohseen, Baydaa Taher Sih, Sura Salah Al-Saidi. Effect of the (ɣ-ray) and Laser Radiation on the Important Antioxidant Enzyme Glutathione(GSH) level in Serum. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2017; 10(10): 3386-3390. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00602.3.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available