Author(s): Gulzhanat Nurlanova, Aigerim Iskakova, Akezhan Astrakhanov, Aigul Amanzhanova, Galina Zhumagaliyeva


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00423   

Address: Gulzhanat Nurlanova*, Aigerim Iskakova, Akezhan Astrakhanov, Aigul Amanzhanova, Galina Zhumagaliyeva
Department of Infectious Diseases and Children's Infections, West Kazakhstan Marat Ospanov Medical University, 030012, 68 Maresyev Str., Aktobe, Republic of Kazakhstan.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 17,      Issue - 6,     Year - 2024

Background: Over the past four years, more than 19000 cases of viral hepatitis B have been registered in Kazakhstan. Mortality from liver cirrhosis as a result of chronic hepatitis B and C ranks first among gastroenterological diseases in the Republic. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is an effector of innate immune responses and plays a key role in the body's antiviral defense. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the latest scientific data regarding TLR3 polymorphism variants in Turkic-speaking countries and their influence on the predisposition and course of chronic hepatitis B and C. Materials and Methods: To achieve the goal, relevant papers over the past 5 years in scientific medical publications on academic search platforms were selected and processed. Results: The paper analyzes variants of TLR3 polymorphisms in terms of their involvement and predisposition to the development of viral hepatitis among Turkic-speaking peoples. It has been established that the Phe/Leu substitution is associated with a decrease in the activity of adaptive immunity reactions and hyperproduction of interleukins; TLR3 single nucleotide polymorphisms of the rs5743305 (T/A) and rs3775291 species among Turkic-speaking peoples do not affect the nature of progressed viral hepatitis B and C. The rs13126816 variant is associated with a predisposition to infection and the active course of the chronic form of hepatitis C. The G-allele rs13126816 TLR3 is associated with a high probability spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C. The TLR3 single nucleotide polymorphism rs3775291 may be associated with pathological immune responses during the primary development of viral hepatitis B. Conclusion: Thus, the study of the presence of TLR3 polymorphisms in patients of Turkic-speaking countries with viral hepatitis B and C, or in groups of patients with an increased risk of infection, affects the understanding peculiarities of antiviral protection in mutation carriers, the intensity of innate immunity reactions, as well as enables predicting the nature of the course of a chronic process and the risk of developing terminal complications.

Cite this article:
Gulzhanat Nurlanova, Aigerim Iskakova, Akezhan Astrakhanov, Aigul Amanzhanova, Galina Zhumagaliyeva. Polymorphism of the TLR3 gene in Predisposition to Chronic Viral Hepatitis B and C in the population of Turkic-speaking peoples. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2024; 17(6):2699-6. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00423

Gulzhanat Nurlanova, Aigerim Iskakova, Akezhan Astrakhanov, Aigul Amanzhanova, Galina Zhumagaliyeva. Polymorphism of the TLR3 gene in Predisposition to Chronic Viral Hepatitis B and C in the population of Turkic-speaking peoples. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2024; 17(6):2699-6. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00423   Available on:

1.    Fischer J. Koukoulioti E. Schott E. Fülöp B. Heyne R. Polymorphisms in the Toll-like Receptor 3 (TLR3) Gene are Associated with the Natural Course of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Caucasian Population. Scientific Reports. 2018; 8(1): 12737.
2.    Arora S. Tagde P. Alam S. Akram W. Gupta S. Role of Toll-like Receptor-3 Antagonist on Viral Load of Asthma in Swiss Albino Mice. Research Journal of Pharmacy andTechnology. 2023; 16(6): 2829-34.
3.    Talaat RM. Elsayed SS. Abdel-Hakem NE. El-Shenawy SZ. Genetic Polymorphism in Toll-Like Receptor 3 and Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 in Hepatitis C Virus-Infected Patients: Correlation with Liver Cirrhosis. Viral Immunology. 2022; 5: 609-15.
4.    Humairah I. Lukitasari L. Handajani R. Amin M.Wungu CDK. Rianti E.Muhammad Ansori AN. Prevalence and Genotype Distribution of Hepatitis C Virus among Intravenous Drug users (IDUs) in Surabaya, Indonesia. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(4): 1999-2003.
5.    Cooke GS. Andrieux-Meyer I. Applegate TL. Atun R. Burry JR. Cheinquer H. Dusheiko G et al Accelerating the Elimination of Viral Hepatitis: A Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology Commission. The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology Commission. 2019; 4(2): 135-84.
6.    Kuzyk PV. Savchyna МА. Gychka SG. Rare case of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of left lung in the patient with previous pulmonary tuberculosis. Experimental Oncology. 2018; 40(4): 332-335.
7.    Shaprynskyi V. Nazarchuk O. Faustova M. Mitiuk B. Dmytriiev D. Dobrovanov O. Kralinsky K. Babina Y. Some aspects of infectious complications in patients with surgical diseases multi cent trials. Lekarsky Obzor. 2020; 69(7-8): 257-260.
8.    Sadvakas АS. Nersesov АV. Rysuly МR. Parmankulova ТН. Kelimhanova SЕ. Screening for Viral Hepatitis C: New Prospects for the Use of New Generation Serological Tests in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Bulletin of the Kazakh National Medical University. 2019; 1:593-7.
9.    Liu S, Zhao Q, Wang Y, Jiang L, Zhang G, Zhou J, Chen Q, Lv J. TLR3/TRIF Signaling and Dendritic Cell Dynamics are Associated with Kidney Injury in a Mouse Model of Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Nephritis. American Journal ofTranslational Medicine. 2020; 4(3): 140-50.
10.    Terrault NA. Lok AS. McMahon BJ. Chang KM. Hwang JP. Jonas MM. Brown RS et al Update on Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment and of Chronic Hepatitis B: AASLD 2018 Hepatitis B Guidance. Hepatology. 2018; 67(4): 1560-99.
11.    Lukyanenko N. Spaska A. Lenha E. Marazha I. Frequency of polymorphic loci of GSTM1 and GSTT1 modifier genes in the genotype of children with pyelonephritis and congenital urinary malformations. Polish Annals of Medicine. 2023; 30(1): 9-14.
12.    Blum HE. Global epidemiology of acute viral hepatitis A-E. In Viral Hepatitis: Acute Hepatitis 2019; 1-16, Springer.
13.    Ashimkhanova A. Syssoyev D. Gusmanov A. Yesmembetov K. Yespotayeva A. Abbay A. Nurpeissova Aet al Epidemiological Characteristics of Chronic Viral Hepatitis in Kazakhstan: Data from Unified Nationwide Electronic Healthcare System 2014-2019. Infection and Drug Resistance. 2022; 15: 3333-46.
14.    Mukhatayeva A. Mustafa A. Dzissyuk N. Issanov A. Bayserkin B. Vermund SH. Ali S. Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Tuberculosis and Sexually-Transmitted Infections among HIV Positive Patients in Kazakhstan. Scientific Reports. 2021; 11(1): 13542.
15.    Kazbekova G. Kuanyshbaeva G. Malgazhdarova B. Epidemiology and Effectiveness of Immunoprophylaxis of Viral Hepatitis “B” in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Eurasian Union of Scientists. 2021; 2(3(84)): 44-5.
16.    Saylauova NK. Rakhimzhanova FS. Kairkhanova YO. Rakhyzhanova SO. UtegenovaA. The Significance of the Level of Public Awareness in the Prevention of Viral Hepatitis. Astana Medical Journal. 2020; 103(1): 93-8.
17.    Jumabayeva A. Nersesov A. Kulzhanov M. Nefedova M. Nuraliyeva G. Rakhimbekova G. Tanabayeva S et al Prevalence of Viral Hepatitis B, C, and D in Kazakhstan. The Scientific World Journal. 2022; 22: 9102565.
18.    Davlidova S. Haley-Johnson Z. Nyhan K. Farooq A. Vermund SH. Ali S. Prevalence of HIV, HCV and HBV in Central Asia and the Caucasus: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2021; 104: 510-25.
19.    Wahyu Lisnasari BR. Ardianto C. Khotib J. Microglia as a Potential Target for Antidepressant: A Systematic Review on Preclinical Studies. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(7): 3317-23.
20.    Sakupova GA. Glushkova NЕ. Sulejmenova ZhN. Smagul MA. Kasabekova EK. Khismetova ZА. Analysis of Long-Term Dynamics of the Incidence of Viral Hepatitis B and C in the Territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Retrospective Analysis). Science & Healthcare. 2021; 23(4): 163-71.
21.    Boora S. Khan A. Soniya K. Yadav S. Kaushik S. Kumar R. Chhikara S et al Antiviral Potential of Medicinal Plants against Influenza Viruses: A Systematic Review. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2023; 16(3): 1503-13.
22.    Lewandowski K. Kaniewska M. Więcek M. Szwarc P. Panufnik P. Tulewicz-Marti E. Walicka M. Franek E. Rydzewska G. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis among Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease—Do We Already Know Everything? Nutrients. 2023; 15(5): 1151.
23.    Aziz NM. AL-Hajaj MA. Cloning, Transformation and Expression of Human IFN-γ by Genetic Engineering in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(12): 6715-20.
24.    Nurtjahyani SD. Taufiq Probojati R. Muhammad Ansori AN. Amin M. Handajani R. Haplotype Network Analysis and Phylogenetic Tree Construction of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Isolated from Tuban, Indonesia. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology.2021; 14(8): 4231-35.
25.    Svyatova GS. Berezina GM. Murtazaliyeva AV. Association of polymorphisms of cardiovascular system genes with idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss of Kazakh populations. Revista Latinoamericana de Hipertension. 2019; 14(4): 319-325.
26.    World Health Organization. Combating hepatitis B and C to reach elimination by 2030: Advocacy brief. World Health Organization, Geneva. 2016.
27.    World Health Organization. Global hepatitis report 2017. World Health Organization, Geneva. 2017.
28.    Konysbekova AA. Kaliaskarova KS. Bekenova FK. Chronic Viral Hepatitis in the Republic of Kazakhstan at the Present Stage: Factors Affecting the Course and Outcomes, the Role of the Metabolic Syndrome. Hepatology and Gastroenterology. 2020; 4(1): 62-7.
29.    Seto WK. Yuen MF. Hepatitis B virus: Asian perspective. In Clinical Epidemiology of Chronic Liver Diseases 2019; 99-116, Springer.
30.    Pervin S. Ghosh S. Bose S. Sarkar N. Human Immune Globulin 10% with Recombinant Human Hyaluronidase – A Review. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(8): 4504-8.
31.    Mahmud S. Kouyoumjian SP. Al Kanaani Z. Chemaitelly H. Abu-Raddad LJ. Individual-Level Key Associations and Modes of Exposure for Hepatitis C Virus Infection in the Middle East and North Africa: A Systematic Synthesis. Annals of Epidemiology. 2018; 28(7): 452-61.
32.    Baigabyl N. Kazakhstan: Social work and strengthening NGOs in development cooperation for drug addiction treatment in Kazakhstan. In Drug Treatment, Culture and Social Policy in Central Asia and China 2022; 11-31, Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG.
33.    Amerzhanov D. Suleimenova I. Davlidova S. Nugmanova Zh. Ali S. HBV Prevention and Treatment in Countries of Central Asia and the Caucasus. Viruses. 2020; 12(10): 1112.
34.    Botheju WSP. Zghyer F. Mahmud S. Terlikbayeva A. El-Bassel N. Abu-Raddad LJ. The Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus in Central Asia: Systematic Review, Meta-Analyses, and Meta-Regression Analyses. Scientific Reports. 2019; 9(1): 2090.
35.    Nersesov AV. Zhylkaidarova AZh. Raissova AM. Kaibullayeva JA. Jumabayeva AE., Novitskaya MS. Zhussupov BS et al Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Kazakhstan. Hepatology International.2017; 11(1Supplement 1)
36.    Sahu A. Singh Baghel V. Zoonosis and Bats: Evolution of Virulence and Disease Outbreaks. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(4): 1877-82.
37.    Issamatov BK. Baimakhanov BB.Zholdybay ZhZh. Medeubekov USh. Chormanov AT. Tajibaev TK. Kaniev ShA et al Statistical Indicators Analysis of Primary Liver Cancer in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Bulletin of Surgery in Kazakhstan. 2019; 2(59): 5-11.  
38.    Kosmuratova RN. Kudabayeva KHI. Grjibovski AМ. Kerimkulova AS. Bazargaliyev YeSh. Association of leptin with anthropometric indexes, dyslipidemia and carbohydrate metabolism in Kazakh adults. Voprosy Pitaniia, 2021; 90(6): 85-91.
39.    Saleem Hachim L. Khudhur Aljoofy I. Jebur Khalaf K. Abdul-Hussein SS. Immunomodulatory Activity of Staphylococcus aureus Purified Staphylokinase and Streptokinase in BALB/C Mice. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2023; 16(2): 839-47.  
40.    Baimakhanov Zh. Kaniev Sh. Doskhanov M. Sadykov C. Serikuly E. Skakbayev A. Ilyassova B et al Evolution of Liver Transplantation in Kazakhstan: Two-Era Experience of a Single Center, the First Report. Transplantation Proceedings. 2019; 51(10): 3360-3.
41.    Sghaier I. Brochot E. Loueslati BY. Almawi WY. Hepatitis C Virus Protein Interaction Network for HCV Clearance and Association of DAA to HCC Occurrence Via Data Mining Approach: A Systematic Review and Critical Analysis. Reviews in Medical Virology. 2019; 29(2): e2033.
42.    Ye S. Zhang X. bao Zhang Y. Tian X. Liu A. Cui C. Shi L et al Association of TLR3 (rs3775291) and IL-10 (rs1800871) Gene Polymorphisms with Susceptibility to Hepatitis B Infection: A Meta-Analysis. Epidemiology & Infection.2 020; 148: e228.  
43.    Sghaier I. Zidi S. Mouelhi L. Ghazoueni E. Brochot E. Almawi WY. Loueslati BY. TLR3 and TLR4 SNP Variants in the Liver Disease Resulting from Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infection. British Journal of Biomedical Science. 2019; 76(1): 35-41.
44.    Zhang B. Liu Y. Wang X. Li J. Xu X. Guo L. Ho WZ. TLR3 Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cell Line Suppresses HBV Replication in HepG2 Cells. Frontiers in Immunology. 2018; 9: 2921.  
45.    Salimova AZ. Kutuev IA. Khusainova RI. Akhmetova VL. Svyatova GS. Berezina GM. Khusnutdinova EK. Analysis of ethnogeographic groups of Kazakhs based on nuclear genome DNA polymorphism. Russian Journal of Genetics. 2005; 41(7): 794-800.
46.    Kudabayeva K. Kosmuratova R. Bazargaliyev Y. Sartayeva A. Kereyeva N. Effects of metformin on lymphocyte DNA damage in obese individuals among Kazakh population. Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews. 2022; 16(8): 102569.
47.    Bonnin M. Fares N. Testoni B. Estornes Y. Weber K. Vanbervliet B. Lefrançois L et al Toll-like Receptor 3 Downregulation is an Escape Mechanism from Apoptosis during Hepatocarcinogenesis. Journal of Hepatology. 2019; 71(4): 763-72.
48.    Keikha M. Eslami M. Yousefi B. Ali-Hassanzadeh M. Kamali A. Yousefi M. Karbalaei M. HCV Genotypes and Their Determinative Role in Hepatitis C Treatment. VirusDisease. 2020; 31(3): 235-40.  
49.    Petruzziello A. Loquercio G. Sabatino R. Balaban DV.Ullah Khan N. Piccirillo M. Rodrigo L et al Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes in Nine Selected European Countries: A Systematic Review. Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis. 2019; 33(5): e22876.
50.    Malov SI. Baatarkhuu O. Ogarkov OB.Ariunaa S. Baigalmaa J. Davaakhuu B. Munk-Orshikh D et al The Role of Human Genetic Factors in Natural Selection of the Hepatitis C Virus’ Dominant Genotype in Ethnically Close Populations of Buryats and Khalkha Mongols. Modern Technologies in Medicine. 2018; 10(3): 21-31.
51.    Khvalevsky E. Rivkin L. Rachmilewitz J. Galun E. Giladi H. TLR3 Signaling in a Hepatoma Cell Line is Skewed Towards Apoptosis. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 2017; 100(5): 1301-12.
52.    D’souza S. Lau KCK. Coffin CS. Patel TR. Molecular Mechanisms of Viral Hepatitis Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2020; 26(38): 5759-83.
53.    Sleptsova SS. Bilyukina IF.Malov SI. Semenov SI. Stepanenko LA. Ogarkov OB. Savilov ED et al Polymorphism of Genes Localized on the X Chromosome as a Marker of Predisposition to Infectious Process Chronicity at Hepatitis C in the Ethnic Group of Male Yakuts. Yakut Medical Journal. 2019; 2(66):
54.    Mandziy ZP. Boichuk OH. Myhovych VV. Correction of iron deficiency in the clinical picture of internal medicine. Emergency Medicine (Ukraine). 2021; 17(3): 64-70.
55.    Klettner A. Roider J. Retinal Pigment Epithelium Expressed Toll-like Receptors and Their Potential Role in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(16): 8387.
56.    Chen XL. Xu YY. Chen L. Wang GL. Shen Y. TLR3 Plays Significant Roles against HBV-Associated HCC. Gastroenterology Research and Practice.2015; 2015: 572171.
57.    Yin L. Cai W. Liang Y. Yao J. Wang X. Shen J. In Situ Self-Assembly of Au-antimiR-155 Nanocomplexes Mediates TLR3-Dependent Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells. Aging (Albany NY).2021; 13(1):
58.    Eiró N. Altadill A. Juárez LM. Rodríguez M. González LO. Atienza S. Bermúdez S et al Toll-like Receptors 3, 4 and 9 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Relationship with Clinicopathological Characteristics and Prognosis. Hepatology Research. 2014; 44: 769-78.
59.    El-Hamamsy M. Helal GK. AbolAzm S.El Kassas M. Abdel-Aziz HA.Shaheen S. Clinical Evaluation of Some Sofosbuvir-Based Regimens for the Treatment of Hepatitis C in Private Healthcare Sector in Egypt. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020; 13(12): 5903-8.
60.    Serikuly E. Smailova DS. Ten IA. Ilyasova BS. Nurbakytkyzy A. Baimakhanov ZhB. Skakbaev AS et al Clinical Features of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Science& Healthcare. 2022; 24(3): 36-41.  
61.    Tamm T. Zulfiharov I. Mamontov I. Kramarenko K. Zakharchuk O. Reshetniak O. Ustinov A. Peculiarities of Liver Histostructure and Сholedochous Duct in Partially Restored Bile Duct. Surgery Eastern Europe. 2021; 10(4): 452-459.  
62.    Alqahtani SA. Colombo M. Viral Hepatitis as a Risk Factor for the Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Hepatoma Research. 2020; 6: 58.
63.    Ioannou GN. Tang W. Beste LA. Tincopa MA. Su GL.Van T. Tapper EB et al Assessment of a Deep Learning Model to Predict Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Hepatitis C Cirrhosis. JAMA Network Open. 2020; 3(9): e2015626.
64.    Gao B. Li S. Tan Z. Ma L. Liu J. ACTG1 and TLR3 are Biomarkers for Alcohol‑Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Oncology Letters. 2019; 17(2): 1714-22.
65.    Jin ZD. Chang L. Zhu LL. RNF6 Serves as a Diagnostic Hallmark of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Clinical Research. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences. 2020; 24(21): 11052-7.
66.    Le Naour J. Galluzzi L. Zitvogel L. Kroemer G. Vacchelli E. Trial Watch: TLR3 Agonists in Cancer Therapy. OncoImmunology, 2020; 9(1): 1771143.
67.    Goto K. Roca Suarez AA.Wrensch F. Baumert TF. Lupberger J. Hepatitis C Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: When the Host Loses Its Grip. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(9): 3057.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available