Author(s): Deepika Rani, Vinit Kumar Sharma, Ranjit Singh


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00398   

Address: Deepika Rani*, Vinit Kumar Sharma, Ranjit Singh
Adarsh Vijendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shobhit University, Gangoh, Saharanpur U.P. 247341, India.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 17,      Issue - 6,     Year - 2024

Oral candidiasis is a fungal infection, which affects the oral mucosa. The main causative agent of this is Candida albicans and as the literature indicates highest prevalence of Candida bloodstream infections in India. Most commonly azole derivatives such as miconazole, fluconazole, itraconazol etc. are used to manage the infection. However, their efficacy is compromised due to multidrug resistance. A new azole derivative voriconzole could be effective but its poor water solubility and bioavailability are seen as significant limitations. Its efficacy can be enhanced by combining it with beauvericin, a cyclic hexadepsipeptide with remarkable antifungal activity against candida. One study reported that combining of beauvericin with voriconzole reduce the MIC of voriconazole by 128th times. Furthermore the solubility and bioavailability were enhanced by loading both the drugs in niosomes. The niosomes were imcorporated into a polymeric mucoadhesive gel post statistically optimization by the Box-Behnken experimental design. The niosomes were subjected to evaluation for vesicular size, surface morphology, entrapment efficiency, drug release and zeta potential High entrapment efficiency was observed in the optimized noisome formulation F3 (89.89±0.64 % for voriconazole and 92.98±0.35 % for beauvericin) exhibiting cumulative drug release of 79.98±1.87 % for voriconazole and 69.17±1.98 % for beauvericin. The mucoadhesive gel was smooth, homogenious with desired pH and mucodhesion. The stability studies indicated that all the formulations are stable as evidence by no significant change in drug content over the time. These findings suggest that a niosmal mucoadhesive gel loaded with voriconazole and beauvericin is a good therapeutic delivery system for the effective treatment of oral candidiasis.

Cite this article:
Deepika Rani, Vinit Kumar Sharma, Ranjit Singh. Voriconazole and Beauvercin Loaded Niosomal Mucoadhesive Nanogel as an effective Treatment for the Management of Oral Candidiasis. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2024; 17(6):2549-5. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00398

Deepika Rani, Vinit Kumar Sharma, Ranjit Singh. Voriconazole and Beauvercin Loaded Niosomal Mucoadhesive Nanogel as an effective Treatment for the Management of Oral Candidiasis. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2024; 17(6):2549-5. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00398   Available on:

1.    Mundula T et al. Effect of Probiotics on Oral Candidiasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2019; Oct 14; 11(10): 2449.
2.    Vila T et al. Oral Candidiasis: A Disease of Opportunity. Journal of Fungi. 2020; 6(1):15.
3.    Zhang LW Fu et al. Efficacy and safety of miconazole for oral candidiasis: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Oral diseases. 2016; 22(3): 185-95.
4.    Alghanem SH et al. Formulation and Characterization of Two Nystatin Lozenge Formulations as a New Pharmaceutical Dosage form in The Syrian Market. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2023; Apr 1; 16(4): 1639-43.
5.    Taylor M, Raja A. Oral Candidiasis. [Updated 2021 Mar 14]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from:
6.    Gheorghe DC et al. Biomaterials for the prevention of oral candidiasis development. Pharmaceutics. 2021; May 27; 13(6): 803.
7.    Garcia-Cuesta C et al. Current treatment of oral candidiasis: A literature review. J Clin Exp Dent. 2014; Dec 1; 6(5): e576-82. doi: 10.4317/jced.51798.
8.    Song YB et al. Antifungal susceptibility testing with etest for Candida species isolated from patients with oral candidiasis. Annals of Dermatology. 2015; Dec 1; 27(6): 715-20.
9.    Rani D et al. Fungicidal combination for the prevention of C. albicans caused oral infections. Indian Patent Publication. 202311027781 A
10.    Wu Q et al.  A Review on the Synthesis and Bioactivity Aspects of Beauvericin, a Fusarium Mycotoxin. Front Pharmacol. 2018 Nov 20; 9: 1338. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.01338.
11.    Mallebrera B et al. In vitro mechanisms of Beauvericin toxicity: A review. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2018; 111: 537-545.
12.    Wang Q, Xu L. Beauvericin, a bioactive compound produced by fungi: a short review. Molecules. 2012; Feb 24; 17(3): 2367-77. doi: 10.3390/molecules17032367.
13.    Tong Y et al. Beauvericin counteracted multi-drug resistant Candida albicans by blocking ABC transporters. Synth Syst Biotechnol. 2016; Oct 25; 1(3): 158-168. doi: 10.1016/j.synbio.2016.10.001. PMID: 29062940; PMCID: PMC5640798.
14.    Ramírez-Zavala B et al. A hyperactive form of the zinc cluster transcription factor Stb5 causes YOR1 overexpression and beauvericin resistance in Candida albicans. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2018; Dec; 62(12): e01655-18.
15.    Shekhar-Guturja T et al. Beauvericin Potentiates Azole Activity via Inhibition of Multidrug Efflux, Blocks Candida albicans Morphogenesis, and Is Effluxed via Yor1 and Circuitry Controlled by Zcf29. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016; Nov 21; 60(12): 7468-7480.
16.    Niimi M et al. Inhibitor-Resistant Mutants Give Important Insights into Candida albicans ABC Transporter Cdr1 Substrate Specificity and Help Elucidate Efflux Pump Inhibition. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2022; Jan 18; 66(1): e01748-21.
17.    Deshmukh MT, Mohite SK. Preparation and evaluation of mucoadhesive microsphere of fluoxetine HCl. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2017; 8(9): 3776-85.
18.    Krishna SR et al. Preformulation, Formulation Development and Drug Release Studies of Dipyridamole Floating microballoons. Internatiomal Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2020; 11(9): 4637-4647.
19.    Rani D et al.  Formulation optimization of omeprazole loaded pH sensitive mucoadhesive microspheres forsite specific delivery. Res. J. Chem. Environ. 2022; 26(6).
20.    Khatoon M et al.  Development and evaluation of optimized thiolated chitosan proniosomal gel containing duloxetine for intranasal delivery. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech. 2019; Oct; 20:1-2.
21.    Eid HM et al. Novel chitosan-coated niosomal formulation for improved management of bacterial conjunctivitis: a highly permeable and efficient ocular nanocarrier for azithromycin. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2021; Aug 1; 110(8): 3027-36.
22.    Uthaiwat P et al.  Characteristic evaluation of gel formulation containing niosomes of melatonin or its derivative and mucoadhesive properties using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Polymers. 2021; Apr 2; 13(7): 1142.
23.    Khalifa AZ, Abdul Rasool BK. Optimized mucoadhesive coated niosomes as a sustained oral delivery system of famotidine. Aaps Pharmscitech. 2017; Nov; 18: 3064-75.
24.    Abla KK et al. Application of Box-Behnken Design in the Preparation, Optimization, and In-Vivo Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Oral Tadalafil-Loaded Niosomal Film. Pharmaceutics. 2023; 15(1): 173.
25.    Chettupalli AK et al. Development and Optimization of Aripiprazole ODT by using box-Behnken Design. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(12): 6195-6201.
26.    Kulkarni P, Rawtani D. Application of box-behnken design in the preparation, optimization, and in vitro evaluation of self-assembly–based tamoxifen-and doxorubicin-loaded and dual drug–loaded niosomes for combinatorial breast cancer treatment. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2019; Aug 1; 108(8):2643-53.
27.    Seleci DA et al. Niosomes as Nanoparticular Drug Carriers: Fundamentals and Recent Applications. Journal of Nanomaterials. 2016; 1-13.
28.    Mehanna MM et al. Tadalafil-Loaded Limonene-Based Orodispersible Tablets: Formulation, in Vitro Characterization and in Vivo Appraisal of Gastroprotective Activity. Int. J. Nanomed. 2020; 15, 10099–10112.
29.    Ramadan WM et al. Preparation of Acyclovir Loaded Non ionic Surfactant Vesicles (Niosomes) Using Reverse Phase Evaporation Technique. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2009; 2(4): 793-795
30.    Karthikeyan D et al. Preparation and In-Vitro Characterization of Diclofenac Sodium Niosomes for Ocular Use. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2009; 2(4): 710-713.
31.    Rani D et al. Formulation Development and In-vitro Evaluation of Minoxidil Bearing Glycerosomes. American Journal of Biomedical Research, 2016; 4, 2: 27-37. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-2-1
32.    Choudhary V et al. Development and evaluation of hydrocortisone-loaded niosomal gel. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2023; 14(3): 1265-1272.
33.    Rani D et al. Formulation, Design and Optimization of Glycerosomes for Topical Delivery of Minoxidil. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(5): 2367-4. Doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00418
34.    Kumar YP et al. Preparation and Evaluation of Diclofenac Niosomes by Various Techniques. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2013: 6(10): 1097-1101
35.    Chioma ED et al. Formulation and evaluation of etodolac niosomes by modified ether injection technique. Universal Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2016; 1(1): 1-6.
36.    Abdelkader H et al. Recent advances in non-ionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes): self-assembly, fabrication, characterization, drug delivery applications and limitations. Drug Delivery. 2014 Mar 1; 21(2): 87-100.
37.    Srikanth et al. Formulation and Evaluation of Maltodextrin Based Doxorubicin HCl Proniosomes. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(6): 2776-2780.
38.    Sabareesh M et al. Formulation Development, Ex vivo Evaluation and In vivo Antihypertensive study of Losartan Potassium Loaded Nanoproniosomal Gel: A Novel Vesicular Approach for Transdermal Delivery. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2021; 14(3):1423-1430
39.    Chen S et al. Recent advances in non-ionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes): Fabrication, characterization, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics. 2019; Nov 1; 144: 18-39.
40.    Bartelds R, et al. Niosomes, an alternative for liposomal delivery. Plos One. 2018; 13(4): 0194179.
41.    Chen J et al. Formulation and evaluation of a topical liposomal gel containing a combination of zedoary turmeric oil and tretinoin for psoriasis activity. J Liposome Res. 2021; Jun; 31(2): 130-144. doi: 10.1080/08982104.2020.1748646.
42.    Andleeb M et al.  Development, characterization and stability evaluation of topical gel loaded with ethosomes containing Achillea millefolium L. extract. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2021; Apr 12; 12: 603227.
43.    Rençber S et al. Mucoadhesive in situ gel formulation for vaginal delivery of clotrimazole: formulation, preparation, and in vitro/in vivo evaluation. Pharmaceutical Development and Technology. 2017; May 19; 22(4): 551-61.
44.    Giri P, Singh I. Development and Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Tablets of Cinnarizine Using Carboxymethylated Guar Gum by Compression Coating Technique. Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry. 2020; 10(5): 6365 – 6376.
45.    Okore VC et al. Formulation and Evaluation of Niosomes. Indian J. Pharm. Sci. 2011; 73(3): 323–328.
46.    Mitkari BV et al. Formulation and evaluation of topical liposomal gel for fluconazole. Indian J. Pharm. Educ Res. 2010; Oct 1; 44(4): 324-33.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available