Author(s): Athanase Polymenis

Email(s): athanase@upatras.gr

DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00269   

Address: Athanase Polymenis
Department of Economics, University of Patras, University Campus at Rio, 26504 Rio - Patras, Greece.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 17,      Issue - 4,     Year - 2024


ABSTRACT:
ABSTRACT: In pharmacoeconomic literature, age has been shown to be an important variate concerning cost analyses of End-Stage-Renal-Disease (ESRD) patients. In the present article, pooling of data relative to ages of ESRD patients is proposed as a method for estimating typical age parameters like means and variances, and also for comparing age differences between countries. Statistical techniques for mean and variance estimation, large sample statistical theory, confidence intervals for means, and parametric tests for statistical inference concerning comparison between means are used, and the main advantages of pooling are investigated. Homogeneity of the pooled data is also discussed using mixture models. As an example of application, data obtained from four countries were included into our analysis. Results showed that pooling of data increases the power of the tests used for statistical inference, apart from providing a better accuracy for the estimates of the means. Thus, statistical results are noticeably improved when pooling of data is used.


Cite this article:
Athanase Polymenis. Statistical Methods for Pooling ages of End-Stage-Renal-Disease patients The Examples of India and Malaysia. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology.2024; 17(4):1694-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00269

Cite(Electronic):
Athanase Polymenis. Statistical Methods for Pooling ages of End-Stage-Renal-Disease patients The Examples of India and Malaysia. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology.2024; 17(4):1694-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00269   Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2024-17-4-43


REFERENCES:
1.    Pothen C , Baby B, Ashokan A, Chacko C, Shenoy P and Up N. Drug usage pattern in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2019; 12(10): 5024-5028. doi: 10.5958/0974=360X.2019.00872.2.
2.    Thomas A, Jacob JS, Abraham M, Thomas BM and Ashok P. Assessment on acute complications and quality of life in hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(5): 2671-5. doi : 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00471.
3.    Jagadeesan M and Vijayakumar TM. A retrospective study on drug utilization evaluation and outcomes assessment in the department of nephrology of tertiary care multispeciality teaching hospital. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(12): 5626-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00949.
4.    Al-Baghdadi DDH and Rajha A. Quality of life for hemodialysis patients with chronic renal failure. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2018; 11(6): 2398-2403. doi : 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00443.2.
5.    Borah, AN, Anand K, Shrivastava S, Nidhia, Garg A and Khan MA. Effect of exercise on quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2023; 16(7): 3195-0. doi : 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00525.
6.    Mohammed GF, Sultan SM and Sadullah YQ. The relationship between creatinine and patients with renal failure associated with anemia. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020; 13(4): 1633-1635. doi : 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00296.6.
7.    Lakshmi KV, Rajani K, Sravanthi A Ch, Jyothi KTN and Prasad SVGVA. Mathematics and society. Research Journal of Science and Technology. 2017; 9(4): 537-540. doi : 10.5958/2349-2988.2017. 00092-4.
8.    Jyothi KTN, Subrahmanyam PSR and Sravanthi A Ch. Application of differential equations in medical science. Research Journal of Science and Technology. 2017; 9(3): 425-426. doi : 10.5958/2349-2988.2017.00074.2.
9.    Yamuna M and Elakkiya A. Mathematical models in drug discovery, development and treatment of various diseases – a case study. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2017; 10(12): 4397-4401. doi : 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00810.1.
10.    Saxena S, Bawa S and Katare DP. Statistical and continuous manufacturing approach by design of experiment (DoE) for a robust synthetic process of a sorafenib analogue. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020; 13(1): 01-08. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00001.3.
11.    Nicholas SB, Kalantar-Zadeh K and Norris KC. Socioeconomic disparities in chronic kidney disease. Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease. 2015; 22(1): 6-15. doi: 10.1053/j.ackd.2014.07.002.
12.    Manjula MJ, Deepak P., Suresh RM, Raghu N. Cost analysis of haemodialysis patients in government tertiary care centre - a pharmacoeconomic study. Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research. 2021; 6(2): 94-101. doi: 10.15416/pcpr.v4i3.32069.
13.    Anitha N, Fatima TT and Mrudula G. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation in end staged renal diseased patients. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2017; 16(1): 14-18. doi: 10.18579/jpcrkc/2017/16/1/112468.
14.    Shumbusho G. Health related quality of life of patients undergoing in-centre maintenance hemodialysis in Rwanda: a cross-sectional study. Dissertation submitted at the university of Rwanda for partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Medicine in Internal Medicine. 2021; pp. 32.
15.    Ulasi II and Ijoma CK. The enormity of chronic kidney disease in Nigeria: the situation in a teaching hospital in South-East Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2010; 2010. doi: 10.1155/2010/501957.
16.    Naicker S. End stage renal disease in Sub-Saharan Africa. Kidney International Supplements. 2013; 3: 161-163. doi: 10.1038/kisup.2013.4 .
17.    Murali R, Sathyanarayana D and Muthusethupathy MA. Assessment of quality of life in chronic kidney disease patients using the kidney disease quality of life short form questionnaire in Indian population: a community based study. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2015; 8(1): 271-274.
18.    Mosteller F. On pooling data. Journal of the American Statistical Association. 1948; 43(242): 231-248.
19.    Bancroft TA. On biases in estimation due to the use of preliminary tests of significance. Annals of Mathematical Statistics. 1944; 15: 190-204.
20.    Davids MR, Eastwood JB, Selwood NH, Arogundade FA, Ashuntantang G, Gharbi MB, et al. A renal registry for Africa: first steps. Clinical Kidney Journal. 2016; 9(1): 162-167. doi: 10.1093/ckj/sfv122.
21.    Rajapurkar M.M., John GT, Kirpalani AL, Abraham G, Agarwal SK, Almeida AF, et al. What do we know about chronic kidney disease in India: first report of the Indian CKD registry. BMC Nephrology. 2012; 13(10). doi: 10.1186/1471-2369-13-10.
22.    Ashuntantang G, Osafo C, Olowu WA, Arogundade F, Niang A, Porter J, et al. Outcomes in adults and children with end-stage-kidney disease requiring dialysis in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. The Lancet Global Health. 2017; 5(4): e408—17. doi: 10.1016/s2214-109X(17)30057-8.
23.    Masina T, Chimera B, Kamponda M and Dreyer G. Health related quality of life in patients with ESRD treated with haemodialysis in Malawi: a cross-sectional study. BMC Nephrology. 2016: 17: 61. doi: 10.1186/s12882-016-0292-9.
24.    Fagerland MW. t-tests, non-parametric tests, and large studies- a paradox of statistical practice? BMC Medical Research Methodology. 2012; 12(78). doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-12-78.
25.    Agarwal SK and Srivastava RK. Chronic kidney disease in India: challenges and solutions. Nephron Clinical Practice. 2009; 111: c197-c203. doi: 10.1159/000199460.
26.    Suja A, Anju R, Anju V, Neethu J, Peeyush P and Saraswathy R. Economic evaluations of end stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis. Journal of Pharmacy and Bio-allied Sciences. 2012; 4(2): 107-111.
27.    Fathima S, Mateti UV, Philip ML and Kamath J. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of hemodialysis patients: a study of cost of illness. Journal of Integrative Nephrology and Andrology. 2018; 5(2): 54-59. doi: 10.4103/jina.jina_4_18.
28.    Bajait CS, Pimpalkhute SA, Sontakke SD, Jaiswal KV and Dawri AV. Prescribing patterns of medicine in chronic kidney disease with emphasis on phosphate binders. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2014; 46(1): 35-39. doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.125163.
29.    Satheesh P, Thennarasu P, Vanitha Rani N and Soundararajan P. Cost of illness and its impact on quality of life of patients on maintenance hemodialysis. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research. 2017; 4(2): 454-462.
30.    Al-Ramahi R. Medication prescribing patterns among chronic kidney disease patients in a hospital in Malaysia. Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation. 2012; 23(2): 403-408.
31.    Surendra NK, Abdul Manaf MR, Hooi LS, Bavanandan S, Nor FSM, Khan SSF, et al. Health related quality of life of dialysis patients in Malaysia: haemodialysis versus continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. BMC Nephrology. 2019; 20:151. doi: 10.1186/s12882-019-1326.x.
32.    Kamau E, Kayima J, Otieno C, Maritim MC and Wanzala P. Health related quality of life of patients on maintenance haemodialysis at Kenyatta national hospital. East African Medical Journal. 2012; 89(3): 75-81.
33.    Kontodimopoulos N and Niakas D. An estimate of lifelong costs and QALYs in renal replacement therapy based on patients’ life expectancy. Health Policy. 2008; 86: 85-96. doi: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2007.10.002.
34.    Spiegel MR, Schiller JJ and Srinivasan RA. Probability and Statistics. McGraw Hill, New York. 2009.
35.    Penn State, Eberly College of Science. A course on sampling theory and methods- Lesson 1.4 (confidence intervals and the central limit theorem). Available from: URL: http://online.stat.psu.edu/stat506/lesson/1/1.4.
36.    Kwak SG and Kim JH. Central limit theorem: the cornerstone of modern statistics. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2017; 70(2): 144-156. doi: 10.4097/kjae.2017.70.2.144.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

1.3
2021CiteScore
 
56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus


SCImago Journal & Country Rank


Recent Articles




Tags


Not Available