Author(s): Hawaz Shewatetak, Raghavendra Yarlagadda, Kotaiah Silakabattini, Ramanji Reddy Tatiparthi, Venkateswara Rao Jallepalli


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00198   

Address: Hawaz Shewatetak1, Raghavendra Yarlagadda1, Kotaiah Silakabattini2, Ramanji Reddy Tatiparthi3, Venkateswara Rao Jallepalli4*
1School of Pharmacy, Institute of Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.
2Komar University of Sciences and Technology, Kularaisi, Iraq.
3Department of Pharmaceutics, Veda College of Pharmacy, Addanki, AP, India - 523265.
4MB School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mohan Babu University, Tirupati, India - 517102.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 17,      Issue - 3,     Year - 2024

Background: In the 21st century, low- and middle income, war prone and drought-prone areas in developing nations have seen a fast rise in the prevalence of chronic liver disease (CLD). An estimated 240 million people worldwide are infected with HIV, and 780,000 deaths are attributed to it each year, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Objective: We want to assess the efficacy of in-hospital care for CLD patients by verifying and evaluating current management practices. Method: A retrospective descriptive study of patients with chronic liver disease who were followed up on at Debre Berhan Hospital between July 2018 and January 2021 was conducted. Results: Out of a total of 209 patients tested, 127 (or 60.74%) were males aged 41.44±12.89 of years. Ascites complications were presented in over 44% of cases. Using the laboratory data, 65 patients (31.10%) and 71 patients (33.97%) were found to have abnormally high AST and ALT values on LFTs testing. AUROC analysis was carried out with a 95% CI for Child-Pugh of 0.61 (0.53-0.75, P=0.14), MELD 0.75 (0.63-0.72, P=0.26), and ALBI 0.53 (0.31-0.54, P=0.29). Conclusion: Based on the predictive data, 87 (41.63%) patients were successfully treated and released, whereas 57(27.27%) were recommended for further care, and 47 died due to co-morbid conditions. Although, the study period coincides with the COVID-19 pandemic, more analysis of the obtained data is necessary.

Cite this article:
Hawaz Shewatetak, Raghavendra Yarlagadda, Kotaiah Silakabattini, Ramanji Reddy Tatiparthi, Venkateswara Rao Jallepalli. Clinical Management practice and Therapeutic Outcomes of Chronic Liver Disease patients in the Conflicted area of North Ethiopia. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2024; 17(3):1267-1. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00198

Hawaz Shewatetak, Raghavendra Yarlagadda, Kotaiah Silakabattini, Ramanji Reddy Tatiparthi, Venkateswara Rao Jallepalli. Clinical Management practice and Therapeutic Outcomes of Chronic Liver Disease patients in the Conflicted area of North Ethiopia. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2024; 17(3):1267-1. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00198   Available on:

1.    Mondiale de la Santé O, World Health Organization. WHO position paper on hepatitis A vaccines–October 2022–Note de synthèse: position de l’OMS concernant les vaccins contre l’hépatite A–Octobre 2022. Weekly Epidemiological Record= Relevé Épidémiologique Hebdomadaire. 2022; 97(40):493-512.
2.    N Komal Kumar, D Vigneswari. Hepatitis- Infectious Disease Prediction using Classification Algorithms. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2019; 12(8): 3720-3725. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00636.X.
3.    Mahesh Babasaheb Kolap, Nazhat Alimuddin Bepari, Sadiya Yasin Mangalware, Rajesh Keshav Bhadke. Review on WHO. Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics 2023; 15(1): 15-8. doi: 10.52711/2321-5836.2023.00004.
4.    Gracia-Sancho J, Caparrós E, Fernández-Iglesias A, Francés R. Role of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in liver diseases. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2021; 18(6): 411-431. doi:10.1038/s41575-020-00411-3.
5.    Nur Qistina Binti Ahmad Fauzi, Vishnupriya V, Gayathri R. Fatty Liver Disease - A Review. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2016; 9(8): 1263-1267. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00240.7.
6.    Israa Burhan Raoof, Mayssaa E. Abdalah, Raghad Abdulmahdi Mohsin. Relation between Vit. D3 and other Metabolic Risk Factors in patients with Cholestatic Liver Disease. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(7): 3086-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00516.
7.    Teschke R, Xuan TD. Heavy Metals, Halogenated Hydrocarbons, Phthalates, Glyphosate, Cordycepin, Alcohol, Drugs, and Herbs, Assessed for Liver Injury and Mechanistic Steps. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2022;27(11):314. doi:10.31083/j.fbl2711314.
8.    Amera Kamal Mohammed, Thanaa Abdulmahdi Mokif, Mahmoud Hussein Hadwan. The effect of Morbid Obesity on the Liver Function Enzymes. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(5): 2241-2244. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00373.1.
9.    Mustafa Jawad, Kadhim Hashim, Abbas Mahmood. Prevalence of Anti-Viral Drug Resistance Chronic Hepatitis B patients (CHB) in Iraq. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2018; 11(8): 3503-3508. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00648.0.
10.    uwarna Dangore Khasbage, Rahul R. Bhowate. Copper content in Areca nut as an emerging etiology for liver disease – A Comprehensive Review. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2022; 15(10): 4847-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00814.
11.    Delik A, Ülger Y. Treatment Approach in Patients with Decompensated Liver Cirrhosis [Internet]. Advances in Hepatology. IntechOpen; 2021.
12.    Ruheena Yasmeen, Humera Hafsa Jabeen, Raafia Aseena, Kaunain Taneem, Umer Syed. An Observational Study to Determine Severity and Complications Associated with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Special Emphasis on Riskfactors. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(10): 5498-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00959.
13.    Syed Saud Ahmed, Ahmed Mustafa Shariff, Janet Jacob, Shweta Srivatsa. A Study to assess the management of hypertension for pre and post-operative care hypertensive cancer patients. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(8):3781-3786. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00669.1.
14.    Baiges A, Hernández-Gea V. Management of Liver Decompensation in Advanced Chronic Liver Disease: Ascites, Hyponatremia, and Gastroesophageal Variceal Bleeding. Clin Drug Investig. 2022; 42(Suppl 1):25-31. doi:10.1007/s40261-022-01147-5.
15.    Eberhard CM, Davis KA, Nisly SA. Adherence to goal-directed therapy for patients with cirrhosis hospitalized with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2022; 79(Suppl 2): S27-S32. doi:10.1093/ajhp/zxac041.
16.    Wong YJ, Zhaojin C, Tosetti G, et al. Baveno-VII criteria to predict decompensation and initiate non-selective beta-blocker in compensated advanced chronic liver disease patients. Clin Mol Hepatol. 2023;29(1):135-145. doi:10.3350/cmh.2022.0181.
17.    Patel VC, Lee S, McPhail MJW, et al. Rifaximin-α reduces gut-derived inflammation and mucin degradation in cirrhosis and encephalopathy: RIFSYS randomised controlled trial. J Hepatol. 2022; 76(2): 332-342. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2021.09.010.
18.    Singal AK, Palmer G, Melick L, Abdallah M, Kwo P. Vasoconstrictor therapy for Acute kidney injury hepatorenal syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized studies. Gastro Hep Advances. 2023; 2(4): 455-64.
19.    Kebede Y, Yitayih Y, Birhanu Z, Mekonen S, Ambelu A. Knowledge, perceptions and preventive practices towards COVID-19 early in the outbreak among Jimma university medical center visitors, Southwest Ethiopia. PLoS One. 2020; 15(5): e0233744. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0233744.
20.    Terefe Tesfaye B, Gudina EK, Bosho DD, Mega TA. Short-term clinical outcomes of patients admitted with chronic liver disease to selected teaching hospitals in Ethiopia. PLoS One. 2019; 14(8): e0221806. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0221806.
21.    Haile YG, Senkute AL, Alemu BT, Bedane DM, Kebede KB. Prevalence and associated factors of burnout among Debre Berhan University medical students: a cross-sectional study. BMC Med Educ. 2019; 19(1): 413. doi:10.1186/s12909-019-1864-8.
22.    Tsoris A, Marlar CA. Use Of The Child Pugh Score In Liver Disease. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; March 13, 2023.
23.    Abdallah MA, Kuo YF, Asrani S, et al. Validating a novel score based on interaction between ACLF grade and MELD score to predict waitlist mortality. J Hepatol. 2021; 74(6): 1355-1361. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2020.12.003.
24.    Božin T, Mustapić S, Bokun T, et al. Albi Score as a Predictor of Survival in Patients with Compensated Cirrhosis Resected for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Exploratory Evaluation in Relationship to Palbi and Meld Liver Function Scores. Acta Clin Croat. 2018; 57(2): 292-300. doi:10.20471/acc.2018.57.02.09.
25.    Succar L, Lopez CN, Victor DW 3rd, et al. Perioperative cangrelor in patients with recent percutaneous coronary intervention undergoing liver transplantation: A case series. Pharmacotherapy. 2022; 42(3): 263-267. doi:10.1002/phar.2661.
26.    European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines on the management of hepatitis B virus infection. J Hepatol. 2017; 67(2): 370-398. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2017.03.021.
27.    Sibhat M, Kebede T, Aklilu D. Risk factors of chronic liver disease among adult patients in tertiary hospitals, Northern Ethiopia: An unmatched case-control study. Med Rxiv. 2022. DOI: 10.1101/2022.03.20.22272661.
28.    Asghar MS, Rasheed U, Hassan M, Akram M, Yaseen R, Fayaz B. A cross-sectional screening survey on the seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C amongst the general population of rural districts of Sindh, Pakistan. Arq Gastroenterol. 2021; 58(2): 150-156. doi:10.1590/S0004-2803.202100000-26.
29.    Piano S, Dalbeni A, Vettore E, et al. Abnormal liver function tests predict transfer to intensive care unit and death in COVID-19. Liver Int. 2020; 40(10): 2394-2406. doi:10.1111/liv.14565.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available