Author(s): Anastasia Sinitsyna, Maria Denisova, Tatyana Litvinova, Irina Glazkova, Olga Savinova, Dmitrii Babaskin


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00046   

Address: Anastasia Sinitsyna1*, Maria Denisova2, Tatyana Litvinova1, Irina Glazkova1, Olga Savinova1, Dmitrii Babaskin1
1I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), 8-2 Trubetskaya st., Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation.
2Federal Scientific State Budgetary Institution “N.A. Semashko National Research Institute of Public Health”, 12-1 Vorontsovo Pole st., Moscow, 105064, Russian Federation.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 17,      Issue - 1,     Year - 2024

Despite the absence of prohibiting legal norms in Russia, pharmaceutical workers often refuse to sell over-the-counter medicines to teenagers, guided by the unspoken rules of the pharmacy or the internal moral and ethical code. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess the main types of risks faced by pharmaceutical workers when dispensing medicines to teenagers. The assessment and identification of risks were carried out using the Delphi methods and a questionnaire in which 186 respondents took part (the representativeness of the sample was calculated using the statistical method). The probability of occurrence of risks and the degree of criticality of the consequences of the risk was assessed. The experts stated that the most likely event would be a teenager buying the wrong medicine (a medicine other than the one that the teenager or the persons who asked them to buy it were planning to obtain), with a different trade name, dosage, or formulation, followed by a possible conflict with the child's representatives with a request to return or exchange the medicine. Besides, highly probable events include the use of information obtained from unverified sources, including peer advice and information obtained from social networks, by the teenager. The experts named the purchase of medicines by teenagers for self-poisoning the most critical risk factor. The experts considered the risk of using psychoactive substances an event with a high degree of consequences. The experts considered the improper use of medicines by teenagers to be the least risky event. The risks were ranked using a risk matrix by the following categories: negligible, acceptable, moderate, significant, and unacceptable.

Cite this article:
Anastasia Sinitsyna, Maria Denisova, Tatyana Litvinova, Irina Glazkova, Olga Savinova, Dmitrii Babaskin. Analysis of Identified risks in the release of over-the-counter medicines to Teenagers. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2024; 17(1):297-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00046

Anastasia Sinitsyna, Maria Denisova, Tatyana Litvinova, Irina Glazkova, Olga Savinova, Dmitrii Babaskin. Analysis of Identified risks in the release of over-the-counter medicines to Teenagers. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2024; 17(1):297-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00046   Available on:

1.    Federalnyi zakon "Ob obrashchenii lekarstvennykh sredstv" ot 12.04.2010 N 61-FZ [Federal Law No. 61-FZ "On the Circulation of Medicines" dated April 12, 2010].State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, 2010. Available at:
2.    Prikaz Ministerstva zdravookhraneniya RF ot 11 iyulya 2017 g. No. 403n "Ob utverzhdenii pravil otpuska lekarstvennykh preparatov dlya meditsinskogo primeneniya, v tom chisle immunobiologicheskikh lekarstvennykh preparatov, aptechnymi organizatsiyami, individualnymi predprinimatelyami, imeyushchimi litsenziyu na farmatsevticheskuyu deyatelnost" [Order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation "On approval of the rules for dispensing medicinal products for medical use, including immunobiological medicinal products, by pharmacy organizations and individual entrepreneurs licensed for pharmaceutical activities" dated July 11, 2017 No. 403n]. Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 2017. Available at:
3.    Grazhdanskii kodeks Rossiiskoi Federatsii ot 30 noyabrya 1994 goda No. 51-FZ[The Civil Code of the Russian Federation of November 30, 1994 No. 51-FZ].Sobranie Zakonodatel’stva Rossiiskoi Federatsii [SZ RF] [Collection of Legislation of the RF] 05.12.1994, No. 32, Item 3301.
4.    Shehnaz SI. Agarwal AK. Khan N. A systematic review of self-medication practices among adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2014; 55(4): 467-83. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.07.001
5.    Denisova LG. Tyranovets SV. Camolechenie u podrostkov [Self-medication in teenagers]. Byulleten natsionalnogo nauchno-issledovatelskogo instituta obshchestvennogo zdorovya imeni N.A. Semashko. 2015; 2:63-8.
6.    Tesfamariam S. Anand IS. Kaleab G. Berhane S. Woldai B. Habte E. Russom M. Self-medication with over the counter drugs, prevalence of risky practice and its associated factors in pharmacy outlets of Asmara, Eritrea. BMC Public Health. 2019; 19(1):159. doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-6470-5
7.    Ngoh LN. Health literacy: a barrier to pharmacist-patient communication and medication adherence. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association. 2009 Sep-Oct; 49(5):132-46. doi: 10.1331/japha.2009.07075
8.    Berkman ND. Sheridan SL. Donahue KE. Halpern DJ. Crotty K. Low health literacy and health outcomes: an updated systematic review. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2011; 155(2): 97-107. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-155-2-201107190-00005
9.    Brener ND. Billy JO. Grady WR. Assessment of factors affecting the validity of self-reported health-risk behavior among adolescents: evidence from the scientific literature. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2003; 33(6): 436-57. doi: 10.1016/s1054-139x(03)00052-1
10.    Quigley H. MacCabe JH. The relationship between nicotine and psychosis. Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology. 2019; 9. doi:10.1177/2045125319859969
11.    Timoshilov VI. Lastovetskii AG. Profilaktika zloupotrebleniya narkoticheski deistvuyushchimi veshchestvami sredi shkolnikov [Prevention of substance abuse among school students]. Problemy sotsialnoi gigieny, zdravookhraneniya i istorii meditsiny. 2019; 27(3): 273-6.doi: 10.32687/0869-866X-2019-27-3-273-276
12.    Kazhdye 40 sekund v mire proiskhodit samoubiistvo [Suicide: one person dies every 40 seconds]. World Health Organization,September 9, 2019.Available at: (accessed onJanuary 30, 2023).
13.    Sinyagin YuV. Sinyagina NYu. Detskii suitsid: vzglyad na problemu [Suicide in children: a look at the problem]. 2nd edition. KARO, St. Petersburg. 2021; 192 p.
14.    Ryzhenkova LS. Metod Delfi kak metod strategicheskogo planirovaniya i upravleniya predpriyatiem [The Delphi method as a method of strategic planning and enterprise management]. In Obrazovanie. Nauka. Proizvodstvo: Sbornik dokladov XIV Mezhdunarodnogo molodezhnogo foruma, Belgorod, 13–14 oktyabrya 2022 goda [Education. Science. Production: A collection of papers presented at the 14th International Youth Forum, Belgorod, October 13-14, 2022]. Volume/Part 15. Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov, Belgorod. 2022; 215-21.
15.    Kallio S. Eskola T. Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä M. Airaksinen M. Medication risk management in routine dispensing in community pharmacies. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(21):8186. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17218186
16.    Aldoori NM. Prevalence of Obesity among female Adolescents in Al-Hillah city: Future Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2017; 10(7):2127-2131. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00373.0
17.    Bhuvaneswari G. Gokulapriya P. Assess the Dental fluorosis and associated risk factors among adolescence, living in high level Fluoride content in drinking water at selected community area. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2018; 11(10):4237-4241. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00776.X
18.    Devi SSL. Jaikumar S. Sinha ASP. Caffeine usage among Late Adolescence: An Experience from a Single Tertiary Care Hospital. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2018; 11(11):4807-4812. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00874.0
19.    Menon S. Bhagat V. The Review Study on Suicidal Risk among Youth/Adolescents, its Prevention and Interventions. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2022; 15(3):1405-5. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00234
20.    Maheswari K. Effectiveness of Laughter Therapy on Depression among Adolescence in Selected College, Salem. Int. J. Nur. Edu. and Research. 2017; 5(3): 325-326. doi: 10.5958/2454-2660.2017.00066.7
21.    Thirusangu S. Cyber Disorders on Adolescence Depression and Suicide Mental Health Concern for the new Millennium. Int. J. of Advances in Nur. Management. 2019; 7(3): 281-284. doi: 10.5958/2454-2652.2019.00066.0
22.    Nwe TM. Aye SS. Yee KT. Lwin S. Bhagat V. Remodeling in the Prefrontal Cortex of a Brain-related to Higher Executive Functions in Adolescence: Its effects on Behavior. Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2021; 13(3):99-102. doi: 10.52711/2321-5836.2021.00021
23.    Kulkarni S. Assessment of Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Infertility among Teenagers with a view to Develop Health Education Pamphlet. Asian J. Nursing Education and Research. 2018; 8(3): 418-422. doi: 10.5958/2349-2996.2018.00086.1
24.    Kaur R. Kaur G. A Descriptive Study to assess Knowledge of Teenagers Regarding Drug abuse at Sri Guru Harkrishan Sen. Sec. School, Majitha Road, Amritsar. Int. J. Nur. Edu. and Research. 2018; 6(1): 37-38. doi: 10.5958/2454-2660.2018.00008.X
25.    Gore VS. Assessment and description of phobias among teenagers in schools of selected areas. International Journal of Advances in Nursing Management. 2021; 9(4): 413-6. doi: 10.52711/2454-2652.2021.00095
26.    Butler D. Vucic K. Straus S. Cupelli A. Micallef B. Serracino-Inglott A. Borg JJ. Regulatory experience of handling Risk Management Plans (RMPs) for medicinal products in the EU. Expert Opinion on Drug Safety. 2021; 20(7): 815-26. doi: 10.1080/14740338.2021.1909569

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available