Author(s): Seema Y. Mendhekar, Punit R. Rachh


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00711   

Address: Seema Y. Mendhekar1,2*, Punit R. Rachh1
1Department of Pharmaceutical Science, Bhagwant University, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India.
2Department of Pharmacognosy, Nagpur College of Pharmacy, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 16,      Issue - 9,     Year - 2023

Background: Water caltrop (Singara), a plant belonging to the Trapaceae or Lytraceae family is an essential medicinal herb used in Ayurvedic preparations. Due to its unique characteristics and therapeutic properties. It is one of the most widely consumed vegetables in Asian countries. Taiwan, China and areas of Southeast Asia are home to Singara. Objective: To study the pharmacognostic, physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical investigation of leaves of Trapa natans Linn. to establish the salient diagnostic features for the leaf. Methods: Macroscopical, microscopical, physicochemical evaluation, detection of inorganic constituents, fluorescence analysis, extractive value and phytochemical analysis were performed. Extraction was performed by using different solvent such as petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol and distill water. Results: Macroscopicaly leaves were rhomboid, fan-shaped, and serrated on the edges, measuring 2-6.5cm in diameter, broader than long, denticulate, denate, serrate, or incised with whole base, sharp apex, and thickly pubescent or villous beneath. Microscopically leaf shows abundant multicellular covering trichomes, anomocytic stomata, crystal, starch, aerenchyma cell, xylem and phloem. The result of physicochemical parameters such as foreign matter, loss on drying (moisture content), total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, water soluble extractive value, alcohol soluble extractive value were found to be 0.2%w/w, 6.5%w/w, 8.5%w/w, 2.5%w/w, 4.5%w/w, 5.6%w/w, 3.2%w/w respectively. Qualitative tests of inorganic elements confirmed the presence of calcium, magnesium, potassium, sulphate, phosphate and carbonate. The result of fluorescence analysis showed that in visible light, the leaves powder exhibit various shades of brown and green fluorescence. Various shades of green, brown and black were found under UV light. Preliminary phytochemical investigation of various extracts using different solvents confirmed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, carbohydrates and glycoside respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study concluded that the presences of various phytoconstituents in Trapa natans Linn. leaves may be medicinally useful. Also the results can be helpful in setting some diagnostic indices for identification, authentication and preparation of the monograph of the leaf of the plant.

Cite this article:
Seema Y. Mendhekar, Punit R. Rachh. Pharmacognostic, Physicochemical and Preliminary Phytochemical Investigation Trapa natans Linn. Leaves. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(9):4341-9. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00711

Seema Y. Mendhekar, Punit R. Rachh. Pharmacognostic, Physicochemical and Preliminary Phytochemical Investigation Trapa natans Linn. Leaves. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(9):4341-9. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00711   Available on:

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