Author(s): Manoj B. Shinde, Adhikrao V. Yadav

Email(s): manojshinde2489@gmail.com

DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00703   

Address: Manoj B. Shinde1,2*, Adhikrao V. Yadav2
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Satara College of Pharmacy, Satara, Maharashtra, India 415004.
2Department of Pharmaceutics, Government College of Pharmacy, Karad, Maharashtra, India 415124.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 16,      Issue - 9,     Year - 2023


ABSTRACT:
Salmonella infections are difficult to treat due to the poor permeability of antibiotics into intracellular compartments and the cell walls of microorganisms with less selectivity, which results in the development of drug resistance. Chitosan is a biocompatible, naturally occurring polymer with shown antibacterial activity against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms. In the present work, chitosan-based polymer lipid nanoparticles (PLNs) were designed to enhance the antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhimurium. PLNs were optimized by 32 full factorial design with two independent variables viz., polymer-lipid ratio (X1) ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 and surfactants (X2) Tween80:Poloxamer188 (2:1) with a concentration of 1% to 2%. Formulations were prepared by melt emulsification with a homogenization process. The influence of independent variables was checked on particle size (Y1), Polydispersity Index (Y2) and Zeta potential (Y3). The optimized batch had particle size of 234.3±4.2nm, a PDI of 0.291±0.01, and a Zeta potential of 28.9±3.4mV. FTIR analysis reveals the polymer's compatibility with lipid and additives. Analysis of DSC and XRD confirmed the existence of amorphous PLNs. The FESEM findings suggest that PLNs have a nearly spherical shape with a smooth surface morphology. Furthermore, the formulation was tested for in-vitro antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhimurium. From the results of an antibacterial study, it was found that the zone of inhibition, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of PLNs were 24mm, 15.12µg/ml, and 31.25µg/ml, respectively, which was better than the results of pure chitosan (18mm, 62.5µg/ml, and 125µg/ml).


Cite this article:
Manoj B. Shinde, Adhikrao V. Yadav. Formulation, Optimization and In-vitro Evaluation of Chitosan-lipid nanoparticles for Antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhimurium. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(9):4295-1. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00703

Cite(Electronic):
Manoj B. Shinde, Adhikrao V. Yadav. Formulation, Optimization and In-vitro Evaluation of Chitosan-lipid nanoparticles for Antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhimurium. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(9):4295-1. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00703   Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2023-16-9-47


REFERENCES:
1.    Saporito L, Colomba C, Titone L. Typhoid Fever [Internet]. Second Edi. Vol. 7, International Encyclopedia of Public Health. Elsevier. 2016. 277–283 p.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-803678-5.00475-6
2.    Naylor GRE. Incubation Period and Other Features of Food-Borne and Water-Borne Outbreaks of Typhoid Fever in Relation To Pathogenesis and Genetics of Resistance. Lancet. 1983; 321(8329): 864–6.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(83)91395-8
3.    Yadav AV Bhise SB. Chitosan: A potential biomaterial effective against typhoid. Curr Sci. 2004; Nov 10; 87/9:1176–1178.
4.    Kunjachan S, Jose S, Thomas CA, Joseph E, Kiessling F, Lammers T. Physicochemical and biological aspects of macrophage-mediated drug targeting in anti-microbial therapy. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2012; 26(1): 63–71.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-8206.2011.00955.x
5.    Ibrahim HM, El-Bisi MK, Taha GM, El-Alfy EA. Chitosan nanoparticles loaded antibiotics as drug delivery biomaterial. J Appl Pharm Sci. 2015; 5(10): 85–90.doi.org/ 10.7324/JAPS.2015.501015
6.    Elbi S, Nimal TR, Rajan VK, Baranwal G, Biswas R, Jayakumar R, et al. Fucoidan coated ciprofloxacin loaded chitosan nanoparticles for the treatment of intracellular and biofilm infections of Salmonella. Colloids Surfaces B Biointerfaces [Internet]. 2017; 160: 40–7. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2017.09.003
7.    Ejaz S, Ihsan A, Noor T, Shabbir S, Imran M. Mannose functionalized chitosan nanosystems for enhanced antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant pathogens. Polym Test [Internet]. 2020; 91(August): 106814. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymertesting.2020.106814
8.    Rigi A, Farhadian N, Karimi M, Porozan S. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology Ceftriaxone sodium loaded onto polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles enhances antibacterial effect on gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria : Effects of lipid - polymer ratio on particles size, characterist. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol. 2021; 63: 102457. doi.org/10.1016/j.jddst.2021.102457
9.    Jadhav PA, Yadav A V. Polymeric nanosuspension loaded oral thin films of flurbiprofen: Design, development and in vitro evaluation. Research J. Pharm. and Tech.  2020;13(4):1905–10.https://www.doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00343.1
10.    Rahat I, Jamal S, Bin-jummah MN, Sarim S, Kala C, Asif M, et al. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology Thymoquinone loaded chitosan - Solid lipid nanoparticles : Formulation optimization to oral bioavailability study. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol [Internet]. 2021; 64(May): 102565. doi.org/10.1016/j.jddst.2021.102565.
11.    Samal RP, Sahu PK. Formulation development and in vitro characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles of felbamate. Research J. Pharm. and Tech.  2020;13(9):4185–9.doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00739.8
12.    Jaiswal A, Senthil V, Das TK. Design and Development of Valsartan Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carrier for the Treatment of Diabetic wound Healing. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(6): 2922.doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00739.8
13.    Nachammai K, Nair KGS, Velmurugan R, Sathesh Kumar S, Pavithra K. Sustained – release study on mefenamic acid and mosapride loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: In vitro characterization. Research J. Pharm. and Tech.  2020; 13(11): 5391–5.doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00943.9
14.    Madgulkar AR, Bhalekar MR, Kapse SB, Paygude B V., Reddi SS. Transdermal permeation enhancement of valsartan using solid lipid nanoparticles. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2011; 4(8): 1297–302.
15.    Jangde RK, Rabsanjani, Khute S. Design and development of ciprofloxacin lipid polymer hybrid nanoparticle by response surface methodology. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(7): 3249–56.doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00576.4
16.    Vignesh S, Anitha R, Rajesh Kumar S, Lakshmi T. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of cumin oil mediated silver nanoparticles on oral microbes. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(8): 3709–12.doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00634.6
17.    Qi L, Xu Z, Jiang X, Hu C, Zou X. Preparation and antibacterial activity of chitosan nanoparticles. Carbohydr Res. 2004; 339(16): 2693–700. doi.org/10.1016/j.carres.2004.09.007
18.    E J, Sukumaran SK. Development and Evaluation of Naringenin Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles for Improved Treatment of Neurotoxicity. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(1): 129. doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00026.8
19.    Suhesti TS, Fudholi A, Martien R, Martono S. Pharmaceutical nanoparticle technologies: An approach to improve drug solubility and dissolution rate of Piroxicam. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2017; 10(4): 968.doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00176.7
20.    Gnanadhas DP, Ben Thomas M, Elango M, Raichur AM, Chakravortty D. Chitosan-dextran sulphate nanocapsule drug delivery system as an effective therapeutic against intraphagosomal pathogen Salmonella. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013; 68(11): 2576–86.
21.    Chen B, Zeng S, Zeng H, Guo Z, Zhang Y, Zheng B. Properties of lotus seed starch–glycerin monostearin complexes formed by high pressure homogenization. Food Chem. 2017; 226: 119–27. doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.01.018
22.    Ghadge D, Nangare S, Jadhav N. Jo ur na l P re of. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol [Internet]. 2022; 103354. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jddst.2022.103354
23.    Dhiman S, Singh TG, Anand S, Yadav P. Formulation and evaluation of solid lipid nanoparticles for controlled delivery of Zidovudine. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2021; 14(5): 2548–56. doi.org/10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00449
24.    Kishore Uttam Kothule, Prashant Kesharwani, Suresh Kumar Gidwani, Paraag Gide. Development and Characterization of Chitosan Nanoparticles and Improvement of Oral Bioavailability of Poorly Water Soluble Acyclovir. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2010; 3(4): 1241-1245.
25.    T. Ramesh, M. Thangaraj, R. Kumaran, D. Annadurai, J. Subramanian, S. Purushothaman, M. Shenbagam. Synthesis, Characterization and Efficacy of Antibiotic Coated Chitosan Nanoparticles on Human Pathogens. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(8):3903-3908.doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00691.5
26.    Talele P, Sahu S, Mishra AK. Physicochemical characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles comprised of glycerol monostearate and bile salts. Colloids Surfaces B Biointerfaces [Internet]. 2018; 172: 517–25. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.08.067
27.    DS Saindane, AS Kulkarni, AN Sagri, RB Pimprikar, SB Yeshwante, CP Suryawanshi, SD Firke, MK Kale. Physicochemical Characterization of Solid Dispersion of Cefexime with Poloxamer 188. Research J. Pharma. Dosage Forms and Tech. 2009; 1(2): 162-166.
28.    I. Somasundaram, S. Sathesh Kumar. Preparation and evaluation of Pramipexoledihydrochloride loaded chitosan nanoparticles for brain-targeting. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2017; 10(1): 245-251. Doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00051.8
29.    Gokilavani S, Vijayabharathi V, Parthasarathy R. Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Antibacterial Activity of Chitosan Extracted from Shell of Crab Paratelphusahydrodromous. Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2014; 4(3): 125-128.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

1.3
2021CiteScore
 
56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus


SCImago Journal & Country Rank


Recent Articles




Tags


Not Available