Haritha P H, T. Lakshmi Narayanan, Amrita Babu, G. Ariharasivakumar, Dithu Thekkekkara
Haritha P H1, T. Lakshmi Narayanan2, Amrita Babu2, G. Ariharasivakumar3, Dithu Thekkekkara4*
1M. Pharm, Dept. of Pharmacology, KMCH College of Pharmacy, Coimbatore, India.
2M. Pharm, Dept. of Pharmacology, JSS College of Pharmacy, Mysuru, India.
3Professor, Dept. of Pharmacology, KMCH College of Pharmacy, Coimbatore, India.
4Lecturer, Dept. of Pharmacology, JSS College of Pharmacy, Mysuru, India.
Volume - 16,
Issue - 8,
Year - 2023
Aim: The current research aims to evaluate and scientifically validate the ani-amnestic potential of ayruvedic formulation Saraswathaghrita (SG) in the scopolamine-induced rat model. Materials and methods: The animals were pretreated with different doses of SG (100mg/kg, 200mg/kg, and 400mg/kg) for seven days before scopolamine induction. For induction of amnesia, scopolamine was injected i.p (single dose of 2mg/kg) in rats for seven consecutive days. 1 hour before induction different doses of SG were administrated (p.o). On the 7th day after 1-hour of induction, various behavioral studies, biochemical estimations, neurotransmitter evaluations, and histopathological studies were performed. Results: The escape latency time in the Morris water maze was significantly increased in 400mg/kg SG treated group compared to the scopolamine-induced group (31.667± 1.174). Treatment with various doses of SG significantly decreases the no. of attempts and latency time (3.167± 0.307 and 7.700±0.383, 2.667±0.211 and 6.617±0.387 and 2.333±0.211 5.267±0.616). Treatment with SG results in regaining the levels of endogenous antioxidant levels to normal values compared to the scopolamine-induced group. In the case of acetylcholinesterase activity, SG treated group, there was a significantly decreased level of acetylcholinesterase (0.611±0.027) compared with the scopolamine-induced group (1.142±0.049). The neuroprotective effect of SG was confirmed by histopathology. The inflammatory cells were absent, glial and astrocytes possess proper morphological features in SG treated group. Conclusion: SG possesses potent anti-cholinesterase inhibition potential and anti-oxidant properties which leads to its anti-amnestic property in the scopolamine-induced rat model.
Cite this article:
Haritha P H, T. Lakshmi Narayanan, Amrita Babu, G. Ariharasivakumar, Dithu Thekkekkara. Evaluvation of Anti-amnesic activity of Ayurvedic formulation Saraswathaghrita in the scopolamine-induced rat model. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(8):3658-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00602
Haritha P H, T. Lakshmi Narayanan, Amrita Babu, G. Ariharasivakumar, Dithu Thekkekkara. Evaluvation of Anti-amnesic activity of Ayurvedic formulation Saraswathaghrita in the scopolamine-induced rat model. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(8):3658-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00602 Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2023-16-8-22
1. Gerlach M, Double KL, Ben-Shachar D, Zecca L, Youdim MBH, Riederer P. Neuromelanin and its interaction with iron as a potential risk factor for dopaminergic neurodegeneration underlying Parkinson’s disease. Neurotox Res. 2003;5(1-2):35-43. doi:10.1007/BF03033371
2. Saraceno B. Invited Papers The WHO World Health Report 2001 on mental health. Epidemiol e Psichiatr Soc. 2017;11(2):83-89.
3. Shen YC, Juan CW, Lin CS, Chen CC, Chang CL. Neuroprotective Effect of Terminalia Chebula Extracts and Ellagic Acid in Pc12 Cells. African J Tradit Complement Altern Med AJTCAM. 2017;14(4):22-30. doi:10.21010/ajtcam.v14i4.3
4. Bag A, Kumar Bhattacharyya S, Kumar Pal N, Chattopadhyay RR. Anti-inflammatory, anti-lipid peroxidative, antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activities of hydroalcoholic extract of Terminalia chebula fruits. Pharm Biol. 2013;51(12):1515-1520. doi:10.3109/13880209.2013.799709
5. Akinyemi AJ, Adeniyi PA. Effect of Essential Oils from Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Turmeric (Curcuma longa) Rhizomes on Some Inflammatory Biomarkers in Cadmium Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats. J Toxicol. 2018;2018. doi:10.1155/2018/4109491
6. Wattanathorn J, Jittiwat J, Tongun T, Muchimapura S, Ingkaninan K. Zingiber officinale mitigates brain damage and improves memory impairment in focal cerebral ischemic rat. Evidence-based Complement Altern Med. 2011;2011. doi:10.1155/2011/429505
7. Park G, Kim HG, Ju MS, et al. 6-shogaol, an active compound of ginger, protects dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease models via anti-neuroinflammation. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2013;34(9):1131-1139. doi:10.1038/aps.2013.57
8. Kim J. Neuroprotective Role of Acorus Calamus and IT ’ S Active Principle Beta Asarone in Retaining the Memory of Rats US ...
9. AO C, AAP C, ATRD A, et al. Neuroprotective effects of piperine, an alkaloid from the Piper genus, on the Parkinson’s disease model in rats. J Neurol Ther. 2015;1(1):1-8. doi:10.14312/2397-1304.2015-1
10. Yang W, Chen YH, Liu H, Qu HD. Neuroprotective effects of piperine on the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced Parkinson’s disease mouse model. Int J Mol Med. 2015;36(5):1369-1376. doi:10.3892/ijmm.2015.2356
11. Meena J SK. Evaluation of the antioxidant potential of methanol extract of Cyclea peltata in DAL Model. Pharma Innov J. 2015;4(1):71-75.
12. Chellappan DR, Joseph J. antiulcer screening of Cyclea peltata roots. 2011;21(6):1096-1103.
13. Ekong MB, Ekpo MM, Akpanyung EO, Nwaokonko DU. Neuroprotective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on aluminium-induced temporal cortical degeneration. Metab Brain Dis. 2017;32(5):1437-1447. doi:10.1007/s11011-017-0011-7
14. Pal RS, Mishra A. Standardization of Dhatryadi Ghrita: A Herbal Ghee Based Ayurvedic Medicinal Preparation. Open Med J. 2018;5(1):47-55. doi:10.2174/1874220301805010047
15. Achliya GS, Barabde U, Wadodkar S, Dorle A. Effect of Bramhi Ghrita, an polyherbal formulation on learning and memory paradigms in experimental animals. Indian J Pharmacol. 2004;36(3):159-162.
16. Seibenhener ML, Wooten MC. Use of the open field maze to measure locomotor and anxiety-like behavior in mice. J Vis Exp. 2015;(96):1-6. doi:10.3791/52434
17. Reddy KRC, Kumar V, Yadav K. Beneficial effect of Brahmi Ghrita on learning and memory in normal rat. AYU (An Int Q J Res Ayurveda). 2014;35(3):325. doi:10.4103/0974-8520.153755
18. Boopathi T. Evaluation of Neuroprotective Effect of Barleria Prionitis Linn in Animal Models of Parkinson’s Disease. Published online 2017. http://repository-tnmgrmu.ac.in/5356/
19. Schlumpf M, Lichtensteiger W, Langemann H, Waser PG, Hefti F. A fluorometric micromethod for the simultaneous determination of serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine in milligram amounts of brain tissue. Biochem Pharmacol. 1974;23(17):2437-2446. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(74)90235-4
20. Dhanasekaran S, Perumal P, Palayan M. In-vitro Screening for acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibition potential and antioxidant activity of extracts of Ipomoea aquatica Forsk: Therapeutic lead for Alzheimer’s disease. J Appl Pharm Sci. 2015;5(2):012-016. doi:10.7324/JAPS.2015.50203
21. Moinuddin G, Inamdar MN, Kulkarni KS, Kulkarni C. Modulation of haemodynamics, endogeneous antioxidant enzymes, and pathophysiological changes by selective inhibition of angiotensin II type 1 receptors in pressureoverload rats. Cardiovasc J Afr. 2013;24(3):58-65. doi:10.5830/CVJA-2012-080
22. Gürel Inanlı A, Emir Çoban Ö, Yılmaz Ö, Özpolat E, Karaton Kuzgun N. Determination of Lipid Peroxidation and Fatty Acid Compositions in the Caviars of Rainbow Trout and Carp. J Aquat Food Prod Technol. 2018;27(7):803-810. doi:10.1080/10498850.2018.1499688
23. Goverdhan P, Sravanthi A, Mamatha T. Neuroprotective effects of Meloxicam and Selegiline in scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress. Int J Alzheimers Dis. 2012;2012. doi:10.1155/2012/974013
24. Nambiar DS. Critical Review on Management of Dementia With Ghrita Kalpana. World J Pharm Res. 2017;6(8):316-323. doi:10.20959/wjpr20178-8776
25. Haddadi M, Jahromi SR, Sagar BKC, Patil RK, Shivanandappa T, Ramesh SR. Brain aging, memory impairment and oxidative stress: A study in Drosophila melanogaster. Behav Brain Res. 2014;259:60-69. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2013.10.036