Author(s): Anannya Bose, Susanta Paul, Dibya Das, Tathagata Roy, Vinay Kumar Pandey


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00579   

Address: Anannya Bose, Susanta Paul, Dibya Das, Tathagata Roy, Vinay Kumar Pandey
Jis University, Nilgunj Road, Agarpara, Kolkata -700109.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 16,      Issue - 7,     Year - 2023

Diabetics are more likely to develop diabetes retinopathy (DR), the most significant microvascular complication. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a condition that causes blindness in people aged 20 to 65. After 10 years of diabetes, nearly all type 1 diabetes patients and more than 60% of type 2 diabetes patients are at risk of developing diabetic retinopathy (DR). Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a kind of diabetes that results in vision loss and lowers patient quality of life. This study looks at the biochemical and anatomic anomalies that arise in DR in order to better understand and manage the development of new therapy alternatives The benefits of recommended nanomedicines for treating this ocular disease are contrasted to current standard therapy using innovative drug delivery methods based on nanoparticles (e.g., liposomes, dendrimers, cationic nano-emulsions, lipid and polymeric nanoparticles). Nanoparticle-based techniques are being tried to enhance medicine delivery to the posterior portion of the eye, despite the fact that the multidimensional nature of DR remains unknown. On the other hand, certain nanoparticles appear to play a role in the development of DR symptoms. In recent years, nanomedicine has become the most preferred therapeutic choice. Its primary goal is to improve the efficacy and controllability of medications currently in use in the target tissue. Long-acting pharmaceutical compounds with good eye biocompatibility should be created using modern nanotechnology and tissue engineering. As a result, there should be no major local or systemic side effects. Increased treatment efficiency also necessitates changes in molecular sizes and surfaces, as well as specialised retinal cell targeting. The current treatment methods are obtrusive and have a host of undesirable side effects. The use of nanomedicine to enhance pharmaceutical formulations could reduce the number of injections required to treat this illness by extending medication residence time in the eye and improving drug pharmacokinetic properties. Nanocarriers also have the potential to expand the variety of DR treatments by enhancing the efficacy of biologics, particularly proteins and RNA molecules.

Cite this article:
Anannya Bose, Susanta Paul, Dibya Das, Tathagata Roy, Vinay Kumar Pandey. Recent Advancement of Nanomedicine for Diabetic Retinopathy: A Review. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(7):3507-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00579

Anannya Bose, Susanta Paul, Dibya Das, Tathagata Roy, Vinay Kumar Pandey. Recent Advancement of Nanomedicine for Diabetic Retinopathy: A Review. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(7):3507-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00579   Available on:

1.    Das, S. Stroud, A. Mehta, S. Rangasamy. New treatments for diabetic retinopathy Diabetes Obes.Metabol. 17 (2015); 219-230.doi: 10.1111/dom.12384
2.    Abdulrahman, M.D. Alghadyan. Diabetic retinopathy: an update. Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology. 25 (2011); 99-111. doi:10.1016/j.sjopt.2011.01.009
3.    J.M. Tarr, K. Kaul, M. Chopra, E.M. Kohner, R. Chibber. Pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy ISRN Ophthalmology. (2013);1-13.doi:
4.    M. Iyapparaja, P. Sivakumar.Detecting Diabetic Retinopathy exudates in digital image processing Hybrid Methodology. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2019; 12(1): 57-61.doi:10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00011.8
5.    T. Jemima Jebaseeli, C. Anand Deva Durai. Mechanism for Diabetic Retinal Blood Vessel Profile Measurement and Analysis on Fundus Images. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2019; 12(1): 21-26.doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00005.2
6.    NisreenWaleedMustafa. Evaluation of Complement Components (C3 and C4) in Diabetic Retinopathy patients. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2018; 11(9): 3773-3776.doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00691.1
7.    ArunRadhakrishnan, GowthamarajanKuppusamy ,SenthilVenkatachalam, RohithkrishnanVijayakumar, Nikhitha K Shanmukhan . Personalized Nano Delivery Strategy in Treating Uveitis. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(4):1997-2008.doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00334.2
8.    Milana V. Dunaieva, Oleksii V. Pohorielov, Yulia V. Getman, Kateryna V. Mizyakina, Ziwei Wang. New Approaches to Neurophysiological Diagnosis and Treatment of Diabetic VitrealHemorrhages. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(12): 5723-5728.doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00990.9
9.    Kousalya M., Geetha P., Jesuraja A., Vinoth Kumar M. In-Vitro Study of Anthelmintic Activity of Ecliptaprostrata (L) y various Extracts. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2017; 10(1): 58-60.doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00014.2
10.    Sujatha. V. Department of Mathematics, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2016; 9(4): 451-456.doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00083.4
11.    GhanshyamKamani, RohanSanghani, VaibhaviSavalia, DevangPandya. Detection of Adulteration in Rubiacordifolia – A Chromatographic Approach.Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(8):4013-8.doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00695
12.    P. Vijay Daniel, D. Pamela, P. Kingston Stanley, J. Samson Issac. Digital Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy using Fundus Images. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2019; 12(2):717-722. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00127.6
13.    Geetha P, Shanmugasundaram P. a Prospective Observational Study on assessment of risk factor associated with diabetic retinopathy in patients diagnosed with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in south Indian population. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2019; 12(2):595-599.doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00106.9 
14.    Eisma J.H, Dulle J.E, Fort P.E. Current knowledge on diabetic retinopathy from human donor tissues.World journal of diabetes. 2015; 6(2):312-320.doi: 10.4239/wjd.v6.i2.312
15.    Hendrick A.M, Gibson M.V, Kulshreshtha A. Diabetic Retinopathy. Primary care: Clinics in office Practice. 2015; 42:451-64.
16.    Gerstein H.C, Miller M.E, Byington R.P, et al. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes.N Engl. J Med. 2008; 358:2545-2559.doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0802743
17.    Klein R, Knudtson M.D, Lee K.E, Gangnon R, and Klein B.E. The Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy: XXII the twenty-five-year progression of retinopathy in persons with type 1 diabetes. Ophthalmology. 2008; 115:1859-1868.doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2008.08.023
18.    Carrasco E, Hernandez C, Miralles A, et al. Lower somatostatin expression is an early event in diabetic retinopathy and is associated with retinal neurodegeneration. Diabetes Care.2007; 30:2902-2908.doi: 10.2337/dc07-0332
19.    Fangueiro E, J.F, Gonzalez-Mira P, Martins-Lopes, M.A, et al. A novel lipid nanocarrier for insulin delivery: production, characterization and toxicity testing. Pharm. Dev. Technol. 2013; 18:545-549.doi: 10.3109/10837450.2011.591804
20.    Han J, Zhao D, Li D, Wang X, Jin Z, and Zhao K. Polymer-based nanomaterials and applications for vaccines and drugs. Polymers (Based).2018; 10:31.doi: 10.3390/polym10010031
21.    Alok A, Sunil P, Aggarwal A, et al. Nanotechnology: a boon in oral cancer diagnosisand therapeutics. SRM J. Res. Dent. Sci. 2013; 4:154-160.doi: 10.4103/0976-433X.125591
22.    Araujo J, Garcia M.L, Mallandrich M, Souto E.B, and Calpena A.C. Release profile and transscleral permeation of triamcinolone acetonide loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (TA-NLC): in vitro and ex vivo studies. 2012; 8:1034-1041.doi:10.1016/j.nano.2011.10.015
23.    Araujo J, Nikolic S, Egea M.A, Souto E.B, and Garcia M.L. Nanostructured lipid carriers for triamcinolone acetonide delivery to the posterior segment of the eye. Colloids Surf. B Bio interfaces. 2011; 88:150-157.doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2011.06.025
24.    AttiaShafie, M.A, and Mohammed Fayek, H.H. Formulation and evaluation of betamethasone sodium phosphate loaded nanoparticles for ophthalmic delivery. J. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmology. 2013; 4-273.doi:10.4172/2155-9570.1000273
25.    Yan X.L, Khor E, and Lim L.Y. Chitosan-alginate films prepared with chitosan of different molecular weights. J. Biomed. Mater.Res. 2001; 58:358-365.doi: 10.1002/jbm.1029
26.    Hirano S, Seino H, Akiyama Y, and Nonaka I. Biocompatibility of chitosan by oral and intravenous administration. Polymer.Eng. Sci. 1989; 59:897-901.doi: 10.1080/10717540590889781.
27.    Ohira A, Hara K, Jo´hannesson G, and Tanito M. Topical dexamethasone g cyclodextrin nanoparticle eye drops increase visual acuity and decrease macular thickness in diabetic macular oedema. Acta Ophthalmology.2015; 93:610–615. doi:10.1111/aos.12803
28.    Tanito M, Hara K, Takai Y, et al. Topical dexamethasone-cyclodextrinmicroparticle eye drops for diabetic macular edema. Invest. Ophthalmology. Vis. Sci. 2011; 52:7944-7948.doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-8178
29.    Lu Y, Zhou N, and Huang X. Effect of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab chitosan nanoparticles on retina of diabetic rats. Int. J. Ophthalmology. 2014; 18(7):1-7.doi: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2014.01.01
30.    Elsaid N, Jackson T.L, Elsaid Z, Alqathama A, and Somavarapu S. PLGA Microparticles entrapping chitosan-based nanoparticles for the ocular delivery of ranibizumab.Mol. Pharm. 2016; 13:2923-2940.doi: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.6b00335
31.    Deguchi S, Otake H, Nakazawa Y, et al. Ophthalmic formulation containing nilvadipine nanoparticles prevents retinal dysfunction in rats injected with streptozotocin. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017; 18:2720.doi: 10.3390/ijms18122720
32.    Abrishami M, Zarei-Ganavati S, Soroush D, et al. Preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation of nanoliposomes-encapsulated bevacizumab (Avastin) for intravitreal administration. Retina. 2009; 29:699–703.doi: 10.1097/IAE.0b013e3181a2f42a

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available