Author(s): Sayan Kumar Bera


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00421   

Address: Sayan Kumar Bera*
BDS House Surgeon, NRS Medical College and Hospital, 138, AJC Bose Road, Kolkata - 700014, West Bengal.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 16,      Issue - 5,     Year - 2023

Corona virus disease spreads rapidly throughout the world and created public health emergency. This RNA virus shows different types of stains among which delta (B.1.617.2) stain is more dangerous due to its mutation although omicron (B.1.1.351) spreads more rapidly than other variants. Covid-19 manifest different oral lesions like ulcers, erosion, necrotising periodontal disease, red and white plaque, petechiae, herpetiform lesions, non-specific lesions, HSV-1, acute parotitis etc. This virus also leads to post complications like Mucormycosis, musculoskeletal problems, mental health problems. As this virus spreads through oral and nasal routes so it is important to identify oral lesions as early as possible, so that dentist and paramedical staffs take proper preventive measures.

Cite this article:
Sayan Kumar Bera. Oral Manifestations of “COVID-19” Infection. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(5):2565-1. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00421

Sayan Kumar Bera. Oral Manifestations of “COVID-19” Infection. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(5):2565-1. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00421   Available on:

1.    Tyrrell DAJ, Myint SH. Coronaviruses. In: Baron S, editor. Medical Microbiology. 4th ed. Galveston (TX): University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston; 1996. Chapter 60.
2.    Bhattacharya K, Bhattacharya S, Sengupta P, Dutta S, Choudhuri G. R, Mukhopadhyay L. D. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Pregnancy. Biomed Pharmacol J 2021;14(3): 1161-1174. DOI: 10.13005/bpj/2219.
3.    Bhattacharya K, Mukhopadhyay LD, Goswami R, et al. SARS-CoV-2 infection and human semen: possible modes of contamination and transmission. Middle East Fertil Soc J. 2021;26(1):18. DOI: 10.1186/s43043-021-00063-6.
4.    Sarfaraz Ahmad, Ambreen Shoaib, Sajid Ali, Sarfaraz Alam, Nawazish Alam, Maksood Ali, Ali Mujtaba, Ayaz Ahmad, Salahuddin Ansari, Mohammad Daud Ali. Epidemiology, risk, myths, pharmacotherapeutic management and socio economic burden due to novel COVID-19: A recent update. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2020; 13(9):4435-4442. DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00784.2.
5.    Ali Adel Dawood, Mahmood Abduljabar Altobje, Haitham Abdul-Malik Alnori. Compatibility of the Ligand Binding Sites in the Spike Glycoprotein of COVID-19 with those in the Aminopeptidase and the Caveolins 1, 2 Proteins. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(9):4760-6. DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00828.
6.    Li F. Structure, Function, and Evolution of Coronavirus Spike Proteins. Annu Rev Virol. 2016 Sep 29;3(1):237-261. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-virology-110615-042301.
7.    Amjad Ayoub, Nishat Fatima, Vichitra Kaushik. Pulmonary Aerosolized Formulation or Nasal Drops containing Recombinant Human Angiotensin converting Enzyme 2 (rhACE2) as a Potential Therapy against COVID-19. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(6):3433-6. DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00597.
8.    Pinki, Deepika Rani, Himani Bajaj, Ranjit Singh. SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) and role of real time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) in its diagnosis. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(6):3437-0. DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00598.
9.    Cherry JD, Krogstad P. SARS: the first pandemic of the 21st century. Pediatr Res. 2004 Jul;56(1):1-5. DOI: 10.1203/01.PDR.0000129184.87042.FC.
10.    Hyam Raouf Al-Hamamy. COVID-19: Immune response. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(1):467-0. DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00076.
11.    WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard. (2022, January 10). Confirmed Cases Data. Retrieved January 11, 2022, from
12.    Delhi, I. N. (n.d.). Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi. Guidelines for Covid-19. Retrieved August 2, 2021, from
13.    Sonia Mor, Prem Saini, Subhash Kumar Wangnoo, Tarunika Bawa. Worldwide spread of COVID-19 Pandemic and risk factors among Co-morbid conditions especially Diabetes Mellitus in India. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2020; 13(5):2530-2532. DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00450.3.
14.    Tracking SARS-CoV-2 variants. (n.d.). VOCs and VOIs. Retrieved January 5, 2022, from
15.    Coronavirus. (2020, January 10). Covid-19 Symptoms. Retrieved October 11, 2021, from
16.    Sengupta P, Leisegang K, Agarwal A. The impact of COVID-19 on the male reproductive tract and fertility: A systematic review. Arab J Urol. 2021 Aug 9;19(3):423-436. DOI: 10.1080/2090598X.2021.1955554.
17.    Atukorallaya DS, Ratnayake RK. Oral Mucosa, Saliva, and COVID-19 Infection in Oral Health Care. Front Med (Lausanne). 2021 Apr 22;8:656926. DOI: 10.3389/fmed.2021.656926.
18.    Bayan S. Dawood, Muaed Al Omar, Subish Palaian. Pharmaceutical care program for Polymedicated elderly patients visiting Community Pharmacies in UAE during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Study Protocol. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(1):305-0. DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00050.
19.    Minhas S, Sajjad A, Kashif M, Taj F, Waddani HA, Khurshid Z. Oral Ulcers Presentation in Systemic Diseases: An Update. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2019;7(19):3341-3347. DOI: 10.3889/oamjms.2019.689.
20.    Lussi A, Schlueter N, Rakhmatullina E, Ganss C. Dental erosion--an overview with emphasis on chemical and histopathological aspects. Caries Res. 2011;45 Suppl 1:2-12. DOI: 10.1159/000325915.
21.    Iranmanesh B, Khalili M, Amiri R, Zartab H, Aflatoonian M. Oral manifestations of COVID-19 disease: A review article. Dermatol Ther. 2021 Jan;34(1):e14578. DOI: 10.1111/dth.14578.
22.    Wu YH, Wu YC, Lang MJ, Lee YP, Jin YT, Chiang CP. Review of oral ulcerative lesions in COVID-19 patients: A comprehensive study of 51 cases. J Dent Sci. 2021 Oct;16(4):1066-1073. DOI: 10.1016/j.jds.2021.07.001.
23.    Aaron SL, DeBlois KW. Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis. 2021 Sep 14. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan
24.    Bermejo-Fenoll A, Sánchez-Pérez A. Necrotising periodontal diseases. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2004;9 Suppl:114-9; 108-14.
25.    Patel J, Woolley J. Necrotizing periodontal disease: Oral manifestation of COVID-19. Oral Dis. 2021 Apr;27 Suppl 3:768-769. DOI: 10.1111/odi.13462.
26.    Simi S, Nandakumar G, Anish Ts. White lesions in the oral cavity: a clinicopathological study from a tertiary care dermatology centre in kerala, India. Indian J Dermatol. 2013 Jul;58(4):269-74. DOI: 10.4103/0019-5154.113933.
27.    Amorim Dos Santos J, Normando AGC, Carvalho da Silva RL, De Paula RM, Cembranel AC, Santos-Silva AR, Guerra ENS. Oral mucosal lesions in a COVID-19 patient: New signs or secondary manifestations? Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Aug;97:326-328. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.06.012.
28.    Díaz Rodríguez M, Jimenez Romera A, Villarroel M. Oral manifestations associated with COVID-19. Oral Dis. 2022 Apr;28 Suppl 1:960-962. DOI: 10.1111/odi.13555.
29.    Corchuelo J, Ulloa FC. Oral manifestations in a patient with a history of asymptomatic COVID-19: Case report. Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Nov;100:154-157. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.08.071.
30.    McGrath A, Barrett MJ. Petechiae. 2021 Sep 13. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan
31.    Biadsee A, Biadsee A, Kassem F, Dagan O, Masarwa S, Ormianer Z. Olfactory and Oral Manifestations of COVID-19: Sex-Related Symptoms-A Potential Pathway to Early Diagnosis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2020 Oct;163(4):722-728. DOI: 10.1177/0194599820934380.
32.    Bell A, Kasi A. Oral Mucositis. 2021 Apr 22. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan.
33.    Cancian M, Giovannini S, Angelini A, Fedrigo M, Bendo R, Senter R, Sivolella S. Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome: a case report of a rare disease with overlapping features. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2019 Jan 5;15:1. DOI: 10.1186/s13223-018-0316-z.
34.    Taşlıdere B, Mehmetaj L, Özcan AB, Gülen B, Taşlıdere N. Melkersson-Rosenthal Syndrome Induced by COVID-19. Am J Emerg Med. 2021 Mar;41:262.e5-262.e7. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajem.2020.08.018.
35.    Halboub E, Al-Maweri SA, Alanazi RH, Qaid NM, Abdulrab S. Orofacial manifestations of COVID-19: a brief review of the published literature. Braz Oral Res. 2020 Oct 30;34:e124. DOI: 10.1590/1807-3107bor-2020.vol34.0124.
36.    Capaccio P, Pignataro L, Corbellino M, Popescu-Dutruit S, Torretta S. Acute Parotitis: A Possible Precocious Clinical Manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 Infection? Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2020 Jul;163(1):182-183. DOI: 10.1177/0194599820926992.
37.    Saleh D, Yarrarapu SNS, Sharma S. Herpes Simplex Type 1. 2021 Aug 31. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan.
38.    Farid H, Khan M, Jamal S, Ghafoor R. Oral manifestations of Covid-19-A literature review. Rev Med Virol. 2022 Jan;32(1):e2248. DOI: 10.1002/rmv.2248.
39.    Hedou M, Carsuzaa F, Chary E, Hainaut E, Cazenave-Roblot F, Masson Regnault M. Comment on 'Cutaneous manifestations in COVID-19: a first perspective' by Recalcati S. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2020 Jul;34(7):e299-e300. DOI: 10.1111/jdv.16519.
40.    Martín Carreras-Presas C, Amaro Sánchez J, López-Sánchez AF, Jané-Salas E, Somacarrera Pérez ML. Oral vesiculobullous lesions associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Oral Dis. 2021 Apr;27 Suppl 3:710-712. DOI: 10.1111/odi.13382.
41.    Favia G, Tempesta A, Barile G, Brienza N, Capodiferro S, Vestito MC, Crudele L, Procacci V, Ingravallo G, Maiorano E, Limongelli L. Covid-19 Symptomatic Patients with Oral Lesions: Clinical and Histopathological Study on 123 Cases of the University Hospital Policlinic of Bari with a Purpose of a New Classification. J Clin Med. 2021 Feb 13;10(4):757. DOI: 10.3390/jcm10040757.
42.    Kutti Sridharan G, Rokkam VR. Macroglossia. 2021 Aug 11. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan.
43.    Sharma S, Abdul T, Ho S. Macroglossia secondary to prolonged prone positioning for management of COVID-19 respiratory failure. BMJ Case Rep. 2021 Jul 6;14(7):e244224. DOI:10.1136/bcr-2021-244224.
44.    Mucormycosis | Fungal Diseases | CDC. (n.d.). Mucormycosis. Retrieved August 14, 2021, from
45.    Shanbehzadeh S, Tavahomi M, Zanjari N, Ebrahimi-Takamjani I, Amiri-Arimi S. Physical and mental health complications post-COVID-19: Scoping review. J Psychosom Res. 2021 Aug;147:110525. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2021.110525.
46.    Mon Mon Yee, Mi Mi Khaing, Khin Than Yee, Aye Mya Thidar. A brief review on pregnancy risk reasoned to COVID-19. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(1):424-8. DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00070.
47.    Sharma A, Goel A. Mucormycosis: risk factors, diagnosis, treatments, and challenges during COVID-19 pandemic. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2022 Jun;67(3):363-387. DOI: 10.1007/s12223-021-00934-5.
48.    Iqbal FM, Lam K, Sounderajah V, Clarke JM, Ashrafian H, Darzi A. Characteristics and predictors of acute and chronic post-COVID syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. EClinicalMedicine. 2021 May 24;36:100899. DOI:10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100899.
49.    Sheila Menon, Vidya Bhagat. A Review Study on the impact of COVID-19 on Mental Health in the workplace and on working people. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(12):6725-1. DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.01162.
50.    Atukorallaya DS, Ratnayake RK. Oral Mucosa, Saliva, and COVID-19 Infection in Oral Health Care. Front Med (Lausanne). 2021 Apr 22;8:656926. DOI: 10.3389/fmed.2021.656926.
51.    Sameh Saber, Ahmed E. Khodir, Abdalkareem Omar Maghmomeh, Nehal A. Nouh, Ahmed M. El-Baz. COVID-19 Pandemic: current Challenges and future Perspectives. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(1):329-7. DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00054.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available