Author(s): Ankit Loya, Latha K, Naseeb Basha Shaik, Aisha Rahman, Javeria Tamkeen


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00372   

Address: Ankit Loya, Latha K*, Naseeb Basha Shaik, Aisha Rahman, Javeria Tamkeen
Department of Pharmaceutics, G. Pulla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Mehdipatnam, Hyderabad, Telangana, India - 500028.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 16,      Issue - 5,     Year - 2023

The purpose of this work was to study iontophoretic transport of atenolol from transdermal gel formulations through rat skin. Atenolol transdermal gels were prepared by dispersion method using natural and synthetic polymers and were evaluated for ex-vivo penetration of drug through rat skin using Franz diffusion cell. The optimized formulations F10 and F14 permeability of atenolol at 12 hours was found to be 12.52% and 13.4% respectively whereas the using iontophoresis technique drug release observed were 98.52% at 8 hours and 96.44% at 7 hours for F10 and F14 respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that iontophoresis showed higher release when compared the gels with or without permeation enhancer (solvents). The skin irritation studies proved that there was no observed edema or erythema. In conclusion, iontophoresis is used to increase the permeation of drugs the skin.

Cite this article:
Ankit Loya, Latha K, Naseeb Basha Shaik, Aisha Rahman, Javeria Tamkeen. Formulation and Evaluation of Transdermal Gel loaded with Atenolol. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(5):2265-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00372

Ankit Loya, Latha K, Naseeb Basha Shaik, Aisha Rahman, Javeria Tamkeen. Formulation and Evaluation of Transdermal Gel loaded with Atenolol. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(5):2265-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00372   Available on:

1.    Upadhyay G, Verma S, Parvez N, Kumar Sharma P. Recent Trends in transdermal drug delivery system -A review. Adv Biol Res (Rennes). 2014;8(3):131-138. doi:10.5829/idosi.abr.2014.8.3.8446
2.    M U Uhumwangho, K Latha, S A Sunil, M V Srikanth, K V Ramana Murthy. Chronopharmaceutic Drug Delivery Systems (ChDDs) - A Review. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2011;4(2):197-202.
3.    Harsha G, Naseeb Basha Shaik, PK Lakshmi and Latha K. Formulation and Evaluation of Sertaconazole nitrate loaded Nanosponges for topical application. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2021; 14(2):895-902.
4.    Sharma, A., Saini, S., & Rana AC. Transdermal drug delivery system: a review. Int J Res Pharm Biomed Sci. 2013;4(1):286-292.
5.    Power I. Fentanyl HCl iontophoretic transdermal system (ITS): Clinical application of iontophoretic technology in the management of acute postoperative pain. Br J Anaesth. 2007;98(1):4-11. doi:10.1093/bja/ael314
6.    Nandy BC, Gupta RN, Rai VK, et al. Transdermal iontophoretic delivery of Atenolol in combination with penetration enhancers : Optimization and evaluation on solution and gels. Int J Pharm Sci Drug Res. 2009;1(2):91-99.
7.    Pandey S, Praveen SH, Udupa N. Formulation and evaluation of nimesulide transdermal drug delivery systems. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2000;62(3-5):376-379.
8.    Ashish Jain, Satish Nayak, Bijaya Ghosh, Rajesh S Jadon, Virendra Gajbhiye. Enhanced Skin Permeation of Glimepiride by β-Cyclodextrin and Iontophoresis. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2009;2(3):552-555.
9.    Swapnil Deshpande, Swaroop Lahoti, Rohit Shah, Madhuri Shinde, Sagar Motarwar, Chaitrali Pawar. Iontophoresis: A Physical Approach to Transdermal Drug Delivery System. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2012;5(2):175-180.
10.    Nivetha. B, Rahmathunisha. A, Lokeshwari. K, Kumaresan. A, Sai Nikkitha. K.V, Yeseshivi. L, Janani. R. Efficacy of Nanocurcumin with application of Iontophoresis on Inflammatory arthritis patients. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022;15(2):825-829.
11.    Chander Jhawat V, Saini V, Kamboj S, Maggon N. Transdermal drug delivery systems: Approaches and advancements in drug absorption through skin. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2013;20(1):47-56.
12.    Singh M, Nagori B. Formulation development & evaluation of topical gel formulations using different gelling agents and its comparison with marketed gel formulation. 2013;3(3):1-10.
13.    Vishakha SK. Natural polymers–A comprehensive review 2012.
14.    Baksh Abrar, Shaikh Anis, Bhargava Tanu SS. Formulation and in–vitro evaluation of NSAID’s gel. Int J Curr Pharm Res. 2012;4(3):56-58.
15.    Shaik N, Gera S, Kukati L, Goverdhanam H. Formulation and Evaluation of emulgel of flurbiprofen. International Research Journal of Pharmacy; 2019; 8(10): 68-76. doi:10.7897/2230-8407.1008248
16.    Mobina Begum and Naseeb Basha Shaik, et al. Formulation and evaluation of linezolid loaded solid lipid nanoparticles as topical gel. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2020;11(10):4924-4933.
17.    Shaik N, Mortha S. Formulation and evaluation of tizanidine hydrochloride loaded ethosomes for transdermal delivery. J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. 2020; 12(11):1400-1410.  
18.    Harsha G, Shaik NB, Lakshmi PK, Latha K. Formulation and evaluation of sertaconazole nitrate loaded nanosponges for topical application. Res J Pharm Technol. 2021;14(2):895-902. doi:10.5958/0974-360X.2021.00159.1
19.    V Sai Kishore, TE Gopala Krishna Murthy. Effect of Permeation Enhancers on the Release and Permeation Kinetics of Propranolol Hydrochloride Gels through Mouse Skin. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2009;2(1):106-109.
20.    SD Pande, SB Joshi, SB Kasture, VM Aurangabadkar. Effect of Some Penetration Enhancers on In-vitro Permeation of Glibenclamide. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2010;3(1):79-81.
21.    Madgulkar A.R., Bhalekar M.R., Kapse S.B., Paygude B.V., Reddi S.S. Transdermal Permeation Enhancement of Valsartan Using Solid Lipid Nanoparticles. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2011;4(8):1297-1302.
22.    Vaisakh M. N., Anima Pandey. Assessment of curcumin release with different permeation enhancers. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2012;5(3):408-410.
23.    Rao Rekha, Goswami Anju, Shekhar Shishant, Mahant Sheefali, Nanda Sanju. Effect of Chemical Enhancers on in-vitro Permeation of Losartan Potassium. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2012;5(3):346-352.
24.    Madhumitha. V, S. Sangeetha. Transfersomes: A Novel Vesicular Drug Delivery System for Enhanced Permeation through Skin. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(5):2493-2501.
25.    Tarang R Bhatt, Dharmesh Golwala. In-Vitro Study on Permeation of different Semi-solid dosage forms of Timolol Maleate using Franz cell. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(6):2721-6.
26.    Khan IN, Khan MI, Mazumder K, et al. Characterization and ex-vivo skin permeation study of domperidone maleate transdermal patch. Bull Pharm Res. 2012;2(1):15-21.
27.    Al-Khalili M, Meidan VM, Michniak BB. Iontophoretic transdermal delivery of buspirone hydrochloride in hairless mouse skin. AAPS Pharm Sci. 2003;5(2). doi:10.1208/ps050214
28.    Rawat S. Release Enhancement of Meloxicam from transdermal gel through. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2011;2(2):357-365.
29.    Chathoth S, Ramasami C, Rompicharla N. Effect of penetration enhancers on the permeability characteristics of lisinopril transdermal delivery systems. Asian J Pharm. 2012;6(2):130-136. doi:10.4103/0973-8398.102937

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available