Sumaiya Al- Kindi, Iman Ismail Yaqoob ALBalushi, Aisha Yazid Abdulalim Elshaar, Ahlam Al Kharusi, Razna Al Maimani, Alka Ahuja
Sumaiya Al- Kindi1, Iman Ismail Yaqoob ALBalushi1, Aisha Yazid Abdulalim Elshaar1, Ahlam Al Kharusi2, Razna Al Maimani3, Alka Ahuja*1
1Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, National University of Science and Technology, Muscat Oman.
2Muscat Municipality, Muscat Oman.
3Central Laboratory for Food Safety, Muscat Oman.
Volume - 16,
Issue - 5,
Year - 2023
Tetracycline is heavily used in livestock production either for prophylaxis, treatment or as growth promoter. The residues of tetracycline in animal products have been investigated around the world and linked to imbalance in intestinal microflora, human allergic reactions, and other diseases. Researcher stated that the long term use of tetracycline as sub therapeutic dose increased level of antibiotic-resistant pathogens which is a global threat to human health and food security and development. Many studies reported that the tetracycline levels were above the maximum residual limit1,2. In Oman, few studies have been done using different techniques for investigating the antibiotics levels in animal products. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the tetracycline residues in imported goat meat (liver and muscle) and to compare the levels of tetracycline residues between liver and muscles. A total of 48 fresh muscle and liver samples were taken from 24 Somali goats that were slaughtered at a slaughterhouse in Muscat. The extraction was done using the Agilent Enhanced Matrix Removal—Lipid (EMR—L) product. Four compounds were tested; Tetracycline, Oxytetracycline, Chlortetracycline and Doxycycline. The final extracts were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. The results showed no detection of tetracycline and doxycycline whereas, oxytetracycline and chlorotetracycline were found. 45% of muscle samples had OXY and CTC with concentration range of 6.04-6.23µg/kg and 5.48-8.35µg/kg, respectively. Around 42% of investigated liver samplesshowed OXY and CTC with concentration of 6.04-6.17 µg/Kg and 7.92-8.13µg/kg, respectively. In this study higher concentrations of OXY and CTC were detected in one muscle with values of 403.60035±234.8µg/kg and 274.8491±87.1058, respectively and one liver sample got higher concentration of OXY which was 3201.9±325.1µl/kg. These values were exceeding the MRL GSO 2481/2015, CX/MRL 2-2018 and EU 37/2010. These results might be related to withdrawal time as most of the samples had lower MRL. All samples were studied in triplicates to verify the results and using LCMSMS making data more satisfactory and validated.
Cite this article:
Sumaiya Al- Kindi, Iman Ismail Yaqoob ALBalushi, Aisha Yazid Abdulalim Elshaar, Ahlam Al Kharusi, Razna Al Maimani, Alka Ahuja, Determination of Tetracycline residues in red meat available in Oman. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(5):2182-6. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00358
Sumaiya Al- Kindi, Iman Ismail Yaqoob ALBalushi, Aisha Yazid Abdulalim Elshaar, Ahlam Al Kharusi, Razna Al Maimani, Alka Ahuja, Determination of Tetracycline residues in red meat available in Oman. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(5):2182-6. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00358 Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2023-16-5-17
1. Bahmani K. Shahbazi Y. Nikousefat Z. Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Tetracycline Residues in Foods of Animal Origin. Food Science And Biotechnology. 2020;29(3):441-8.doi: 10.1007/s10068-019-00665-x
2. Verma M. Ahmad A. Pant D. Patwal P. Evaluation of Oxytetracycline residues in Chicken Meat Samples by HPLC. The Pharma Innovation Journal. 2021; SP-10(4): 155-157.
3. Orwa JD. Matofari JW. Muliro PS. Lamuka P. Assessment of Sulphonamides and Tetracyclines Antibiotic Residue Contaminants in Rural and Peri Urban Dairy Value Chains in Kenya. International Journal of Food Contamination. 2017;4(1):1-11.
4. Jayalakshmi K. Paramasivam M. Sasikala M. Tamilam T. Sumithra A. Review on Antibiotic Residues in Animal Products and Its Impact on Environments and Human Health. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 2017;5(3):1446-51.
5. Falowo A.Akinmoladun O. Veterinary Drug Residues in Meat and Meat Products: Occurrence, Detection and Implications. In Veterinary Medicine and Pharmaceuticals. 2019; IntechOpen.https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.83616.
6. Simon V. Sreerag K. Sasikumar R. Kanthlal S. High Dose Antibiotics Induced Hepatotoxicity and Altered Markers: An In-Vitro Liver Slices Study. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2017;10(6):1742-5.DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00307.9
7. Singh S. Shukla S. Tandia N. Kumar N. Paliwal R. Antibiotic Residues: A Global Challenge. Pharma Science Monitor. 2014;5(3): 184-197.
8. Chopra I.Roberts M. Tetracycline Antibiotics: Mode of Action, Applications, Molecular Biology, and Epidemiology of Bacterial Resistance. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 2001;65(2):232-60.doi: 10.1128/MMBR.65.2.232-260.2001
9. Saleha T. Faheem AS. Ummar A. Tetracycline: Classification, Structure Activity Relationship And Mechanism of Action As A Theranostic Agent For Infectious Lesions-A Mini Review. Biomedical Journal of Scientific and Technical Research. 2018;7:5787-96.doi: 10.26717/BJSTR.2018.07.001475
10. Granados-Chinchilla F. Rodríguez C. Tetracyclines in Food and Feedingstuffs: From Regulation To Analytical Methods, Bacterial Resistance, and Environmental and Health Implications. Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry. 2017;2017.doi: 10.1155/2017/1315497.
11. Rao TN. Sreenivasulu D. Reddy E. Devi KS. A Novel Method for Determination of Tetracycline And Its Metabolite Residues In Cow Milk. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2014;7(5):513-6.
12. Nikam SR. Jagdale AS. Boraste SS. Patil SB. Bioanalysis-Method Development, Validation, Sample Preparation, its Detection Techniques and its Application. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis. 2021;11(4). doi: 10.52711/2231-5675.2021.00051
13. Phale MD. Korgaonkar D. Current Advance Analytical Techniques: A Review. Asian Journal Of Research In Chemistry. 2009; 2(3):235-8.
14. Michalova E. Schlegelova J. Tetracyclines in Veterinary Medicine and Bacterial Resistance to Them. Veterinarni Medicina. 2004;49(3):79. DOI: 10.17221/5681-VETMED
15. Dighe NS. Pattan SR. Bhawar SB. Dighe SB. Bhosale MS. Tambe VB. et al. Rocky Mountain Fever: A Review. Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2009;1(3):104-10.
16. Vaala E. Ehnen J.Divers. J.Acute Renal Failure Associated With Administration Of Excessive Amounts of Tetracycline in A Cow. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 1987; 191(12), 1601–1603.
17. Economou V. Gousia P. Agriculture and food animals as a source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Infection and Drug Resistance. 2015;8:49.doi: 10.2147/IDR.S55778. eCollection 2015
18. Bhardwaj R. A comparative analysis of organic food products vs non organic food products in India. Asian Journal of Management. 2017;8(3):587-90. doi: 10.5958/2321-5763.2017.00094.4
19. Marnoor SA. A Review on Antimicrobial Resistance and Role of Pharmacist in tackling this Global Threat. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Technology. 2017;9(4):143-6.doi: 10.5958/0975-4377.2017.00023.4
20. Khushboo K. Saloni B. Rathore KS. Antibiotic Resistance. Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Science. 2020;10(4).
21. Ramatla T. Ngoma L. Adetunji M. Mwanza M. Evaluation of Antibiotic Residues in Raw Meat Using Different Analytical Methods. Antibiotics. 2017;6(4):34.doi: 10.3390/antibiotics6040034
22. Abasi MM. Rashidi MR. Javadi A. Amirkhiz MB. Mirmahdavi S. Zabihi M. Levels of Tetracycline Residues in Cattle Meat, Liver, and Kidney From A Slaughterhouse in Tabriz, Iran. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. 2009;33(4):345-9. doi: 10.3906/vet-0711-32
23. Emiri A. Myftari E. Çoçoli S. Treska E. Determination of Oxytetracycline, Tetracycline And Chlortetracycline in Beef Meat by HPLC-DAD Detector in Albania. Albanian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2014:489.
24. Jeena S. Venkateswaramurthy N. Sambathkumar R. Antibiotic Residues in Milk Products: Impacts on Human Health. Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2020;12(1):15-20. doi: 10.5958/2321-5836.2020.00004.X
25. Agmas B. Adugna M. Antimicrobial Residue Occurrence and Its Public Health Risk of Beef Meat in Debre Tabor and Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia. Veterinary World. 2018;11(7):902. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2018.902-908
26. Al-Amri I. Kadim IT. Alkindi A. Hamaed A. Al-Magbali R. Khalaf S. et al. Determination of Residues Of Pesticides, Anabolic Steroids, Antibiotics, and Antibacterial Compounds In Meat Products In Oman By Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry And Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. 2021;14(3):709-20. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2021.709-720
27. Cammilleri G. Pulvirenti A. Vella A. Macaluso A. Lo Dico GM. Giaccone V. et al. Tetracycline Residues In Bovine Muscle And Liver Samples From Sicily (Southern Italy) By LC-MS/MS Method: A Six-Year Study. Molecules. 2019;24(4):695. doi: 10.3390/molecules24040695