Author(s): Sarojini K, Sankari Malaiappan

Email(s): ,

DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00308   

Address: Sarojini K1, Sankari Malaiappan2*
1Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences [SIMATS], Saveetha University, Chennai - 600077.
2Professor, Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences [SIMATS], Saveetha University, Chennai - 600077.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 16,      Issue - 4,     Year - 2023

Aim: To assess the impact of oral hygiene instructions on the periodontal health of the patients by estimating patient hygiene performance index after scaling/ root planing. Materials and Methods: The study included 60 patients and was conducted over a private university setting. They were divided into three equal groups of 20 patients. Group-I included patients to whom oral hygiene instructions were not given, Group-II includes patients to whom instructions given through individual sessions, Group- III include patients to whom oral hygiene instructions given in group sessions. Patients were recalled after 15 days to assess the oral hygiene by calculating patient hygiene performance index. Results: Results of our study suggested that oral hygiene instructions given in individual sessions have shown a significant improvement in comparison to the other two groups. The mean PHP index score for a group with individual oral hygiene instructions baseline score is 3.03. The mean PHP index score for a group with individual oral hygiene instructions after 15 days is 1.21 which implies good oral hygiene status. Conclusion: From the above study, it can be concluded that providing oral hygiene instructions have a significant effect on maintaining periodontal health. The method of communicating oral hygiene instructions to the patient is proportional to good oral hygiene.

Cite this article:
Sarojini K, Sankari Malaiappan. Assessment of Patient Hygiene Performance Index in concordance with postoperative scaling/root Planing Oral Hygiene Instructions. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(4):1880-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00308

Sarojini K, Sankari Malaiappan. Assessment of Patient Hygiene Performance Index in concordance with postoperative scaling/root Planing Oral Hygiene Instructions. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(4):1880-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00308   Available on:

1.    Periodontal diseases [Internet]. Vol. 3, Nature Reviews Disease Primers. 2017. Available from:
2.    Petersen PE, Ogawa H. Strengthening the prevention of periodontal disease: the WHO approach. J Periodontol [Internet]. 2005 Dec;76(12):2187–93. Available from:
3.    Petersen PE, Ogawa H. The global burden of periodontal disease: towards integration with chronic disease prevention and control [Internet]. Vol. 60, Periodontology 2000. 2012. p. 15–39. Available from:
4.    Tonetti MS, Jepsen S, Jin L, Otomo‐Corgel J. Impact of the global burden of periodontal diseases on health, nutrition and wellbeing of mankind: A call for global action [Internet]. Vol. 44, Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 2017. p. 456–62. Available from:
5.    Herrera D, Retamal-Valdes B, Alonso B, Feres M. Acute periodontal lesions (periodontal abscesses and necrotizing periodontal diseases) and endo-periodontal lesions. J Clin Periodontol [Internet]. 2018 Jun;45 Suppl 20:S78–94. Available from:
6.    Pedersen AML. Oral Infections and General Health: From Molecule to Chairside [Internet]. Springer; 2015. 149 p. Available from:
7.    Nazir MA. Prevalence of periodontal disease, its association with systemic diseases and prevention. Int J Health Sci [Internet]. 2017 Apr;11(2):72–80. Available from:
8.    Role of Systemic Diseases in the Etiology of Periodontal Diseases [Internet]. Essentials of Clinical Periodontology and Periodontics. 2018. p. 118–118. Available from:
9.    Graetz C, Plaumann A, Wiebe J-F, Springer C, Sälzer S, Dörfer CE. Periodontal Probing Versus Radiographs for the Diagnosis of Furcation Involvement [Internet]. Vol. 85, Journal of Periodontology. 2014. p. 1371–9. Available from:
10.    Subashri A, Uma Maheshwari TN. Knowledge and Attitude of Oral Hygiene Practice among Dental Students. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology [Internet]. 2016 Nov 28 [cited 2021 Nov 6];9(11):1840–2. Available from:
11.    Sälzer S, Graetz C, Dörfer CE, Slot DE, Van der Weijden FA. Contemporary practices for mechanical oral hygiene to prevent periodontal disease. Periodontol 2000 [Internet]. 2020 Oct;84(1):35–44. Available from:
12.    Ahamed ST, Thanish Ahamed S. Awareness of Oral Hygiene among Children in Chennai [Internet]. Vol. 9, Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2016. p. 1055. Available from:
13.    Jyothi S, Subha M. Oral Health Awareness among the General Population in Chennai [Internet]. Vol. 10, Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2017. p. 3873. Available from:
14.    Fischer R. General and specific knowledge among physicians, dentists and nurses of periodontal disease and its association with other diseases [Internet]. Available from:
15.    Santo Grace U, Sankari M. Knowledge of Malocclusion, Attitude towards Treatment, Oral Hygiene Practices and its correlation with the Prevalence of Gingival Biotypes among school children from the age 15-17. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology [Internet]. 2018 Nov 30 [cited 2021 Nov 6];11(11):4884–7. Available from:
16.    Weijden FVD, Van Der Weijden F, Slot DE. Oral hygiene in the prevention of periodontal diseases: the evidence [Internet]. Vol. 55, Periodontology 2000. 2011. p. 104–23. Available from:
17.    Priyanka S, Kaarthikeyan G, Nadathur JD, Mohanraj A, Kavarthapu A. Detection of cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Torque Teno virus in subgingival and atheromatous plaques of cardiac patients with chronic periodontitis. J Indian Soc Periodontol [Internet]. 2017 Nov;21(6):456–60. Available from:
18.    Panagakos F, Scannapieco F. Periodontal Inflammation: From Gingivitis to Systemic Disease? [Internet]. Gingival Diseases - Their Aetiology, Prevention and Treatment. 2011. Available from:
19.    Ramesh A, Vellayappan R, Ravi S, Gurumoorthy K. Esthetic lip repositioning: A cosmetic approach for correction of gummy smile - A case series. J Indian Soc Periodontol [Internet]. 2019 May;23(3):290–4. Available from:
20.    Carra MC, Detzen L, Kitzmann J, Woelber JP, Ramseier CA, Bouchard P. Promoting behavioural changes to improve oral hygiene in patients with periodontal diseases: A systematic review. J Clin Periodontol [Internet]. 2020 Jul;47 Suppl 22:72–89. Available from:
21.    Deutscher H, Derman S, Barbe AG, Seemann R, Noack MJ. The effect of professional tooth cleaning or non-surgical periodontal therapy on oral halitosis in patients with periodontal diseases. A systematic review. Int J Dent Hyg [Internet]. 2018 Feb;16(1):36–47. Available from:
22.    Sharma R. An Experimental Study to determine the effectiveness of learning package on Oral Hygiene practices among school- age children aged between 6-12 years studying at selected school, Hassan, Karnataka. International Journal of Advances in Nursing Management [Internet]. 2016 Jun 28 [cited 2021 Nov 6];4(2):130–4. Available from:
23.    Bardeskar S, Prasad S, Luke F, Jeenath JDK. A Study to Assess the effectiveness of Planned Health Teaching Programme on Knowledge regarding oral Hygiene Practices among Children (8-10 years) in a Selected School at Rajkot, Gujarat. International Journal of Advances in Nursing Management [Internet]. 2018 Jun 23 [cited 2021 Nov 6];6(2):98–100. Available from:
24.    Ramesh A, Varghese S, Jayakumar ND, Malaiappan S. Comparative estimation of sulfiredoxin levels between chronic periodontitis and healthy patients - A case-control study. J Periodontol [Internet]. 2018 Oct;89(10):1241–8. Available from:
25.    Paramasivam A, Priyadharsini JV, Raghunandhakumar S, Elumalai P. A novel COVID-19 and its effects on cardiovascular disease. Hypertens Res [Internet]. 2020 Jul;43(7):729–30. Available from:
26.    S G, T G, K V, Faleh A A, Sukumaran A, P N S. Development of 3D scaffolds using nanochitosan/silk-fibroin/hyaluronic acid biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. Int J Biol Macromol [Internet]. 2018 Dec;120(Pt A):876–85. Available from:
27.    Del Fabbro M, Karanxha L, Panda S, Bucchi C, Nadathur Doraiswamy J, Sankari M, et al. Autologous platelet concentrates for treating periodontal infrabony defects. Cochrane Database Syst Rev [Internet]. 2018 Nov 26;11:CD011423. Available from:
28.    Paramasivam A, Vijayashree Priyadharsini J. MitomiRs: new emerging microRNAs in mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Hypertens Res [Internet]. 2020 Aug;43(8):851–3. Available from:
29.    Jayaseelan VP, Arumugam P. Dissecting the theranostic potential of exosomes in autoimmune disorders. Cell Mol Immunol [Internet]. 2019 Dec;16(12):935–6. Available from:
30.    Vellappally S, Al Kheraif AA, Divakar DD, Basavarajappa S, Anil S, Fouad H. Tooth implant prosthesis using ultra low power and low cost crystalline carbon bio-tooth sensor with hybridized data acquisition algorithm. Comput Commun [Internet]. 2019 Dec 15;148:176–84. Available from:
31.    Vellappally S, Al Kheraif AA, Anil S, Assery MK, Kumar KA, Divakar DD. Analyzing Relationship between Patient and Doctor in Public Dental Health using Particle Memetic Multivariable Logistic Regression Analysis Approach (MLRA2). J Med Syst [Internet]. 2018 Aug 29;42(10):183. Available from:
32.    Varghese SS, Ramesh A, Veeraiyan DN. Blended Module-Based Teaching in Biostatistics and Research Methodology: A Retrospective Study with Postgraduate Dental Students. J Dent Educ [Internet]. 2019 Apr;83(4):445–50. Available from:
33.    Venkatesan J, Singh SK, Anil S, Kim S-K, Shim MS. Preparation, Characterization and Biological Applications of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles with Chitosan-Fucoidan Coating. Molecules [Internet]. 2018 Jun 12;23(6). Available from:
34.    Alsubait SA, Al Ajlan R, Mitwalli H, Aburaisi N, Mahmood A, Muthurangan M, et al. Cytotoxicity of Different Concentrations of Three Root Canal Sealers on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Biomolecules [Internet]. 2018 Aug 1;8(3). Available from:
35.    Venkatesan J, Rekha PD, Anil S, Bhatnagar I, Sudha PN, Dechsakulwatana C, et al. Hydroxyapatite from Cuttlefish Bone: Isolation, Characterizations, and Applications. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng [Internet]. 2018 Aug 1;23(4):383–93. Available from:
36.    Vellappally S, Al Kheraif AA, Anil S, Wahba AA. IoT medical tooth mounted sensor for monitoring teeth and food level using bacterial optimization along with adaptive deep learning neural network. Measurement [Internet]. 2019 Mar 1;135:672–7. Available from:
37.    PradeepKumar AR, Shemesh H, Nivedhitha MS, Hashir MMJ, Arockiam S, Uma Maheswari TN, et al. Diagnosis of Vertical Root Fractures by Cone-beam Computed Tomography in Root-filled Teeth with Confirmation by Direct Visualization: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Endod [Internet]. 2021 Aug;47(8):1198–214. Available from:
38.    R H, Ramani P, Tilakaratne WM, Sukumaran G, Ramasubramanian A, Krishnan RP. Critical appraisal of different triggering pathways for the pathobiology of pemphigus vulgaris-A review. Oral Dis [Internet]. 2021 Jun 21; Available from:
39.    Ezhilarasan D, Lakshmi T, Subha M, Deepak Nallasamy V, Raghunandhakumar S. The ambiguous role of sirtuins in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Dis [Internet]. 2021 Feb 11; Available from:
40.    Sarode SC, Gondivkar S, Sarode GS, Gadbail A, Yuwanati M. Hybrid oral potentially malignant disorder: A neglected fact in oral submucous fibrosis. Oral Oncol [Internet]. 2021 Jun 16;105390. Available from:
41.    Kavarthapu A, Gurumoorthy K. Linking chronic periodontitis and oral cancer: A review. Oral Oncol [Internet]. 2021 Jun 14;105375. Available from:
42.    Vellappally S, Abdullah Al-Kheraif A, Anil S, Basavarajappa S, Hassanein AS. Maintaining patient oral health by using a xeno-genetic spiking neural network. J Ambient Intell Humaniz Comput [Internet]. 2018 Dec 14; Available from:
43.    Aldhuwayhi S, Mallineni SK, Sakhamuri S, Thakare AA, Mallineni S, Sajja R, et al. Covid-19 Knowledge and Perceptions Among Dental Specialists: A Cross-Sectional Online Questionnaire Survey. Risk Manag Healthc Policy [Internet]. 2021 Jul 7;14:2851–61. Available from:
44.    Smith TA, Packer MW. Scoring Patient Hygiene Performance by Observation of Selected Tooth Surfaces [Internet]. Vol. 86, HSMHA Health Reports. 1971. p. 341. Available from:
45.    Kim S-J, Dept. of dental hygiene, Cheongju University, Korea. Reduction of the Patient Hygiene Performance Index Based on an Oral Hygiene Program Using Oral Camera [Internet]. Vol. 7, International Journal of IT-based Public Health Management. 2020. p. 9–14. Available from:
46.    Mohire NC, Yadav AV, Gaikwad VK. Current Status of Oral Hygiene: A Clinical Survey Report. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology [Internet]. 2009 Jun 28 [cited 2021 Nov 6];2(2):274–82. Available from:
47.    Mohire NC, Yadav AV, Gaikwad VK. Good Oral Hygiene for Good Overall Hygiene: A Review. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology [Internet]. 2009 Jun 28 [cited 2021 Nov 6];2(2):262–73. Available from:
48.    Bansal M, Mittal N, Singh T. Assessment of the prevalence of periodontal diseases and treatment needs: A hospital-based study [Internet]. Vol. 19, Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology. 2015. p. 211. Available from:
49.    Susanto A, Carolina D, Amaliya A, Pribadi IS, Miranda A. Periodontal health status and treatment needs of the community in Indonesia: A cross sectional study [Internet]. Vol. 12, Journal of International Oral Health. 2020. p. 114. Available from:
50.    Duque AD, Malheiros Z, Stewart B, Romanelli HJ. Strategies for the prevention of periodontal disease and its impact on general health in Latin America. Section III: Prevention. Braz Oral Res [Internet]. 2020 Apr 9;34(supp1 1):e025. Available from:
51.    Singh S, Garg SK, Gupta S. Effectiveness of Video Assisted Learning Package on Knowledge Regarding Oral Hygiene among Children. International Journal of Nursing Education and Research [Internet]. 2016 Dec 23 [cited 2021 Nov 6];4(4):437–40. Available from:
52.    Renuka, Thakur K. Effectiveness of Planned Teaching Programme on Knowledge and Practices of oral Hygiene among School Children. International Journal of Nursing Education and Research [Internet]. 2017 Nov 28 [cited 2021 Nov 6];5(4):399–402. Available from:
53.    Wakefield MA, Loken B, Hornik RC. Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour [Internet]. Vol. 376, The Lancet. 2010. p. 1261–71. Available from:
54.    Williams K, Mithani S, Sadeghi G, Palomo L. Effectiveness of Oral Hygiene Instructions Given in Computer-Assisted Format versus a Self-Care Instructor [Internet]. Vol. 6, Dentistry Journal. 2018. p. 2. Available from:
55.    Chang CP, Barker JC, Hoeft KS, Guerra C, Chung LH, Burke NJ. Importance of Content and Format of Oral Health Instruction to Low-income Mexican Immigrant Parents: A Qualitative Study. Pediatr Dent [Internet]. 2018 Jan 1;40(1):30–6. Available from:
56.    Affrin JH. Assessment of Oral Hygiene Status in Smokers, Non Smokers and Alcoholics. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology [Internet]. 2015 Aug 28 [cited 2021 Nov 6];8(8):1167–70. Available from:
57.    Salhi L, Albert A, Seidel L, Lambert F. Respective Effects of Oral Hygiene Instructions and Periodontal Nonsurgical Treatment (Debridement) on Clinical Parameters and Patient-Reported Outcome Measures with Respect to Smoking. J Clin Med Res [Internet]. 2020 Aug 3;9(8). Available from:

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available