Vidya Bhat S, Sham S Bhat, Musfirat Khan
Vidya Bhat S, Sham S Bhat, Musfirat Khan
Department of Prosthodontics, Yenepoya Dental College, Department of Pedodontics, Yenepoya Dental College, Pediatric Dentist, Srinagar.
Volume - 16,
Issue - 4,
Year - 2023
Aim: Root canal treatment is often carried out in deciduous teeth to relieve pain and make the tooth functional.The main goal of instrumentation in a root canal treatment is to facilitate effective irrigation, disinfection, and filling. Sodium hypochlorite is a widely used irrigant and has been demonstrated to be an effective agent against broad spectrum of bacteria. However its toxic effects on vital tissues can result in haemolysis, skin ulceration and necrosis. The use of diode laser for endodontic applications has been investigated and proven for its efficacy in root canal sterilization. Therefore, this clinical study was conducted to evaluate and compare the efficacies of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 810nm diode laser as disinfectants in root canals of primary teeth. This study evaluated the microbial count and the clinical success of the treatment. Materials and Methods: In 40 subjects selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, Pulp tissue was extirpated from the canals and samples collected using sterile absorbent paper points . Then they were randomly divided into two groups. In Group 1, canals were prepared and irrigated with 5.25% of sodium hypochlorite, and in group 2 canals were prepared and disinfected with 810nm of diode laser. The contents of canals were collected again with a sterile paper point .Samples taken before and after procedures were cultured, and the colony-forming units (CFUs) were counted. The data was evaluated using independent sample test and paired sample test. Patients were recalled for clinical and radiographic evaluation after 3 and 6 months. Results: There was a significant difference between the mean CFU of laser and sodium Hypochlorite ( p<.001). Clinical evaluation after 3 and 6 months showed no pain, swelling, sinus tract or mobility .Radiographically too there was absence of premature exfoliation, periodontal widening, internal/external resorption and periapical or furcal radiolucency. Conclusion: Both 810nm diode laser and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite were effective in reducing bacterial count in root canals of primary teeth. However 810nm diode laser reduced microbial count of root canals more as compared to 5.25% NaOCl.
Cite this article:
Vidya Bhat S, Sham S Bhat, Musfirat Khan. Efficacy of 5.25% Sodium hypochlorite and 810 diode laser in reduction of microbial count in root canals of primary teeth- An in vivo Study. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(4):1790-6. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00294
Vidya Bhat S, Sham S Bhat, Musfirat Khan. Efficacy of 5.25% Sodium hypochlorite and 810 diode laser in reduction of microbial count in root canals of primary teeth- An in vivo Study. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(4):1790-6. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00294 Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2023-16-4-42
1. Sundqvist G, Figdor D. In: Essential Endodontology. D. Orstavik, T.R. Pitt Fort, Eds. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, 1998; p. 211-53
2. Endodontics 5th Edition by Ingle, John I., Bakland, Leif K. (2002).
3. Camp JH: Pedodontic-endodontic treatment. In Pathways of the Pulp, S Cohen, R CB urns ed. 4th ed. St. Louis: The CV Mosby C o, 1987: 685-722
4. Jaju S, Jaju PP. Newer root canal irrigants in horizon: a review. International journal of dentistry. 2011 Jan 1;2011.
5. Haaposalo M, Endal U, Zandi H, Coil JM. Eradication of endodontic infection by instrumentation and irrigation solutions. Endodontic topics 2005; 10: 77-102
6. Ahangari Z, Samiee M, Yolmeh MA, Eslami G. Antimicrobial activity of three root canal irrigants on enterococcus faecalis: an in vitro study. Iranian endodontic journal. 2008;3(2):33.
7. Peters OA. Current challenges and concepts in the preparation of root canal systems: a review. J Endod 2004;30:559–67
8. Siqueira JF, Rocas IN, Faviera A, Lima KC. Chemomechanical reduction of the
1. bacterial population in the root canal after instrumentation and irrigation with 1.0, 2.5,
2. and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. J Endodndod 2000; 26: 331-34.
9. Sjogren U, Figdor D, Persson S, Sundqvist G. Influence of infection at the time of root filling on outcome of endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis. Int Endod J. 1997; 30: 297-306.
10. Gunwal M, Shenoy P. Evaluation of the efficacy of 5.25% of sodium hypochlorite, 2% of chlorhexidine, MTAD and 810 diode laser in reduction of microbial count in root canal: An in vivo study. J Endod. 2013;25:56-62.
11. Mashalkar S, Pawar MG, Kolhe S, Jain DT. Comparative evaluation of root canal disinfection by conventional method and laser: An in vivo study. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. 2014;17(1):67-74.
12. Safa Mohammed Sadiq, Amtul Kareem, Nuha Rasheed, Abdul Saleem Mohammad. Pharmaceutical Importance of Anti-Microbials. Asian J. Pharm. Tech. 2017; 7(1): 7-10
13. Rita N. N. Rammo. Bactericidal and Anti-biofilm Formation of Aqueous Plant Extracts against Pathogenic Bacteria. Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2017; 7(1): 25-29
14. Distel JW, Hatton JF, Gillespie MJ. Biofilm formation in medicated root canals. J Endod 2002;28(10):689–693.
15. Odor TM, Chandler NP, Watson TF, Ford TR, McDonald F. Laser light transmission in teeth: A study of the patterns in different species. Int Endod J. 1999;32(4):296–302.
16. Divya Subramanyam. Laser Assisted Labial Frenectomy- A Case Report. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(8):3883-3885. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00667.X
17. Samar Ali, AL Salameh, Mustafa Alammory, Omar Hamadah. Comparative Effect of laser treatment on Streptococcus mutans Biofilm adhered to Dental implant surface. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(7): 3311-3316
18. Berutti E, Marini R, Angeretti A. Penetration ability of different irrigants into dentinal tubules. Journal of Endodontics. 1997 Dec 31;23(12):725-7.
19. D. Poornaprabha, Gopinath P. Microbiology of Polymicrobial Abscess. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2016; 9(10):1793-1796
20. Kouchi Y, Ninomiya J, Yasuda H, Fukui K, Moriyama T, Okamoto H. Location of Streptococcus mutans in the dentinal tubules of open infected root canals. Journal of Dental Research. 1980 Dec 1;59(12):2038-46.
21. Siqueira JF, Rôças IN. Exploiting molecular methods to explore endodontic infections: part 1—current molecular technologies for microbiological diagnosis. Journal of Endodontics. 2005 Jun 30;31(6):411-2
22. Baumgartner JC, Bakland LK, Sugita EI. Microbiology of endodontics and asepsis in endodontic practice. Ingle JI, Bakland Lk. Endodontics. 5th ed. London: Bc Decker. 2002:63.
23. KaiwarA,UshaHL, Meena N, AshwiniP, MurthyCS. The efficiency of rootcanal disinfection using a diode laser: In vitro study. Indian J Dent Res. 2013;24:14-8
24. Kun Ismiyatin, Mochamad Mudjiono, Sri Kunarti, Maria Liliana Santoso, Dalhar Hakiki, Windi Irsya. Extracellular Polymeric Substance (EPS) Degradation of Enterococcus Faecalis biofilm after irradiation with 405nm diode laser. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(7):3869-3
25. Haapasalo M, Udnæs T, Endal U. Persistent, recurrent, and acquired infection of the root canal system post‐treatment. Endodontic Topics. 2003 Nov 1;6(1):29-56.
26. Torabinejad M, Shabahang S, Aprecio RM Kettering JD. The antimicrobial effect of MTAD an in vitro investigation. J Endod. 2003; 29: 400-3.
27. Siqueira JF, Machado AG, Silveira RM, Lopez HP, Deuzeda M. Evaluation of the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite with three irrigation methods in the elimination of the Enterococcus faecalis from the root canal: In vitro study. Int Endod J. 1997; 30:279-82.
28. Pashley EL, Bridsong NL, Bowman K, Pashley DH. Cytotoxic effects of sodium hypochlorite on vital tissue. J Endod. 1985;11:52-58.
29. Johnson BR, Remeikis NA. Effective shelf-life of prepared sodium hypochlorite solution. Journal of Endodontics. 1993 Jan 31;19(1):40-3.
30. Kaufman AY, Keila S. Hypersensitivity to sodium hypochlorite. Journal of Endodontics. 1989 May 31;15(5):224-6.
31. Siqueira Jr JF, Guimarães-Pinto T, Rôças IN. Effects of chemomechanical preparation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and intracanal medication with calcium hydroxide on cultivable bacteria in infected root canals. Journal of Endodontics. 2007 Jul 1;33(7):800-5.
32. Berber VB, Gomes BP, Sena NT, Vianna ME, Ferraz CC, Zaia AA, Souza‐Filho FJ. Efficacy of various concentrations of NaOCl and instrumentation techniques in reducing Enterococcus faecalis within root canals and dentinal tubules. International Endodontic Journal. 2006 Jan 1;39(1):10-7
33. Ahangari Z, Samiee M, Yolmeh MA, Eslami G. Antimicrobial activity of three root canal irrigants on enterococcus faecalis: an in vitro study. Iran Endod J. 2008 Spring. 3(2):33-7.
34. K. Kotteeswaran, Syed Gaffar, Krishna. R, Keerthana Priya. R. Effectiveness of Laser Therapy and Ultrasound Therapy along with Muscle Energy Technique in subjects with Trapezitis. Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 11(2):116-0
35. Gomes BP, Ferraz CC, ME V, Berber VB, Teixeira FB, Souza‐Filho FJ. In vitro antimicrobial activity of several concentrations of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate in the elimination of Enterococcus faecalis. International Endodontic Journal. 2001 Sep;34(6):424-8.
36. Radaelli CM, Zezell DM, Cai S, Antunes A, Gouw-Soares S. Effect of a high power diode laser irradiation in root canals contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis.“In vitro” study. InInternational Congress Series. 2003 May 1 (Vol. 1248, pp. 273-276). Elsevier.
37. Moritz A, Doertbudak O, Gutknecht N, Goharkhay K, Schoop U, Sperr W. Nd: YAG laser irradiation of infected root canals in combination with microbiological examinations. J Am Dent Assoc. 1997;128:152-30
38. Kreisler M, Kohnen W, Beck MY, Al Haj H, Christoffers AB, Götz H, Duschner H, Jansen B, d'Hoedt B. Efficacy of NaOCl/H2O2 irrigation and GaAlAs laser in decontamination of root canals in vitro. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. 2003 Mar;32(3):189-96.