Author(s): Keerthana Manoharan, P Chitra


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00278   

Address: Keerthana Manoharan*, P Chitra
Department of Biochemistry, Sri Ramakrishna College of Arts and Science for Women, Affiliated to Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 16,      Issue - 4,     Year - 2023

Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and causes loss of vision. Elaeocarpus tectorius (Lour.) Poir. is a tree species that bears edible fruits and is traditionally used to treat diabetes. The study is aimed to investigate the ameliorative effect of ethanolic leaf extract of E. tectorius on retinal oxidative stress and aldose reductase levels in STZ-NIC-induced diabetic rats. The leaf extract was orally administered to diabetic rats once a day for about 28 days at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w. Fasting blood glucose levels were determined at regular intervals during the treatment period and retinal superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation levels and aldose reductase activity were assessed at the end of the experiment. Oral administration of E. tectorius leaf extract caused a significant decrease in the fasting blood glucose levels of diabetic rats. The extract also improved the retinal antioxidant status by increasing the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione. The rate of lipid peroxidation was lowered in diabetic rats as a result of treatment with the leaf extract. The diabetic rats treated with the leaf extracts also had lower retinal aldose reductase activity when compared to the untreated diabetic rats. This study suggests that Elaeocarpus tectorius leaf extracts exhibit protective effects and improve the antioxidant status of the retina under diabetic conditions helping in the prevention and management of diabetic retinopathy.

Cite this article:
Keerthana Manoharan, P Chitra. Effect of Ethanolic leaf extract of Elaeocarpus tectorius (Lour.) Poir. on Retinal Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-nicotinamide Induced Diabetic rats. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(4):1695-9. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00278

Keerthana Manoharan, P Chitra. Effect of Ethanolic leaf extract of Elaeocarpus tectorius (Lour.) Poir. on Retinal Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-nicotinamide Induced Diabetic rats. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(4):1695-9. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00278   Available on:

1.    Sindhu L, Jaya Kumar B. Effectiveness of Educational Intervention on Body Mass Index (BMI) of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in South Indian Population. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2018; 8(3):434-436. doi: 10.5958/2349-2996.2018.00088.5.
2.    Divya N, Ilavenil S. Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Potentials of Psidium guajava in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 2012; 5(1):125-128.
3.    Budhwani Ashok K, Shrivastava B, Singhai AK, Gupta Prashant. Antihyperglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Dioscorea japonica in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2012; 5(4): 553-557.
4.    Chen M, Lv H, Gan J, Ren J, Liu J. Tang Wang Ming Mu Granule Attenuates Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Rats. Frontiers in Physiology. 2017; 8:1065. doi:10.3389/fphys.2017.01065.
5.    HazarataliPanari, Vegunarani.M. Study on Complications of Diabetes Mellitus among the Diabetic Patients. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2016; 6(2): 171-182. doi: 10.5958/2349-2996.2016.00032.X.
6.    Dayalal Patidar, Kaushal Patidar, Mukesh Chaudhari. A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Planned Teaching Program on Knowledge regarding Prevention of Diabetic Retinopathy. International Journal of Advances in Nursing Management. 2019; 7(3): 237-239. doi: 10.5958/2454-2652.2019.00054.4.
7.    Geetha P, Shanmugasundaram P. A Prospective Observational Study on assessment of risk factor associated with diabetic retinopathy in patients diagnosed with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in south Indian population. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2019; 12(2):595-599. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00106.9.
8.    Cohen SR, Gardner TW. Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema. Developments in Ophthalmology. 2016; 55:137-146. doi:10.1159/000438970.
9.    Ciulla TA, Amador AG, Zinman B. Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema: pathophysiology, screening, and novel therapies. Diabetes Care. 2003; 26(9):2653-2664. doi:10.2337/diacare.26.9.2653.
10.    Kalaivani R, Gayathri U, Chitra M. Hypoglycemic and Antimicrobial Activity of Pterocarpus marsupiumroxb. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2011; 4(12): 1915-1917.
11.    Jin CJ, Yu SH, Wang XM, Woo SJ, Park HJ, Lee HC. The effect of lithospermic acid, an antioxidant, on development of diabetic retinopathy in spontaneously obese diabetic rats. PLoS One. 2014; 9(6):e98232. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098232.
12.    Kowluru RA, Abbas SN. Diabetes-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in the retina. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2003; 44(12):5327-5334. doi:10.1167/iovs.03-0353.
13.    Klettner A, Roider J. Constitutive and oxidative-stress-induced expression of VEGF in the RPE are differently regulated by different Mitogen-activated protein kinases. Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 2009; 247(11):1487-1492. doi:10.1007/s00417-009-1139-x.
14.    Kowluru RA, Chan PS. Oxidative stress and diabetic retinopathy. Experimental Diabetes Research. 2007; 2007:43603. doi:10.1155/2007/43603.
15.    Obrosova IG, Kador PF. Aldose reductase / polyol inhibitors for diabetic retinopathy. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. 2011; 12(3):373-385. doi:10.2174/138920111794480642.
16.    Malek M, Khamseh ME, Aghili R, Emami Z, Najafi L, Baradaran HR. Medical management of diabetic retinopathy: an overview. Archives of Iranian medicine. 2012; 15(10):635-640.
17.    Ostri C, la Cour M, Lund-Andersen H. Diabetic vitrectomy in a large type 1 diabetes patient population: long-term incidence and risk factors. Acta ophthalmologica. 2014; 92(5):439-443. doi:10.1111/aos.12249.
18.    Patil PM, Chaudhari PD, Duragkar NJ, Katolkar PP. Formulation and Evaluation its Anti-diabetic Activity of Liquid Oral Preparation of Gymnemasylvestre and Stevia rebaudiana and their Combination in Alloxan Diabetic Rats. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2010; 3(4):1200-1204.
19.    Manoharan AL, Thamburaj S, Muniyandi K, Jagadeesan G, Sathyanarayanan S, Nataraj G, Thangaraj P. Antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations of Elaeocarpus tectorius (Lour.) poir. Fruits against urinary tract infection pathogens. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 2019;101260.
20.    Thenmozhi A, Mahadeva Rao US. Secondary Metabolite screening, Bioactive compound extraction, and Disrupting Mitotic Activity of Wild Cabbage [Brassicaceae] towards Cancer Management. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2012; 2(1): 19-31.
21.    Kakkar P, Das B, Viswanathan PN. A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 1984; 21(2):130-132.
22.    Luck, H.  Methods in Enzymatic Analysis. II Edition, Bergmeyer Publication, Academic Press, New York, 885-890. 1974.
23.    Rotruck JT, Pope AL, Ganther HE, Swanson AB, Hafeman DG, Hoekstra WG. Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science. 1973; 179(4073):588-590. doi:10.1126/science.179.4073.588.
24.    Moron MS, Depierre JW, Mannervik B. Levels of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione -s-transferase activities in rat lung and liver. Biochimica et Biophysica. 1979; 582:67-78.
25.    Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Analytical Biochemistry. 1979; 95(2):351-358. doi:10.1016/0003-2697(79)90738-3.
26.    Hayman S, Kinoshita JH. Isolation and properties of lens aldose reductase. The Journal of biological chemistry. 1965; 240:877-882.
27.    Bandello F, Lattanzio R, Zucchiatti I, Del Turco C. Pathophysiology and treatment of diabetic retinopathy. Acta diabetologica. 2013; 50(1):1-20. doi:10.1007/s00592-012-0449-3.
28.    McMacken M,  Shah S. A plant-based diet for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Journal of geriatric cardiology : JGC, 2017;14(5):342-354.
29.    Rupesh Gautam, S.C. Sharma. Effect of Punica granatum Linn. (Peel) on Blood Glucose Level in Normal and Alloxan- Induced Diabetic Rats. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2012; 5(2):226-227.
30.    Tzeng TF, Liu WY, Liou SS, Hong TY, Liu IM. Antioxidant-Rich Extract from Plantaginis Semen Ameliorates Diabetic Retinal Injury in a Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Model. Nutrients. 2016; 8(9):572. doi:10.3390/nu8090572.
31.    Gürler B, Vural H, Yilmaz N, Oguz H, Satici A, Aksoy N. The role of oxidative stress in diabetic retinopathy. Eye (London, England). 2000; 14(5):730-735. doi:10.1038/eye.2000.193.
32.    Kumar S, Kumar A, Khan M.M. Estimation of Aldose Reductase Activity and Malondialdehyde Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal. 2019; 12(2).

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available