Author(s): Candra Irawan, Berna Elya, Muhammad Hanafi, Fadlina Chany Saputri


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00197   

Address: Candra Irawan1,2, Berna Elya1*, Muhammad Hanafi3, Fadlina Chany Saputri1
1Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia.
2Department of Food Nanotechnology, Politeknik AKA Bogor, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia.
3Research Center for Chemistry, National Research and Innovation Agency, Serpong, Banten, Indonesia.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 16,      Issue - 3,     Year - 2023

Rhinachantus nasutus (L.) Kurz is a plant that has long been used by people in Southeast Asia, India, and China as traditional medicine. R. nasutus plant preparations have been used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes. This study aims to reveal: the content of a group of secondary metabolite compounds in the extract of the stem bark R. nasutus; The extract's potential as an antioxidant with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical inhibition parameters and ferric-reducing power, and it's potential as an antidiabetic by inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) activity. Phytochemical screening results on the ethanol extract of the stem bark of R. nasutus found the presence of steroid glycosides, phenolic, alkaloids, and tannins. The antioxidant activity test using the DPPH and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods gave an IC50 valuesof 90.668±0.084 mg/L and 8.91±0.023mg/L, respectively. In addition, the ethanol extract of the stem bark can inhibit the activity of DPP IV with a % inhibition of 52.19±1.667. From this study, we can conclude that the ethanol extract of the stem bark R. nasutus can potentially be a source of antioxidants and antidiabetes.

Cite this article:
Candra Irawan, Berna Elya, Muhammad Hanafi, Fadlina Chany Saputri. Potential Ethanol Extract of Rhinachantus nasutus (L.) Kurz Stem Bark as Antioxidant and Inhibitor of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (DPP IV) Activity. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(3):1187-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00197

Candra Irawan, Berna Elya, Muhammad Hanafi, Fadlina Chany Saputri. Potential Ethanol Extract of Rhinachantus nasutus (L.) Kurz Stem Bark as Antioxidant and Inhibitor of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (DPP IV) Activity. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(3):1187-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00197   Available on:

1.    Sagnia B, Fedeli D, Casetti R, Montesano C, Falcioni G, Colizzi V. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva medicinal plants collected in Cameroon. PLOS ONE. 2004; 9(10):1-10.
2.    Badarinath AV, Rao K, Chetty CMS, Ramkanth S, Rajan TVS, Granaprakash K. A review on in-vitro antioxidant methods: comparisions, correlations and considerations. International Journal of Pharm Tech. Research. 2010; 2(2):1276-1285.
3.    Joon K, Takayuki S.  Antioxidant assays for plant and food components. J Agric. Food Chem, 2009; 57(5):1655-1666.
4.    Dhanalakshmi S, Harikrishnan N. A perspective study on antioxidant activity of Nerum oleander (flower). Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2017;10(10).DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00614.X
5.    Powers, AC. Diabetes Mellitus in Fauci, A.S., et al. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 17th ed. New York: Mc Graw Hill Medical. 2008; 2775-304.
6.    American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2008; 31: S62-S67.
7.    Bryant NJ, Govers R, Jaes DE. Regulated transport of the glucose transporter GLUT4. Nat Rev Mol Cell Bio. 2002;3(4):267-77. DOI: 10.1038/nrm782
8.    Shepherd PR, Khan BB. Glucose transporters and insulin action implications for insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(4):248-57.DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199907223410406
9.    Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Diabet Med. 1998;15(7):539-53.DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9136(199807)15:7<539::AID-DIA668>3.0.CO;2-S
10.    Arshi S, Zarrinfard R, Poorsattar A, Fereshtehnejad SM, Javahertaras, N. Sitagliptin Intolerance [Internet]. 2017; 290-1. Available from:
11.    Elya B, Handayani R, Sauriasari R, Azizahwati, Hasyyati US, Permana IT. Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of extracts from Indonesian plants by inhibition of alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase IV. Pakistan J Biological Sci. 2015; 18(6):273-8.DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2015.279.284
12.    Ekayanti M, Sauriasari R, Elya B. Dipetidyl peptidase IV inhibitory activity of fraction from white tea ethanolic extract (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) ex vivo. Pharmacogn J. 2018; 10(1):190-193.DOI:10.5530/pj.2018.1.32
13.    Amin MS. Saputri FC, Mun`im A. Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP IV) activity by some Indonesia edible plants. Pharmacogn J. 2019; 11(2): 231-236.DOI:10.5530/pj.2019.11.36
14.    Siripong P, Kanokmedakul K, Piyaviriyagul S, Yahuafai J, Chanpai R, Suchirawat S, Oku N. Antiproliferative napthaquinone esters from Rhinacanthus nasutus Kurz. roots on various cancer cells. J. Trad. Med. 2006; 23:166-172.
15.    Shah MA, Khalil R, Ul-Haq Z, Panichayupakaranant P. α-Glucosidase inhibitory effect of rhinacanthins-rich extract from Rhinacanthus nasutus leaf and synergistic effect in combination with acarbose. Journal of Functional Foods. 2017; 36:325-331.
16.    Irawan C, Elya B, Hanafi M, Saputri FC. Application of ultrasound-assisted extraction on the stem bark of Rhinachantus Nasutus (L.) Kurz, total phenolic, and its potential as antioxidant and inhibitor of alpha-glucosidase enzyme activity. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2021; 13(5):1-7.DOI:10.5530/pj.2021.13.164
17.    Ciulei I. Methodology for analysis of vegetable drugs. Chemical Industries Branch Division–Industrial Operation UNINDO. Bucharest. 1984;11-23.
18.    Kayani SA, Masood A, Achakzai AKK, Anbreen S. Distribution of Secondary Metabolites in Plants of Quetta-Balochistan. Pakistan J. Botany. 2007; 39: 1173–1179.
19.    Khan AM, Qureshi RA, Ullah F, Gelani SA, Nohseen A. Phytochemical Analysis of Selected Medicinal Plants of Margalla Hills and Surroundings. J Med Plant Res. 2011; 5(25): 6017-6023.DOI:10.5897/JMPR11.869
20.    Ayoola GA, Coker H, Adesegun SA, Adepoju-Bello AA, Obaweya K, Ezennia EC, Atangbayila TO. Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Activities of Some Selected Medicinal Plants Used for Malaria Therapy in Southwestern Nigeria. Trop. J. Pharm. Res. 2008; 7: 1019–1024.DOI:10.4314/tjpr.v7i3.14686
21.    Wang LY, Unehara N, Kitanaka S. Lignans from the roots of wikstroemia indica and their DPPH radical, scavenging and nitric oxide inhibitory activities. Chem Pharm. Bull. 2005; 53(10):1348-1351.DOI:10.1248/cpb.53.1348
22.    Benzie IF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma as a measure of antioxidant power. The FRAP assay. Analitycal Biochemitical. 1996; 239:70-76.
23.    Cayman Chemical Company. DPP (IV) Inhibitor screening assay kit.  2017, Cayman Chemical Company: AnnArbor, MI, USA.
24.    Sharma DR, Kumar U. Exploration and phytochemical estimation of Murraya koenigii leaves for pharmaceutical applications. Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2019; 9(3):159-168. DOI: 10.5958/2231-5691.2019.00025.X
25.    Yin Z, Zhang W, Feng F, Zhang Y, Kang W. α-Glucosidase inhibitors isolated from medical plants. Food Science and Human Wellness. 2014; 3:136-74.
26.    Perez GR, Perez GC, Perez GS, Zavala SM. Effect of triterpenoids of Bouvardia terniflora on blood sugar levels of normal and alloxan diabetic mice. Phytomedicine. 1989; 5(6):475-8.
27.    Hasan M, Khan MI, Umar BU, Sadeque M. Comparative study of the effect of ethanolic extract of Swietenia mahagoni seeds with rosiglitazone on experimentally induced diabetes mellitus in rats. Faridpur Med. Coll. J. 2013; 39:6-10.doi: 10.3329/bmrcb.v39i1.15790.
28.    Jayashree P., Shalini M, Meenambiga SS, Suganya V. Phytochemical screening and GC-MS analysis of Epiphyllum oxypetalum flower extracts. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(12):5893-5897. DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.01028.8
29.    Oladunmoye MK. Immunomodulatory effects of ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens on Swiss albino rats orogastrically dosed with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCIB 950). Int J Trop Med. 2006;1(4):152-5.DOI: 10.17311/tmr.2006.122.126
30.    Khan AM, Bhadauria S, Yadav R. Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant activity of extract of different parts of Adhatoda vasica. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(12): 5699-5705. DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00986.7
31.    Blois MS. Antioxidant determination by the use of a stable free radical. Journal Nature. 1958; 181(4617):1199-1200.
32.    Molyneux P. The use of the stable free radical diphenylpicrilhidrazyl (DPPH) for estimating antioxidant activity. Songklanakarin J sci technol. 2004; 26.
33.    Prakash A, Rigelhof F, Miller E. Antioxidant activity. Medallion Laboratories Analytical Progress. 2001; 10.
34.    Jun M, Fu HY, Hong J, Wan X, Yan, CS, Ho CT. Comparison of antioxidant activities of isoflavones from kudzu root (Pueraria lobate Ohwi). Journal of Food Science. 2006; 68(6); 2117-2122.
35.    Benzie IFF, Strain JJ.The ferric reducing ability of plasma as a measure of antioxidant power. The FRAP assay. Analitycal Biochemitical. 1996;239:70-76.
36.    Terry LA, Vicente A, Cools K.Methodologis for extraction, isolation, characterization and quantification of bioactive compounds. Health-Promoting Properties of Fruits and Vegetables. 2011; 375-376, CAB International. DOI:10.1079/9781845935283.0371
37.    Bassett J, Denney RC, Jeffery GH, Mendham J. Vogel`s Textbook of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis. 5th edition 1994, London: ‎ Longman Higher Education Division (a Pearson Education company).
38.    Tosun M, Ercisli S, Sengul M, Ozer H, Polat T. Antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of eight salvia species from Turkey. Biol Res, 2009; 41:175-81.
39.    Amini MH, Kalsi V, Kaur B, Khatik GL, Lobo R, Singh G, Agarhari UC, Yele S, Sutte A. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of Heracleum afganicum Kitamura leaves. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2017;10(10).
40.    Gini EJ, Sivakkumar T, Kuppuswarni S. Determination of antioxidant activity of various extract of Pajanelia longiofolia (Wild.) K. Schum, isolation and characterization of flavonoid from ethanol extract by column chromatography. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2017;10(10).DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00603.5
41.    Rachida ZA, Ridha OM, Eddine LS, Souhaila M. Screening of phenolic compounds from Abelmoschus esculentus L extract fruits and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2017;10(12).DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00804.6
42.    Roy A, Bhoumik D, Sahu RK, Dwivedi J. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of Sesbania grandiflora leaves extracts. Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2014; 4(1): 16-21.
43.    Raj AJ, Dorairaj S. Phytochemical screening and in-vitro antioxidant activity of Cissus quadrangua lris. Asian J. Research Chem. 2010; 3(4):876-878.
44.    Preeti, Jain A, Kumar G, Karthik L, Rao KVB. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ficus elastica Roxb. (Moraceae) leaves. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2015; 8(3):259-264.DOI:10.5958/0974-360X.2015.00043.8
45.    Nurliyana,R, Syed ZI, Suleiman KM, Aisyah MR, Rahim KK. Antioxidant study of pulps and peels of dragon fruits: a comparative study. International Food Research Journal. 2010; 17: 367-375.
46.    Osawa T. Novel natural antioxidants for utilization in food and biological systems. Post-harvest biochemistry of plant food materials in the tropics. Japan Scientific Societies Press. 1994; 241-51.
47.    Smushkin G, Vella A. Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4: the mechanisms of action and clinical use of vildagliptin for management of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy. 2009; 2:83-90.DOI:10.2147/DMSOTT.S4790
48.    Singh AK. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors: novel mechanisms of action. Indian J. Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 18(6):753-759.doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.141319
49.    Drucker DJ, Nauck MA. The incretin system: glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes. Lancet. 2006; 368:1696-1705.DOI:
50.    Patil P, Mandal S, Tomar SK, Anan, S. Food protein-derived bioactive peptides in management of type 2 diabetes. European Journal of Nutrition. 2015; 54(6), 863-880.DOI: 10.1007/s00394-015-0974-2

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available