Sarah A. Haji, Halah Abbas Husseien, Ahmed Ali Al-Marash, Hania Mohammed Salih Altawriy
Sarah A. Haji1, Halah Abbas Husseien2, Ahmed Ali Al-Marash3, Hania Mohammed Salih Altawriy4
1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, University of Basrah, Iraq.
2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, University of Basrah, Iraq.
3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, University of Basrah, Iraq.
4Basic Sciences Department, College of Dentistry, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.
Volume - 16,
Issue - 2,
Year - 2023
This study was undertaken in the college of the Dentistry- University of Basra, Oral and maxillofacial surgery Department. This survey assessed protective measures regarding COVID-19 infection and aimed to evaluation the evidence on the affiliation between use of preventive measures and COVID-19 infection among dental students in Basra. The questionnaires were designed and assembled into two domains as follows: 1- Personal data including age, sex, and academic stage. 2- Analytical data including questions regarding infection rate among dental students and their commitment of COVID-19 preventive measures. An explanation for the aim of this study was coupled to the questionnaire, and the members were asked to sign an online informed permission. The questionnaires were directed toward 1000 dental students and only 875 were responding to the survey and included in the databank. The duration of study approximately takes 10 days, the questionnaire was conducted to students on February, 12th 2020 and the documents collecting were closed at (February, 22nd 2020). On the topic of preventive measures follow in order to avoid the dispersion of COVID-19 infection, an endemic feature of Corona virus disease has led to the deaths of thousands of individuals across several countries. For the prevention of the extent of the disease and its mortality, several preventive measures have been recommended. Conversely, the level of acquaintance and the implementation of such protective measures against COVID-19 among dental students in Basra which constitute vulnerable group are yet to be evaluated. Eight-hundred and seventy-fife questionnaires were analysed. Out of the 875 participants, (250) were males, and (675) were females. Two hundred and sixty-one (29.8%) participants had been infected with covid -19, and six hundred and fourteen (70%) were not being infected. Regarding the correlation between the infection with COVID-19 and the sex and college stage, consequently, no substantial statistical differences were detected between the males and females amongst COVID infected students. This survey demonstrated that the terms of self-protective means in addition to community disaffection will be considerably drops the statistics of dental student’s COVID infections.
Cite this article:
Sarah A. Haji, Halah Abbas Husseien, Ahmed Ali Al-Marash, Hania Mohammed Salih Altawriy. Preventive Measures and Spread of COVID-19 Infection among Dental students in Basra in the First Period of the Epidemic in Iraq: An Online Cross-Sectional Survey. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(2):853-7. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00145
Sarah A. Haji, Halah Abbas Husseien, Ahmed Ali Al-Marash, Hania Mohammed Salih Altawriy. Preventive Measures and Spread of COVID-19 Infection among Dental students in Basra in the First Period of the Epidemic in Iraq: An Online Cross-Sectional Survey. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(2):853-7. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00145 Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2023-16-2-64
1. Al ZalK Z. Alfahoum S. Zohairee R. Exploring COVID-19 Progression Patterns. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2022; 15(3): 1299-1296. DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00217.
2. Mittal S. Singh K. Sharma G. The Impact of Individual, Social and Organizational Factors on Work-Life Balance: A Cross-sectional Analysis of Manufacturing and Service Sector. Asian Journal of Management; 2017; 8(3):881-892. DOI: 10.5958/2321-5763.2017.00137.8
3. Bogoch II. Watts A. Thomas-Bachli A. Huber C. et al. Pneumonia of unknown aetiology in Wuhan, China: potential for international spread via commercial air travel, Journal of Travel Medicine 2020; 27(2): taaa008. https://doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa008
4. Lu H. Stratton CW. Tang YW. Outbreak of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China: The mystery and the miracle. Journal of Medical Virology 2020; 92(4): 401-402. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25678.
5. Huang C. Wang Y. Li X. Ren L. Zhao J. et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020; 395(10223): 497-506. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5.
6. Mankar SD. Jadhav RS. Gaikwad K. Corona Viruses - Current Knowledge - A Review. Research Journal of Science and Technology 2020; 12(2): 163-166. DOI:10.5958/2349-2988.2020.00021.2
7. Vellingiri B. Jayaramayya K. Iyer M. Narayanasamy A. Govindasamy V. et al. COVID-19: A promising cure for the global panic. Science of the Total Environment 2020; 725: 138277. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138277.
8. Mithra S. Ramani P. Sherlin HJ. Ramasubramaniam GSA. et al. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Hand Hygiene among Medical Students/ Practitioners – A Survey. Research Journal of Science and Technology 2019; 11(4): 259-264. DOI:10.5958/2349-2988.2019.00036.6
9. Shenoy PB. Sengottaiyan VK. Knowledge and Awareness among Dental Students on the use of Neutral Zone Technique for Fabrication of Complete Dentures. Research Journal of Science and Technology 2018; 10(4): 261-269. DOI:10.5958/2349-2988.2018.00037.2
10. Dowd JB. Andriano L. Brazel DM. Rotondi V. Block P. et al. Demographic science aids in understanding the spread and fatality rates of COVID-19. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2020; 117(18): 9696-9698. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2004911117.
11. Karuna BNR. Narayan LK. Reddy RB. Stability analysis of a viral model with intercellular delay. Research Journal of Science and Technology 2017; 9(3): 435-440. DOI:10.5958/2349-2988.2017.00076.6.
12. Sankaravadivoo P. Rohini AP. Rathinavelu PK. Indhiran MA. Duraikannan S. Prevalence of Self Medication Practices among Dental Undergraduates Students. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2018; 11(4): 1496-1498. DOI:10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00278.0
13. Struyf T. Deeks JJ. Dinnes J. Takwoingi Y. Davenport C. et al Cochrane COVID-19 Diagnostic Test Accuracy Group. Signs and symptoms to determine if a patient presenting in primary care or hospital outpatient settings has COVID-19. Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews 2021; 2(2): CD013665. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013665.pub2.
14. Salman SA. Taj Aldeen WR. Antibacterial, Anti-virulence factors of Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients with urinary tract infection. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2018; 11(2): 735-740. DOI:10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00138.5
15. Al-Ezzi BIH. Qasim BJ. Abid WB. Al-Ezzi MI. The Relationship between Clinic Pathological Characteristics and Follicular Thyroid Lesion. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2018; 11(2): 741-744. DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00139.7
16. Li Q. Guan X. Wu P. Wang X. et al. Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia. The New England Journal of Medecine 2020; 382(13): 1199-1207. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001316
17. Seto WH. Tsang D. Yung RW. Ching TY. Ng TK. et al. Effectiveness of precautions against droplets and contact in prevention of nosocomial transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Lancet 2003; 361(9368): 1519-1520. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(03)13168-6.
18. Toshniwal A. Narendran R. An Intertwined approach to workplace Happiness, Workplace Motivation and Workplace Stress: A Study on covid-19 Lockdown. Asian Journal of Management. 2020; 11(4): 407-412. DOI: 10. 5958/2321-5763.2020.00062.1
19. Anuj Kumar. Emotional intelligence can help healthcare professionals and managers: A way deal COVID-19 pandemic. Asian Journal of Management. 2021;12(4):353-8. DOI: 10.52711/2321-5763.2021.00053
20. Talic S. Shah S. Wild H. Gasevic D. Maharaj A. et al., Effectiveness of public health measures in reducing the incidence of covid-19, SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and covid-19 mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2021; 375: e068302. doi: 10.1136/bmj-2021-068302.
21. Liu X. Xu X. Li G. et al. Differential impact of non-pharmaceutical public health interventions on COVID-19 epidemics in the United States. BMC Public Health 2021; 21: 965. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10950-2
22. Lotfinejad N. Peters A. Pittet D. Hand hygiene and the novel coronavirus pandemic: the role of healthcare workers: Journal of Hospital Infection 2020; 105(4): 776-777. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2020.03.017.
23. World Health, O., Rational use of personal protective equipment (PPE) for coronavirus disease (COVID-19): interim guidance, 19 March 2020, 2020, World Health Organization: Geneva
24. Lio CF. Cheong HH. Lei CI. Lo IL. Et al. Effectiveness of personal protective health behaviour against COVID-19. BMC Public Health 2021; 21(1): 827. doi: 10.1186/s12889-021-10680-5
25. Xu H. Gan Y. Zheng D. Wu B. Zhu X. et al. Relationship Between COVID-19 Infection and Risk Perception, Knowledge, Attitude, and Four Nonpharmaceutical Interventions During the Late Period of the COVID-19 Epidemic in China: Online Cross-Sectional Survey of 8158 Adults. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2020; 22(11): e21372. doi: 10.2196/21372.
26. Hager E. Odetokun IA. Bolarinwa O. Zainab A. et al. Knowledge, attitude, and perceptions towards the 2019 Coronavirus Pandemic: A bi-national survey in Africa. [published correction appears in PLoS One. 2021; 16(2): e0247351. PLoS One. 2020; 15(7): e0236918. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0236918
27. Azene ZN. Merid MW. Muluneh AG. Geberu DM. Kassa GM. et al. Adherence towards COVID-19 mitigation measures and its associated factors among Gondar City residents: A community-based cross-sectional study in Northwest Ethiopia. PLoS One 2020; 15(12): e0244265. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0244265.
28. Bernal JL. Nick A. Charlotte G. Julia S. Early effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine and ChAdOx1 adenovirus vector vaccine on symptomatic disease, hospitalisations and mortality in older adults in England. MedRxiv 2021; doi: 10.1101/2021.03.01.21252652.
29. Sanyaolu A. Okorie C. Marinkovic C. The emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease. 2021; 8: 20499361211024372. https://doi.org/10.1177/20499361211024372
30. Khaleel MA. Al-Yaseri AA. Utilization of Computer Use in Raising Health Awareness of the Community by Community Health Nursing Students at University of Babylon in Iraq. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2017; 10(7): 2091-2094. DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00365.1