Author(s): Sri Wahyuningsih, Alyaa F. Dibha, Viol D. Kharisma, Affan A. Murtadlo, A. N. M. Ansori, Muhammad H. Widyananda, Maksim Rebezov, Pavel Burkov, Marina Derkho, Pavel Scherbakov, Nikolai Maksimiuk, Alevtin Miftakhutdinov, Rahadian Zainul


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00790   

Address: Sri Wahyuningsih1, Alyaa F. Dibha2, Viol D. Kharisma3, Affan A. Murtadlo3, A. N. M. Ansori4, Muhammad H. Widyananda3,5, Maksim Rebezov6,7,8, Pavel Burkov9, Marina Derkho9, Pavel Scherbakov9, Nikolai Maksimiuk10, Alevtin Miftakhutdinov9, Rahadian Zainul11,12*
1Faculty of Biology, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia.
3Division of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Generasi Biologi Indonesia Foundation, Gresik, Indonesia.
4Professor Nidom Foundation, Surabaya, Indonesia.
5Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Sciences, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
6Department of Scientific Research, Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, Moscow, Russian Federation.
7Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Ural State Agrarian University, Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation.
8Department of Scientific Re

Published In:   Volume - 16,      Issue - 10,     Year - 2023

Temu ireng (C. aeruginosa Roxb.) is a rhizome plant that is well known among Indonesians as a type of herbal plant due to the presence of bioactive compounds with numerous benefits. One of them is to act as an anti-bacterial agent. Tuberculosis is a symptomatic chronic condition triggered by a bacterial infection of the lungs in humans. The goal of this study was to use a bioinformatic technique to identify probable substances from C. aeruginosa Roxb. as a TB drug. C. aeruginosa Roxb. compounds' pharmacokinetics and druglikeness function Antibacterial activity was calculated using SwissADME analysis, antibacterial activity using QSAR analysis, and interaction between compounds and the protein crystal structure of M. tuberculosis using molecular docking interpretation. The 1.8-cineole compound's analytical results reached Lipinski's rule of five and demonstrated great ADMET modeling as a future drug nominee. This is supported by QSAR analysis, which demonstrates that 1.8-cineole can act as an antituberculosic. Besides this, the docking binding energy of 1.8-cineole was -4.20 kcal/mol following the molecular identification, suggesting that the bonds formed were quite constant.

Cite this article:
Sri Wahyuningsih, Alyaa F. Dibha, Viol D. Kharisma, Affan A. Murtadlo, A. N. M. Ansori, Muhammad H. Widyananda, Maksim Rebezov, Pavel Burkov, Marina Derkho, Pavel Scherbakov, Nikolai Maksimiuk, Alevtin Miftakhutdinov, Rahadian Zainul. Screening of Compounds in Temu Ireng (Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb.) as Tuberculosis drug using Bioinformatics Design. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(10):4875-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00790

Sri Wahyuningsih, Alyaa F. Dibha, Viol D. Kharisma, Affan A. Murtadlo, A. N. M. Ansori, Muhammad H. Widyananda, Maksim Rebezov, Pavel Burkov, Marina Derkho, Pavel Scherbakov, Nikolai Maksimiuk, Alevtin Miftakhutdinov, Rahadian Zainul. Screening of Compounds in Temu Ireng (Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb.) as Tuberculosis drug using Bioinformatics Design. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(10):4875-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00790   Available on:

1.    Chen IN, Chang CC, Ng CC, Wang CY, Shyu YT, Chang TL. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Zingiberaceae plants in Taiwan. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2008; 63(1): 15-20. DOI: 10.1007/s11130-007-0063-7.
2.    Atun S, Arianingrum R, Aznam N. Isolation of Sesquiterpenes Lactone from Curcuma aeruginosa Rhizome and the Cytotoxic Activity Against Human Cancer Cell Lines. Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res 2016; 8(7): 5.
3.    Nurcholis W. Extraction of Total Flavonoid Contents and Antibacterial Activities from Curcuma aeruginosa RoxB. Rhizome Using Two Level Half Factorial Design. Der Pharma Chemica. 2016; 8(21): 35-39.
4.    Rahayu DUC, Hartono, Sugita P. Antibacterial activity of curcumenol from rhizomes of Indonesian Curcuma aeruginosa (Zingiberaceae). Rasayan J Chem. 2018; 11(2): 762–765. DOI: 10.7324/RJC.2018.1122076.
5.    Yuandani I, Jantan AS, Rohani, Sumantri IB. Immunomodulatory Effects and Mechanisms of Curcuma Species and Their Bioactive Compounds: A Review Front. Pharmacol. 2021; 12: 643119. DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2021.643119.
6.    Theanphong O, Mingvanish W, Kirdmanee C. Chemical Constituents And Biological Activities Of Essential Oil From Curcuma Aeruginosa Roxb. Rhizome. Bulletin Health Sci Technol. 2015; 13(1): 06-16.
7.    Anggriani L, Yasmin A, Wulandari AR, Leksono GM, Ikawati M, Meiyanto E. Extract of temu ireng (Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb.) rhizome reduces doxorubicin-induced immunosuppressive effects. AIP Publishing. 2019: 020001. DOI: 10.1063/1.5098406.
8.    Kamazeri TS, Samah OA, Taher M, Susanti D, Qaralleh H. Antimicrobial activity and essential oils of Curcuma aeruginosa, Curcuma mangga, and Zingiber cassumunar from Malaysia. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012; 5(3): 202-9. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60025-X.
9.    Akarchariya N,  Sirilun S, Julsrigival J, Chansakaowa S. Chemical profiling and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb., Curcuma glans K. Larsen & J. Mood and Curcuma cf. xanthorrhiza Roxb. collected in Thailand. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2017; 7(10): 881-885. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.009.
10.    Kumar M, Singh SK, Singh PP, Singh VK, Rai AC, Srivastava AK, Shukla L, Kesawat MS, Kumar Jaiswal A, Chung SM, Kumar A. Potential Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis Activity of Plant Secondary Metabolites: Insight with Molecular Docking Interactions. Antioxidants (Basel). 2021; 10(12): 1990. DOI: 10.3390/antiox10121990.
11.    Rakhmawatie MD, Wibawa T, Lisdiyanti P, Pratiwi WR, Damayanti E, Mustofa. Potential secondary metabolite from Indonesian Actinobacteria (InaCC A758) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2021; 24(8): 1058-1068. DOI: 10.22038/ijbms.2021.56468.12601.
12.    Cardona PJ. Pathogenesis of tuberculosis and other mycobacteriosis. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin (Engl Ed). 2018; 36(1):38-46. DOI: 10.1016/j.eimc.2017.10.015.
13.    WHO. Tuberculosis. 2022. (accessed Oct. 04, 2022).
14.    He Y, Zheng W. Evaluation of the treatment efficacy of systemic care combined with thymopentin and 2HRZE/4HR for primary tuberculosis. Am J Transl Res. 2021; 13(4): 2891-2898.
15.    Shaghaghi N. Molecular Docking Study of Novel COVID-19 Protease with Low-Risk Terpenoids Compounds of Plants. Virol Curr Res. 2021; 5(2): 1-6. DOI: 10.26434/chemrxiv.11935722.v1
16.    Ejalonibu MA, Ogundare SA, Elrashedy AA, Ejalonibu MA, Lawal MM, Mhlongo NN, Kumalo HM. Drug Discovery for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Using Structure-Based Computer-Aided Drug Design Approach. Int J Mol Sci. 2021; 22(24):13259. DOI: 10.3390/ijms222413259.
17.    Jamroz M, Kolinski A, Kmiecik S. CABS-flex: Server for fast simulation of protein structure fluctuations. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013 Jul;41(Web Server issue):W427-31. DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkt332.
18.    Rizvi SM, Shakil S, Haneef M. A simple click by click protocol to perform docking: AutoDock 4.2 made easy for non-bioinformaticians. EXCLI J. 2013; 12: 831-57.
19.    Ansori ANM, Fadholly A, Hayaza S, Susilo RJK, Inayatillah B, Winarni D, Husen SA. A Review on Medicinal Properties of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.). Res J Pharm Techol. 2020; 13(2):974-982. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00182.1
20.    Fadholly A, Ansori ANM, Utomo B. Anticancer Effect of Naringin on Human Colon Cancer (WiDr Cells): In Vitro Study. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(2): 885-888. DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00148
21.    Husen SA, Wahyuningsih SPA, Ansori ANM, Hayaza S, Susilo RJK, Winarni D, Punnapayak H, Darmanto W. Antioxidant Potency of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Pods Extract on SOD Level and Tissue Glucose Tolerance in Diabetic Mice. Res J Pharm Technol. 12(12): 5683. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00983.1
22.    Husen SA, Setyawan MF, Syadzha MF, Susilo RJK, Hayaza S, Ansori ANM, Alamsjah MA, Ilmi ZN, Wulandari PAC, Pudjiastuti P, Awang P, Winarni D. A Novel Therapeutic effects of Sargassum ilicifolium Alginate and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Pods extracts on Open wound healing process in Diabetic Mice. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2020; 13(6): 2764-2770. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00491.6
23.    Kharisma VD, Kharisma SD, Ansori ANM, Kurniawan HP, Witaningrum AM, Fadholly A, Tacharina MR. Antiretroviral Effect Simulation from Black Tea (Camellia sinensis) via Dual Inhibitors Mechanism in HIV-1 and its Social Perspective in Indonesia. Res J Pharm Technol. 2021; 14(1): 455-460. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2021.00083.4
24.    Fadholly A, Ansori ANM, Kharisma VD, Rahmahani J, Tacharina MR. Immunobioinformatics of Rabies Virus in Various Countries of Asia: Glycoprotein Gene. Res J Pharm Technol. 2021; 14(2): 883-886. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2021.00157.8
25.    Ansori ANM, Fadholly A, Proboningrat A, Hayaza S, Susilo RJK, Naw SW, Posa GAV, Yusrizal YF, Sibero MT, Sucipto TH, Soegijanto S. In vitro antiviral activity of Pinus merkusii (Pinaceae) stem bark and cone against dengue virus type-2 (DENV-2). Res J Pharm Technol. 2021; 14(7):3705-8. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00641
26.    Ansori ANM, Kharisma VD, Fadholly A, Tacharina MR, Antonius Y, Parikesit AA. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 Emergence and Its Treatment with Alternative Medicines: A Review. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(10):5551-7. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00967
27.    Husen SA, Ansori ANM, Hayaza S, Susilo RJK, Zuraidah AA, Winarni D, Punnapayak H, Darmanto W. Therapeutic Effect of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Pods Extract on Streptozotocin-Induced Type-2 Diabetic Mice. Res J Pharm Technol. 2019; 12(8):3703-3708. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00633.4
28.    Ansori ANM, Kharisma VD, Solikhah TI. Medicinal properties of Muntingia calabura L.: A Review. Res J Pharm Technol. 2021; 14(8):4509-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00784
29.    Fadholly A, Ansori ANM, Sucipto TH. An overview of naringin: Potential anticancer compound of citrus fruits. Res J Pharm Technol. 2020; 13(11): 5613-5619. DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00979.8
30.    Proboningrat A, Kharisma VD, Ansori ANM, Rahmawati R, Fadholly A, Posa GAV, Sudjarwo SA, Rantam FA, Achmad AB. In silico Study of Natural inhibitors for Human papillomavirus-18 E6 protein. Res J Pharm Technol. 2022; 15(3):1251-6. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00209
31.    Ramadhani NF, Nugraha AP, Ihsan IS, Agung YA, Rantam FA, Ernawati DS et al. Gingival medicinal signaling cells conditioned medium effect on the osteoclast and osteoblast number in lipopolysaccharide-induced calvaria bone resorption in wistar rats’ (Rattus novergicus). Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(10): 5232-5237. DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00911
32.    Kharisma VD, Ansori ANM, Jakhmola V, Rizky WC, Widyananda MH, Probojati RT, Murtadlo AAA, Rebezov M, Scherbakov P, Burkov P, Matrosova Y, Romanov A, Sihombing MAEM, Antonius Y, Zainul R. Multi-strain human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine innovation via computational study: A mini review. Res J Pharm Technol. 2022; 15(8):3802-7. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00638
33.    Fahmi M, Kharisma VD, Ansori ANM, Ito M. Retrieval and Investigation of Data on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 Using Bioinformatics Approach. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021; 1318: 839-857. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-63761-3_47
34.    Kharisma VD, Probojati RT, Murtadlo AAA, Ansori ANM, Antonius Y, Tamam MB. Revealing Potency of Bioactive Compounds as Inhibitor of Dengue Virus (DENV) NS2B/NS3 Protease from Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) Leaves. Indian J Forensic Med Toxicol. 2020; 15(1): 1627–1632. DOI: 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i1.13644
35.    Husen SA, Winarni D, Salamun, Ansori ANM, Susilo RJK, Hayaza S. Hepatoprotective Effect of Gamma-mangostin for Amelioration of Impaired Liver Structure and Function in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Mice. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2019; 217(1): 012031. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/217/1/012031
36.    Turista DDR, Islamy A, Kharisma VD, Ansori ANM. Distribution of COVID-19 and Phylogenetic Tree Construction of SARS-CoV-2 in Indonesia. J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2020; 14: 1035-1042. doi: 10.22207/JPAM.14.SPL1.42
37.    Kharisma VD, Widyananda MH, Ansori ANM, Nege AS, Naw SW, Nugraha AP Tea catechin as antiviral agent via apoptosis agonist and triple inhibitor mechanism against HIV-1 infection: A bioinformatics approach. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res. 2021; 9(4): 435-445.
38.    Kharisma VD, Ansori ANM, Nugraha AP. Computational study of ginger (Zingiber Officinale) as E6 inhibitor in human papillomavirus type 16 (Hpv-16) infection. Biochemical and Cellular Archives. 2020; 20: 3155-3159. DOI: 10.35124/bca.2020.20.S1.3155
39.    Ansori  ANM, Kharishma VD, Muttaqin SS, Antonius Y, Parikesit AA. Genetic Variant of SARS-CoV-2 Isolates in Indonesia: Spike Glycoprotein Gene. J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2020; 14: 971-978. DOI: 10.22207/JPAM.14.SPL1.35
40.    Widyananda MH, Pratama SK, Samoedra RS, Sari FN, Kharisma VD, Ansori ANM, Antonius Y (2021) Molecular docking study of sea urchin (Arbacia lixula) peptides as multi-target inhibitor for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) associated proteins. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res. 9(4): 484–496.
41.    Kharisma VD, Ansori ANM. Construction of Epitope-Based Peptide Vaccine Against SARS-CoV-2: Immunoinformatics Study. J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2020; 14: 999-1005. DOI: 10.22207/JPAM.14.SPL1.38
42.    Kharisma VD, Ansori ANM, Widyananda MH, Utami SL, Nugraha AP. Molecular simulation: The potency of conserved region on E6 HPV-16 as a binding target of black tea compounds against cervical cancer. Biochemical and Cellular Archives. 2020; 20: 2795-2802. DOI: 10.35124/bca.2020.20.S1.2795
43.    Kharisma VD, Agatha A, Ansori ANM, Widyananda MH, Rizky WC, Dings TGA, Derkho M, Lykasova I, Antonius Y, Rosadi I, Zainul R. Herbal combination from Moringa oleifera Lam. and Curcuma longa L. as SARS-CoV-2 antiviral via dual inhibitor pathway: A viroinformatics approach. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res. 2022; 10(1): 138-146. DOI: 10.56499/jppres21.1174_10.1.138
44.    Khairullah AR, Solikhah TI, Ansori ANM, Hanisia RH, Puspitarani GA, Fadholly A, Ramandinianto SC. Medicinal importance of Kaempferia galanga L. (Zingiberaceae): A comprehensive review. J Herbmed Pharmacol. 2021; 10: 281-288. DOI: 10.34172/jhp.2021.32
45.    Husen SA, Syadzha MF, Setyawan MF, Pudjiastuti P, Ansori ANM, Susilo RJK et al. Evaluation of the combination of sargassum duplicatum, sargassum ilicifolium, abelmoschus esculentus, and garcinia mangostana extracts for open wound healing in diabetic mice. Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy. 2020; 11(9): 888-892. DOI: 10.31838/srp.2020.9.129
46.    Wijaya RM, Hafidzhah MA, Kharisma VD, Ansori ANM, Parikesit AP. COVID-19 In Silico Drug with Zingiber officinale Natural Product Compound Library Targeting the Mpro Protein. Makara J Sci. 2021; 25(3): 5. DOI: 10.7454/mss.v25i3.1244
47.    Ansori ANM, Fadholly A, Kharisma VD, Nugraha AP. Therapeutic potential of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 for cancer therapy. Biochemical and Cellular Archives. 2020;20:2827-2832. DOI: 10.35124/bca.2020.20.S1.2827
48.    Prahasanti C, Nugraha AP, Kharisma VD, Ansori ANM, Ridwan RD, Putri TPS et al. Un enfoque bioinformático de la exploración con compuestos de hidroxiapatita y polimetilmetacrilato como biomaterial de implantes dentales. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacognosy Research. 2021; 9(5): 746-754.
49.    Kharisma VD, Ansori ANM, Fadholly A, Sucipto TH. Molecular mechanism of caffeine-aspirin interaction in kopi balur 1 as anti-inflammatory agent: A computational study. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. 2020; 14(4): 4040-4046. DOI: 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i4.12274
50.    Kharisma VD, Widodo N, Ansori ANM, Nugraha AP. A vaccine candidate of zika virus (ZIKV) from polyvalent conserved b-cell epitope on viral glycoprotein: In silico approach. Biochemical and Cellular Archives. 2020;20:2785-2793. DOI: 10.35124/bca.2020.20.S1.2785
51.    Ansori ANM, Kharisma VD, Nugraha AP. Phylogenetic and pathotypic characterization of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) in Indonesia. Biochemical and Cellular Archives. 2020;20:3023-3027.
52.    Padmi H, Kharisma VD, Ansori ANM, Sibero MT, Widyananda MH, Ullah E, Gumenyuk O, Chylichcova S, Bratishko N, Prasedya ES, Sucipto TH, Zainul R. Macroalgae Bioactive Compounds for the Potential Antiviral of SARS-CoV-2: An In Silico Study. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology. 2022; 16(2): 1018-1027. DOI: 10.22207/JPAM.16.2.26
53.    Antonius Y, Kharisma VD, Widyananda MH, Ansori ANM, Trinugroho JP, Ullah ME, Naw SW, Jakhmola V, Wahjudi M. Prediction of Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) Molecular Mechanism Network and Interaction to Oncoproteins Growth Factor in Hepatocellular Carcinoma. J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2022;16(3):1844-1854. doi: 10.22207/JPAM.16.3.29
54.    Dibha AF, Wahyuningsih S, Ansori ANM, Kharisma VD, Widyananda MH, Parikesit AA, Sibero MT, Probojati RT, Murtadlo AAA, Trinugroho JP, Sucipto TH, Turista DDR, Rosadi I, Ullah ME, Jakhmola V, Zainul R. Utilization of Secondary Metabolites in Algae Kappaphycus alvarezii as a Breast Cancer Drug with a Computational Method. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2022; 14(3): 536-543. DOI: 10.5530/pj.2022.14.68
55.    Aini NS, Ansori ANM, Kharisma VD, Syadzha MF, Widyananda MH, Murtadlo AA, et al. Potential Roles of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) as Antimetabolic Syndrome: A Review. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2022; 14(3): 710-714. DOI: 10.5530/pj.2022.14.90
56.    Listiyani P, Kharisma VD, Ansori AN, Widyananda MH, Probojati RT, Murtadlo AA, et al. In Silico Phytochemical Compounds Screening of Allium sativum Targeting the Mpro of SARS-CoV-2. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2022; 14(3): 604-609. DOI: 10.5530/pj.2022.14.78
57.    Aini NS, Kharisma VD, Widyananda MH, Murtadlo AA, Probojati RT, Turista DD, et al. In Silico Screening of Bioactive Compounds from Syzygium cumini L. and Moringa oleifera L. Against SARS-CoV-2 via Tetra Inhibitors. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2022;14(4):267-272. DOI: 10.5530/pj.2022.14.95
58.    Aini NS, Kharisma VD, Widyananda MH, Murtadlo AA, Probojati RT, Turista DD, et al. Bioactive Compounds from Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) and Star Anise (Illicium verum Hook) as SARS-CoV-2 Antiviral Agent via Dual Inhibitor Mechanism: In Silico Approach. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2022;14(4):352-357. DOI: 10.5530/pj.2022.14.106
59.    Ansori ANM, Fadholly A, Proboningrat A, Antonius Y, Hayaza S, Susilo RJ, Inayatillah B, Sibero MT, Naw SW, Posa GAV, Sucipto TH, Soegijanto S. Novel Antiviral Investigation of Annona squamosa Leaf Extract against the Dengue Virus Type-2: In vitro Study. Phcog J. 2021; 13(2): 456-462. DOI: 10.5530/pj.2021.13.58
60.    Ansori AN, Kharisma VD, Parikesit AA, Dian FA, Probojati RT, Rebezov M, Scherbakov P, Burkov P, Zhdanova G, Mikhalev A, Antonius Y, Pratama MRF, Sumantri NI, Sucipto TH, Zainul R. Bioactive Compounds from Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) as an Antiviral Agent via Dual Inhibitor Mechanism against SARS-CoV- 2: An In Silico Approach. Phcog J. 2022; 14(1): 85-90. DOI: 10.5530/pj.2022.14.12

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available