Sara Meer, Dixon Thomas, Juny Sebastian, Aji Gopakumar, Kimberly Mc Keirnan
firstname.lastname@example.org , email@example.com
Sara Meer1, Dixon Thomas1, Juny Sebastian2, Aji Gopakumar3, Kimberly Mc Keirnan4
1College of Pharmacy, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, UAE.
2Data and Statistics/Healthcare/EHS, Dubai, UAE.
3College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Washington State University, Spokane, USA.
Volume - 16,
Issue - 10,
Year - 2023
Introduction: COVID-19 impacted the health and life of many people affecting certain special populations more than others. The main objective of this study was to analyze the perception of pregnant women in the UAE on COVID-19 infection, COVID-19 vaccination, harassment, discrimination, and health risks. Materials & Methods: The study design was exploratory cross-sectional research. A Google Form survey was created and circulated to pregnant or recently pregnant women in the United Arab Emirates. The survey elements were harassment, discrimination, and health risks perceived by pregnant women related to their pregnancy and COVID-19 infection. Alpha value was set at 0.05. SPSS version 26 (Armonk, NY) was used for data analysis. Results: A total of 117 pregnant women completed the survey. Among the 117, 63% of the pregnant women were fully vaccinated with at least two doses of COVID-19 vaccination. Less of the fully vaccinated pregnant women contracted COVID-19 while being pregnant (p-value <0.05). Pregnant women who contracted COVID-19 had a statistically significant increase (p-value <0.05)in their perceived harassment, discrimination and risk to health/welfare. More of these negative factors were on the fully vaccinated but still contracted with COVID-19 group and least with fully vaccinated who did not contract COVID-19 when they were pregnant. Conclusions: Perceptions of pregnant women on COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccines showed concerns that needs to be studied further. Perceived health issues related to the infection and vaccine need multifaceted interventions.
Cite this article:
Sara Meer, Dixon Thomas, Juny Sebastian, Aji Gopakumar, Kimberly Mc Keirnan. Perceptions of pregnant women on COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccine associated risks. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(10):4861-6. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00788
Sara Meer, Dixon Thomas, Juny Sebastian, Aji Gopakumar, Kimberly Mc Keirnan. Perceptions of pregnant women on COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccine associated risks. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(10):4861-6. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00788 Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2023-16-10-58
1. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). 2022 Mar 15. Available from https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus#tab=tab_1(accessed on 15 June 2022).
2. Questions and Answers: COVID-19 vaccines and pregnancy. 2022 Feb 15 [cited 2022 Jun 6] Available from: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-FAQ-Pregnancy-Vaccines-2022.1 accessed on 15 June 2022).
3. COVID-19 Vaccine. 2022 May 22 [cited 2022 Jun 6]. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines (accessed on 15 June 2022).
4. Allotey J. Stallings E. Bonet M. Yap M. Chatterjee S. Kew T. Debenham L. Llavall AC. Dixit A. Zhou D and Balaji R. Clinical manifestations. risk factors. and maternal and perinatal outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy: living systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2020; 370:m3320. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m3320.
5. Wei SQ. Bilodeau-Bertrand M. Liu S and Auger N. The impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. CMAJ. 2021; 193(16):E540-E548.doi: 10.1503/cmaj.202604.
6. Villar J. Ariff S. Gunier RB. Thiruvengadam R. Rauch S. Kholin A. Roggero P. Prefumo F. Do Vale MS. Cardona-Perez JA and Maiz N. Maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality among pregnant women with and without COVID-19 infection: the INTERCOVID multinational cohort study. JAMA pediatrics 2021; 175(8):817-826.doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.1050.
7. U.ae. Vaccines against COVID-19 in the UAE. [cited 2022 Jun 6]. Available from: https://u.ae/en/information-and-services/justice-safety-and-the-law/handling-the-covid-19-outbreak/vaccines-against-covid-19-in-the-uae (accessed on 15 June 2022).
8. Little D. Barkley E. Kibitel J. Carrico N. McNitt J. Which comorbidities increase the risk of a COVID-19 breakthrough infection? Epic Research. 2022; [cited 2022 Jun 9] Available from: https://epicresearch.org/articles/which-comorbidities-increase-the-risk-of-a-covid-19-breakthrough-infection (accessed on 15 June 2022).
9. Bagcchi. S. Stigma during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2020. 20(7):782.doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30498-9.
10. Van Daalen KR. Cobain M. Franco OH and Chowdhury R. Stigma: The social virus spreading faster than COVID-19. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2021; 75(4):313-314.doi: 10.1136/jech-2020-214436.
11. Freitas-Jesus JV. Sánchez ODR. Rodrigues L. Faria-Schützer DB. Serapilha AAA and Surita FG. Stigma, guilt and motherhood: Experiences of pregnant women with COVID-19 in Brazil. Women and Birth 2022; 35(4):403-412.doi: 10.1016/j.wombi.2021.08.009
12. Turatti B. Rosa G. and Moretti-Pires R. Health impacts of pregnant working women victims of discrimination and moral harassment In Brazil. European Journal of Public Health2020; 30(Supplement_5):166-678. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckaa166.678.
13. Saitoh A. Takaku M. Saitoh A. High rates of vaccine hesitancy among pregnant women during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Japan. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 2022; 18(5):2064686. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2022.2064686.
14. Hsu AL. Johnson T. Phillips L. Nelson TB. Sources of vaccine hesitancy: pregnancy. infertility. minority concerns. and general skepticism. Open forum infectious diseases. 2021; 9(3):ofab433. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofab433.
15. HM Government. Pregnancy and Maternity-Related Discrimination and Disadvantage: Summary of Key Findings. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/509500/BIS-16-145-pregnancy-and-maternity-related-discrimination-and-disadvantage-summary.pdf (accessed on 15 June 2022).
16. Hazari KS. Abdeldayem R. Paulose L. Kurien N. Almahloul Z. Mohammad H. Elgergawi TFA. Alkhanbouli M. Mahmoud K. Fazari AB and Hassan A. Covid-19 infection in pregnant women in Dubai: A case-control study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2021; 21(1):1-10.doi: 10.1186/s12884-021-04130-8.
17. Ciapponi A. Bardach A. Comandé D. Berrueta M. Argento FJ. Rodriguez Cairoli F. Zamora N. Santa María V. Xiong X. Zaraa S and Mazzoni A. COVID-19 and pregnancy: An umbrella review of clinical presentation. vertical transmission. and maternal and perinatal outcomes. PloS one 2021; 16(6):e0253974.doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0253974.
18. Fowlkes A. Gaglani M. Groover K. Thiese MS. Tyner H. Ellingson K and Cohorts HR. Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection among frontline workers before and during B. 1.617. 2 (Delta) variant predominance—eight US locations. December 2020–August 2021. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2021; 70(34):1167.doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7034e4.
19. Martínez-Baz I. Miqueleiz A. Casado I. Navascués A. Trobajo-Sanmartín C. Burgui C. Guevara M. Ezpeleta C and Castilla J. Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalisation. Navarre. Spain. January to April 2021. Eurosurveillance 2021; 26(21):2100438.doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.21.2100438.
20. Hall V. Foulkes S. Insalata F. Kirwan P. Saei A. Atti A. Wellington E. Khawam J. Munro K. Cole M and Tranquillini C. Protection against SARS-CoV-2 after Covid-19 vaccination and previous infection. New England Journal of Medicine. 2022; 386(13):1207-1220.doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2118691
21. Joseena S. Sebastian S. Akhila KB. Sabu A. Alexander A. Antony A. Sibi A. Siby J. Mathew M. Biju R. Sabu S. The Knowledge, Attitude and Perception regarding Covid-19 Vaccination among Mothers. International Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2022; 10(4):299-4. doi: 10.52711/2454-2660.2022.00069.
22. Thomas A. Jose A. Mathew A. Bhaskar A. Stephen HM. Mathew N. Sunny N. Shaji S. Jabbar S. Starly SV. Jose R. A Study to assess Psychosocial Parental Stress during COVID-19 Pandemic in a selected rural community at Kottayam district. International Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2022; 10(3):211-5. doi: 10.52711/2454-2660.2022.00049.
23. Sinha G. The vista of Pandemic in the world and its adaptation by Society: Statistical significant precautions on COVID. Asian Journal of Management. 2020;11(4):453-456. doi: 10.5958/2321-5763.2020.00069.4.
24. Thomas A. Anagha KV. Irshad F. Jyothilakshmi. Chinnu K. Jessan P. Shajan S. Sreelakshmi T. Nair B. Mathew J. A study to Assess the Psychosocial Issues Associated with Covid-19 Pandemic among the Family Members of Third year B.Sc. Nursing Students in selected Colleges of Pathanamthitta District. International Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2021; 9(4):417-9. doi: 10.52711/2454-2660.2021.00096.
25. Jain RS. Jain TG. Ishikar SK. Impact of Covid-19 on Changing Habits and Health Issues of the Public. Asian Journal of Management. 2020;11(4):524-528.doi: 10.5958/2321-5763.2020.00077.3.
26. Meaney S. Leitao S. Olander EK. Pope J and Matvienko-Sikar K. The impact of COVID-19 on pregnant women's experiences and perceptions of antenatal maternity care. social support. and stress-reduction strategies. Women and Birth. 2022; 35(3):307-316.doi: 10.1016/j.wombi.2021.04.013.
27. Giesbrecht GF. Rojas L. Patel S. Kuret V. MacKinnon AL. Tomfohr-Madsen L and Lebel C. Fear of COVID-19. mental health. and pregnancy outcomes in the pregnancy during the COVID-19 pandemic study: Fear of COVID-19 and pregnancy outcomes. Journal of Affective Disorders 2022; 299:483-491.doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2021.12.057.
28. Shimabukuro TT. Kim SY. Myers TR. Moro PL. Oduyebo T. Panagiotakopoulos L. Marquez PL. Olson CK. Liu R. Chang KT and Ellington SR. Preliminary findings of mRNA Covid-19 vaccine safety in pregnant persons. New England Journal of Medicine. 2021; 385(16):1536. doi: 10.1056/NEJMx210016.
29. Akhtar H. Patel C. Abuelgasim E and Harky A. COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in pregnancy: a systematic review. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 2020; 85(4):295-306.doi: 10.1159/000509290.
30. Zaigham M and Andersson O. Maternal and perinatal outcomes with COVID‐19: a systematic review of 108 pregnancies. Acta obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 2020; 99(7):823-829.doi: 10.1111/aogs.13867.
31. Trostle ME. Limaye MA. Avtushka V. Lighter JL. Penfield CA and Roman AS. COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy: early experience from a single institution. American journal of obstetrics & gynecology MFM 2021; 3(6):100464.doi: 10.1016/j.ajogmf.2021.100464.
32. Agampodi S. Agampodi T. Wickramasinghe N. Fernando S. Chathurani U. Adhikari W. Dharshika I. Nugegoda D. Dharmaratne S and Newlands D. Productivity cost due to maternal ill-health in Sri Lanka. 2012. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042333
33. Salihu HM. Myers J. and August EM. Pregnancy in the workplace. Occupational medicine 2012; 62(2):88-97. doi: 10.1093/occmed/kqr198
34. Ohrnberger J. Segal AB. Forchini G. Miraldo M. Skarp J. Nedjati-Gilani G. Laydon DJ. Ghani A. Ferguson NM and Hauck K. The impact of a COVID-19 lockdown on work productivity under good and poor compliance. European journal of public health 2021; 31(5):1009-1015.doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckab138.
35. Gutiérrez D. Martin G and Ñopo H. The Coronavirus and the challenges for women’s work in Latin America. UNDP LAC C19 PDS 2020; 18:142.
36. Arunima. Nangia R. Work from Home (WFH) and Covid-19: Encountering Ethical issues in New Normal. Asian Journal of Management. 2022;13(1):94-100. doi: 10.52711/2321-5763.2022.00017.
37. Soliman GH. ElalemSMA. Elhomosy SM. The Effect of Relaxation Techniques on Blood Pressure and Stress among Pregnant Women with Mild Pregnancy Induced Hypertension. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research.2017; 7(3): 321-329.doi: 10.5958/2349-2996.2017.00065.9.
38. Rani U. Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme on, Knowledge of Selected High Risk Conditions among Pregnant Women in Selected Maternity Center, Salem “Pregnancy Is Special Let Us Make it safe”. International Journal of Advances in Nursing Management. 2019; 7(2):107-108. doi: 10.5958/2454-2652.2019.00027.1.
39. Talukdar P. Baruah A. Factors contributing to stress in pregnant women and its Outcome- A Narrative Review. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2022; 12(3):279-2. doi: 10.52711/2349-2996.2022.00059.
40. Kumari R. Woman’s right to safe motherhood is not only a right to health; it is a right to life, you are not alone in this World. International Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2017; 5(4): 451-453. doi: 10.5958/2454-2660.2017.00097.7.
41. Egloff C. Couffignal C. Cordier AG. Deruelle P. Sibiude J. Anselem O. Benachi A. Luton D. Mandelbrot L. Vauloup-Fellous C. Vivanti AJ. Pregnant women’s perceptions of the COVID-19 vaccine: A French survey. PloS one. 2022;17(2):e0263512.doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0263512.
42. Smith SE. Sivertsen N. Lines L. De Bellis A. Decision making in vaccine-hesitant parents and pregnant women–An integrative review. International Journal of Nursing Studies Advances. 2022; 100062.doi: 10.1016/j.ijnsa.2022.100062
43. Germann K. Kiefer MK. Rood KM. Mehl R. Wu J. Pandit R. Lynch CD. Landon MB. Grobman WA. Costantine MM. Venkatesh KK. Association of initial COVID‐19 vaccine hesitancy with subsequent vaccination among pregnant and postpartum individuals. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 2022; 129(8):1352-1360. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.17189.
44. Kharbanda EO. Vazquez-Benitez G. COVID-19 MRNA Vaccines During Pregnancy: New Evidence to Help Address Vaccine Hesitancy. JAMA. 2022;327(15):1451-3.doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.2459.