David Ditto Sharmin, K. Revathi, Jaideep Mahendra, D. Anandhi, M. Arun, J. Jasmine Vigila
David Ditto Sharmin1, K. Revathi2, Jaideep Mahendra3, D. Anandhi4, M. Arun5, J. Jasmine Vigila6
1Ph.D. Scholar, Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research (MAHER), Chennai.
2Directorate of Research, Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research (MAHER), Chennai.
3Directorate of Research and Professor, Periodontology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Maduravoyal, Chennai.
4Assistant Professor, Biochemistry, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai.
5Lab Technician, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai.
6Ph.D. Scholar, Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research (MAHER), Chennai.
Volume - 15,
Issue - 9,
Year - 2022
Dental aerosol disinfection should be considered as one of the most serious issues as they have very harmful microbial flora which could lead to multiple serious infections that commonly infect the operator, assistant, or the patients. Essential oils of nature like Lemon Grass have been proven recently to possess a greater action against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, Candida species, Streptococcus mutans, which are considered as the most prevalent oral microbial flora. Hence this study is aimed to determine the antibacterial effect of the Lemon Grass oil on dental aerosol bacteria around the dental unit during the dental procedure. Dental chairs with patients during treatment were included for the study where 5 agar plates with and without Lemon Grass oil application were placed in each chair at a distance of 1 – 1.5 m from the patient's mouth for 48hours and were incubated. Types of bacteria and its count were evaluated. Results showed significant contamination of bacteria in all plates without Lemon Grass oil application, whereas significant contamination was observed in all positive control plates. Lemon Grass represents an antibacterial source that can be as effective as modern medicine against pathogenic microorganisms especially the gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria which are usually present in dental aerosols.
Cite this article:
David Ditto Sharmin, K. Revathi, Jaideep Mahendra, D. Anandhi, M. Arun, J. Jasmine Vigila. Antibacterial efficacy of Lemon Grass Oil (Cymbopogon citratus) on the type of bacteria and its count in Dental Aerosols. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(9):4024-8. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00674
David Ditto Sharmin, K. Revathi, Jaideep Mahendra, D. Anandhi, M. Arun, J. Jasmine Vigila. Antibacterial efficacy of Lemon Grass Oil (Cymbopogon citratus) on the type of bacteria and its count in Dental Aerosols. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(9):4024-8. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00674 Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2022-15-9-34
1. Arvand M and Hack A. Microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines in dental practices in Hesse, Germany: a cross-sectional study. European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology 2013;3(1):49-52. doi:10.1556/EuJMI.3.2013.1.7.
2. Pollok NL et al. Evaluation of airborne contamination in a dental school clinic. J. Baltimore Coll Dent Surg 1972 Jul; 27(1):4-20. PMID:4509913.
3. Holbrook WP et al. Bacteriological investigation of the aerosol from ultrasonic scalers. Br Dent J 1978Apr 18;144(8): 245-247.doi: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4804072.
4. Day WC, Berendt RF. Experimental tularemia in Macaca mulatta: relationship of aerosol particle size to the infectivity of airborne Pasteurella tularensis. Infect Immun. 1972 Jan; 5(1):77-82. Doi: 10.1128/iai.5.1.77-82.1972.
5. Christensen RP, Robison RA, Robinson DF, Ploeger BJ, Leavitt RW. Efficacy of 42 brands of face masks and 2 face shields in preventing inhalation of airborne debris. Gen Dent 1991Nov-Dec;39(6):414-421.
6. Prabhat A, Navneet CA. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of six medicinal plants against dental pathogens. Res Opin. 2010 Jan; 2(6):37–42.
7. Srivastav S, Pradeep Singh, Garima Mishra, Jha KK, Khosa RL., Achyranthes Aspera – An important medicinal plant: A review. J Nat Prod Plant Resour. 2011; 1:1–14. (http://scholarsresearchlibrary.com/archive.html).
8. Reddy PS, Kaiser Jamil, Madhusudhan P, Anjani G. Anti-bacterial activity of isolates from piper longum and taxas baccata. Pharma. Biol. 2001; 39(3):236-238. (https://doi.org/10.1076/phbi.18.104.22.16826).
9. Atleb, Erdourul, et al., Antimicrobial activities of various medicinal and commercial plant extract. Turk. J Biol. 2003 March; 27:157-162.
10. Bandow JE, Brotz H, Leichert LIO. Proteomic approach to understanding antibiotic action. Antimicrob Agents chemother 2003; 47:948-955. doi:10.1128/AAC.47.3.948-955.2003.
11. Rojas R, Bustamante B, Bauer J. Antimicrobial activity of selected Peruvian medicinal plants. J Ethanopharmacol. 2003 Oct;88(2-3):199- 204. doi:10.1016/s0378-8741(03)00212-5.
12. Benkeblia N (2004), Antimicrobial activity of essential oil extract of various onions (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum). Lebensm-Wiss u-Technol. 2004; 37:263-268. doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2003.09.0.
13. Lutterodt GD, Ismail A, Basheer RH, Baharuddin MH. Antimicrobial effects of Psidium guajava extract as one mechanism of its anti-diarrheal action. Malaysian. J Med. Sci. 1999; 6(2):17-20.
14. Mirghani MES, Liyana Y, Parveen Jamal. Bioactivity analysis of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil. In. Food Res. J. 2012 Jan; 19(2):569-575.
15. Rosiline James, Amit Mani. Dental Aerosols: A Silent Hazard in Dentistry. International Journal of Science and Research. 2016 November; 5(11):1761-1763. https://www.ijsr.net/search_index_results_paperid.php?id=ART20163159
16. Akanksha Singh, RG Shiva Manjunath, Deepak Singla, Hirak S Bhattacharya, Arijit Sarkar, Neeraj Chandra. Indian Journal of Dental Research. 2016; 27(2):160-162. https://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2016/27/2/160/183131
17. Nidhi Yadav, Bhavana Agarwal, Charu Maheshwari. Role of High Efficiency Particulate Arrestor filters in control of airborne infections, SRM Journal of Research in Dental Sciences. 2015 November; 6(4): 240-42. http://www.srmjrds.in on Tuesday, January 31, 2017, IP: 22.214.171.124.
18. Raghunath N, Meenakshi S, Sreeshyla HS, Priyanka N. Aerosol in Dental Practice – A neglected Infectious vector. BMRJ. 2016 April;14(2): 1-8. doi:10.9734/BMRJ/2016/24101.
19. Fischer G, Fodre S, Nehez M. Results of the study to determine marginal pathogen count values in the air of operating rooms. Z Gesamte Hyg. 1972 Oct; 18(10):729-733. PMID:4667236.
20. Rautemaa J.H. Meurman. Bacterial aerosols in dental practice a potential hospital infection problem? Journal of Hospital Infection. 2006 Sep; 64 (1):76-81. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2006.04.011.
21. Micik RE, Robert L, Miller et al., Studies on dental aerobiology. I. Bacterial aerosols generated during dental procedures. J Dent Res 1969 Jan-Feb; 48 (1) :49-56. doi:10.1177/00220345690480012401.
22. K. P. Jaiganesh., B. sreedharan, G.Arunachalam, R. Nirmla, R. Nepolian. Pharmacognostical and Antimicrobial Investigation of Jatropha curcas, Linn., Leaf. Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2013 Oct-Dec;3(4): 195-199.
23. Punasiya. R, Dinodorkar G, pillai S. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Flower extract of Murraya paniculata L. Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020 Jan - Mar;10(1):17-20. doi:10.5958/2231-5659.2020.00004.1.
24. Atal CK, Kapur BM. Cultivation and Utilization of Aromatic plants.H Panda.1982;312-17
25. Banfield. A.F. The wealth of India (Raw material) CSIR India 1950;11: 411-415.
26. Cowan MM. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 1999;12: 564-582. http://cmr.asm.org/content/12/4/564.
27. Olayinka AA, Anthony AJ, and Anthony OI. Synergistic interaction of Helichrysum pedunculatum leaf extracts with antibiotics against wound infection-associated bacteria. Biol Res 2009; 42:327-338.
28. Lutterodt GD et al., Antimicrobial effects of Psidium guajava extract
as one mechanism of its antidiarrhoeal action. Malays J Med Sci. MJMS. 1999;6(2):17.
29. Hammer KA, Carson Cf, Riley TV. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts. J
Appl Microbiol. 1999 Feb;86(6):985-90.
30. Shah Gagan, Richa Shri, Vevek Panchal, Narender Sharma, Bharpur singh, Mann AS. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of
Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf (Lemongrass). J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2011 Jan;2(1):3-8. doi:10.4103/2231-4040.79796.
31. Crawford M, Hanson W, Koker mes. The structure of Cymbopogon, a novel triterpenoid from
lemongrass. Tetrahedron Lett. 1975;16(35):3099-3102.