Author(s): Nidhi Sharma, Sudhanshu Sanadhya, Ramesh Nagarajappa, Gayathri Ramesh, Debasruti Naik


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00601   

Address: Nidhi Sharma1, Sudhanshu Sanadhya2, Ramesh Nagarajappa3, Gayathri Ramesh4, Debasruti Naik3
1Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Daswani Dental College and Hospital, Kota, Rajasthan.
2Department of Public Health Dentistry, RUHS College of Dental Sciences, (Government Dental College and Hospital), Jaipur, Rajasthan.
3Department of Public Health Dentistry, Institute of Dental Sciences, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan (Deemed to be University), Bhubaneswar, Odisha.
4Department of Dentistry, Chamarajanagar Institute of Medical Sciences, Kasaba Hobli, Yedapura, Chamarajanagar, Karnataka.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 15,      Issue - 8,     Year - 2022

Objectives: To assess the in-vitro antifungal action of propolis in contrast with the standard medications, fluconazole and chlorhexidine against Oral Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration) as well as MFC (Minimum fungicidal concentration) were attained from propolis, fluconazole and chlorhexidine against oral Candida albicans and GC-MS Analysis were completed. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Repeated measures ANOVA tests were used for comparison of quantitative data. Results: The mean zone of inhibition showed an increasing trend with increase in concentration of all the extracts. At all concentrations mean zone of inhibition was identified to be significantly highest with chlorhexidine. The mean zone of inhibition at 25mcg/ml concentration was found to be most noteworthy for chlorhexidine followed by ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Propolis. Conclusions: Propolis has an antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The mean zone of inhibition showed an increasing trend with increase in concentration. Candida albicans remained resistant to all propolis extracts at low concentration of 5 mcg/ml.

Cite this article:
Nidhi Sharma, Sudhanshu Sanadhya, Ramesh Nagarajappa, Gayathri Ramesh, Debasruti Naik. Antifungal activity of Propolis, Fluconazole and Chlorhexidine against Oral Candida albicans – A Comparative in-vitro Study. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(8):3589-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00601

Nidhi Sharma, Sudhanshu Sanadhya, Ramesh Nagarajappa, Gayathri Ramesh, Debasruti Naik. Antifungal activity of Propolis, Fluconazole and Chlorhexidine against Oral Candida albicans – A Comparative in-vitro Study. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(8):3589-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00601   Available on:

1.    Dota KFD, Consolaro MEL, Svidzinski TIE, Bruschi ML. Antifungal Activity of Brazilian Propolis Microparticles against Yeasts Isolated from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011; 2011:201953. doi: 10.1093/ecam/neq029.
2.    Kujumgiev A, Tsvetkova I, Serkedjieva Y, Bankova V, Christov R, Popov S. Antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity of propolis of different geographic origin. J Ethnopharmacol 1999; 64:235-40. doi: 10.1016/s0378-8741(98)00131-7.
3.    Kapare HS, Sathiyanarayanan L. Nutritional and Therapeutic potential of Propolis: A Review. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(7): 3545-3549. DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00627.7
4.    Kalia P, Kumar NR, Harjai K. Preventive effect of Honey bee propolis on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infected BALB/c mice: A Hematological Study. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(7): 3389-3393. DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00602.2
5.    Barry AL, Brown SD. Fluconazole disk diffusion procedure for determining susceptibility of Candida species. J Clin Microbiol 1996; 34:2154-7. doi: 10.1128/JCM.34.9.2154-2157.1996.
6.    Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ. Rare and emerging opportunistic fungal pathogens: concern for resistance beyond Candida Albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. J Clin Microbiol 2004; 42:4419-31. doi: 10.1128/JCM.42.10.4419-4431.2004.
7.    Yuvaraj S, Gheena S, Gopinath P. Comparison of Oral Candidal Flora of Diabetics and Non-Diabetics. Research J Pharm and Tech 2016; 9(10):1645-1646. DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00330.9
8.    Cowan MM. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol Rev 1999; 12:564-82. PMID: 10515903, PMCID: PMC88925.
9.    Kate RB, Jayasheela H. Effectiveness of Chlorhexidine vs KMnO4 Oral care on Oral mucositis among Head and neck cancer patients admitted in Oncology ward at Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni Bk. Int. J. Nur. Edu. and Research. 2019; 7(1): 55-59. DOI: 10.5958/2454-2660.2019.00011.5
10.    Harishmitha PS, Karthikeyan M, Jayanthkumar. Chlorhexidine and its Role on Oral Health. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 7(12): Dec. 2014; Page 1492-1493.
11.    Noor SSSE, Pradeep. Chlorhexidine: Its Properties and Effects. Research J Pharm and Tech 2016; 9(10):1755-1760. DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016. 00353.X
12.    Janani, Gajendran PL. Anti–Plaque Efficacy of cure next Gel, Hoira-sa gel in Comparison with Chlorhexidine Gel. A Randomised Control trial Study. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2018; 11(8): 3689-3692. DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00677.7
13.    Kengadaran S, Srisakthi D, Anusha D, Prakasam G, Kavitha M, Vigneshwari SK. Comparing the efficacy of Neem extract, Aloe vera juice, and 0.2% Chlorhexidine against dental unit waterline pathogens. an In-vitro study. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(4):2224-8. DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00395
14.    Suzuki M. Adsorption engineering: Kodansha. Available from: Elsevier 1990. Last accessed on 24.12.2017
15.    Osman MF, Taha EA. Anti-oxidant activity of water extract of propolis from different regions in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate. Alex J Fd Sci Technol 2008; 1:83-89.
16.    Valdes Gonzales G, Rojas Hernandez NM, Morales Vera C. Comparative study of the antimicrobial activity of propolis and that of antibiotics and conventional disinfectants. Ciencia Y Tenica en la Agriculura, Apiculura 1985;1:23-36.
17.    Miguel MG, Nunes S, Dandlen SA, Cavaco AM, Antunes MD. Phenols and antioxidant activity of hydro-alcoholic extracts of propolis from Algarve, South of Portugal. Food Sci Technol 2010;48(12):3418-23. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2010.09.014.
18.    Chandrashekar A, Muralidharan A, Koteshwara A, Alex AT, Subrahmanyam VM. Isolation and Characterization of an actinomycete strain producing an antifungal metabolite effective against Candida albicans. Research J Pharm and Tech 2019; 12(10):4601-4606. DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00791.1
19.    Egypt Z. Comparison of methods used in identification of Candida albicans. Research J Pharm and Tech 2018; 11(3): 1164-1168. DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00217.2
20.    Schwalbe R, Steele-Moore L, Goodwin AC. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing protocols: CRC Press, 2007, First Edition.
21.    Fernandes FF, Dias ALT, Ramos CL, Ikegaki M, Siqueira AMd, Franco MC. The "in vitro" antifungal activity evaluation of propolis G12 ethanol extract on Cryptococcus neoformans. Rev Inst Med tropical de S Paulo 2007; 49:93-5. doi: 10.1590/s0036-46652007000200005.
22.    George RM, Kasliwal AV. Effectiveness of Propolis, Probiotics and Chlorhexidine on Streptococcus Mutans And Candida Albicans: An In-Vitro Study. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences 2017; 16:15-8. DOI: 10.9790/0853-1603071518.
23.    Tyagi SP, Sinha DJ, Garg P, Singh UP, Mishra CC, Nagpal R. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of propolis, Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica (Neem) and 5% sodium hypochlorite on Candida Albicans biofilm formed on tooth substrate: An in-vitro study. J Conserv Dent 2013; 16:532-5. doi: 10.4103/0972-0707.120973.
24.    Dodwad V, Kukreja BJ. Propolis mouthwash: A new beginning. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2011,15:121-5. doi: 10.4103/0972-124X.84379.
25.    Ellepola ANB, Joseph BJ, Khan ZU. Effects of subtherapeutic concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate on germ tube formation of oral Candida. Med Princ Pract 2012; 21:120-4. doi: 10.1159/000332569
26.    Pizzo G, Giuliana G, Milici ME, D’Angelo M. Effect of antimicrobial mouthrinses on the in vitro adhesion of Candida Albicans to human buccal epithelial cells. Clin Oral Investig 2001; 5:172-6. doi: 10.1007/s007840100121.
27.    Shino B, Peedikayil FC, Jaiprakash SR, GA Bijapur, Kottayi S, Jose D. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine, coconut oil, probiotics, and ketoconazole on Candida Albicans isolated in children with early childhood caries: an in vitro study. Scientifica (Cairo) 2016; 2016:7061587. doi: 10.1155/2016/7061587.
28.    Paviani LC, Saito E, Dariva C, Marcucci MC, Sánchez-Camargo AP, Cabral FA. Supercritical CO2 extraction of raw propolis and its dry ethanolic extract. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering 2012; 29:243-51. DOI: 10.1590/S0104-66322012000200005
29.    Hernández-Pérez M, López-García RE, Rabanal RM, Darias V, Arias A. Antimicrobial activity of Visnea mocanera leaf extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 1994;41: 115-9.doi: 10.1016/0378-8741(94)90065-5.
30.    Chee HY. In vitro Evaluation of the Antifungal Activity of Propolis Extract on Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida Albicans. Mycobiology 2002; 30: 93-5. doi: 10.4489/MYCO.2002.30.2.093.
31.    Sforcin JM, Fernandes Jr A, Lopes CA, Bankova V, Funari SR. Seasonal effect on Brazilian propolis antibacterial activity. J Ethnopharmacol 2000; 73:243-9. doi: 10.1016/s0378-8741(00)00320-2.
32.    Shokri H, Katiraee F, Fatahinia M, Minooeianhaghighi MH. Chemical composition and antifungal potential of Iranian propolis against Candida krusei strains. Journal of Apicultural Research 2017; 56:581-7. DOI: 10.1080/00218839.2017.1371534.
33.    Ota C, Unterkircher C, Fantinato V, Shimizu MT. Antifungal activity of propolis on different species of Candida. Mycoses 2001; 44:375-8. doi: 10.1046/j.1439-0507.2001.00671. x.
34.    Oksuz H, Duran N, Tamer C, Cetin M, Silici S. Effect of propolis in the treatment of experimental Staphylococcus aureus Keratitis in Rabbits. Ophthalmic Res 2005; 37:328-34. doi: 10.1159/000087943.
35.    Katircio Lu H, Mercan N. Antimicrobial activity and chemical compositions of Turkish propolis from different regions. Afr J Biotechnol 2006; 5:1151-3.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available