Roaa Hatem Al Gburi, Raid D. Hashim, Hayder Ahmed Kadhim, Şevki Adam, Haider Abdulkareem Almashhadani
email@example.com , firstname.lastname@example.org
Roaa Hatem Al Gburi1, Raid D. Hashim2, Hayder Ahmed Kadhim3, Şevki Adam4, Haider Abdulkareem Almashhadani5,6
1Department of Health in Baghdad Rusafa, Kamal Al-Samarrai Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq.
2Department of Pharmacy, Al-Rasheed University College, Baghdad, Iraq.
3Medical Laboratory Techniques Department, Al-Rasheed University College, Baghdad, Iraq.
4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cankiri Karatekin University, 18100 Cankiri, Turkey.
5Department of Dentistry, Al-Rasheed University College, Baghdad, Iraq.
6College of Technical Engineering, The Islamic University, Najaf, Iraq.
Volume - 15,
Issue - 8,
Year - 2022
The Growth Differentiation Factor -15 (GDF-15) is a member of the transforming growth factor ß superfamily. It represents an example of the stress response cytokines. It's mostly found in cardiac myocytes, adipocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells, and vascular endothelial cells, whether they're generated normally or not. GDF-15 levels have increased and are associated with cardiovascular risk. Aim of the study: To investigate the correlation between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) with the level of plasma GDF-15 in a group of hypertensive patients. Materials and methods: A case-control study involved 90 individuals, 60 hypertensive patients (36 on ACE inhibitors and 24 on ARBs) and 30 healthy individuals. Serum GDF-15 was measured and compared statistically between the two groups. Results: serum GDF-15 was significantly higher in both groups of hypertensive patients compared to the control group. In addition, there was no significant difference in mean serum GDF-15 concentration between patients treated with ACE inhibitors with those treated with angiotensin II receptor blockers. Conclusion: GDF-15 increases in hypertensive patients and might be a reasonable marker of cardiovascular disease. Both ACE inhibitors and ARBs are not powerful enough to decrease GDF-15 concentration to that of the control group.
Cite this article:
Roaa Hatem Al Gburi, Raid D. Hashim, Hayder Ahmed Kadhim, Şevki Adam, Haider Abdulkareem Almashhadani. Correlation of Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers with serum GDF-15 in a group of hypertensive Iraqi patients. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(8):3466-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00580
Roaa Hatem Al Gburi, Raid D. Hashim, Hayder Ahmed Kadhim, Şevki Adam, Haider Abdulkareem Almashhadani. Correlation of Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers with serum GDF-15 in a group of hypertensive Iraqi patients. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(8):3466-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00580 Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2022-15-8-22
1. Hajar R. Risk factors for coronary artery disease: historical perspectives. Heart views: the Official Journal of the Gulf Heart Association. 2017; 18(3):109. https://dx.doi.org/10.4103%2FHEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_106_17.
2. Mensah GA. Hypertension and Target Organ Damage: Don't Believe Everything You Think! Ethn Dis. 2016; 26(3):275-278. https://dx.doi.org/10.18865/ed.26.3.275.
3. Aronow WS, Fleg JL, Pepine CJ. ACCF/AHA 2011 expert consensus document on hypertension in the elderly: clinical expert consensus documents. A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on clinical expert consensus documents. Circulation. 2011; 123:2434-2506. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2011.01.008.
4. Desai CS, Bartz TM, Gottdiener JS, Lloyd-Jones DM, Gardin JM. Usefulness of left ventricular mass and geometry for determining 10-year prediction of cardiovascular disease in adults aged> 65 years (from the Cardiovascular Health Study). The American journal of cardiology. 2016; 118(5):684-690. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2016.06.016.
5. Bang CN, Gerdts E, Aurigemma GP, et al. Four-group classification of left ventricular hypertrophy based on ventricular concentricity and dilatation identifies a low-risk subset of eccentric hypertrophy in hypertensive patients. Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging. 2014; 7(3):422-429. https://doi.org/10.1161/circimaging.113.001275.
6. Lovic D, Narayan P, Pittaras A, Faselis C, Doumas M, Kokkinos P. Left ventricular hypertrophy in athletes and hypertensive patients. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 2017; 19(4):413-417. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.12977
7. Okwuosa TM, Soliman EZ, Lopez F, Williams KA, Alonso A, Ferdinand KC. Left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiovascular disease risk prediction and reclassification in blacks and whites: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Am Heart J. 2015; 169(1):155-161.e155. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2014.09.013
8. Hegde SM, Solomon SD. Influence of Physical Activity on Hypertension and Cardiac Structure and Function. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2015; 17(10):77-77. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11906-015-0588-3
9. Hancock EW, Deal BJ, Mirvis DM, et al. AHA/ACCF/HRS recommendations for the standardization and interpretation of the electrocardiogram: part V: electrocardiogram changes associated with cardiac chamber hypertrophy: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Electrocardiography and Arrhythmias Committee, Council on Clinical Cardiology; the American College of Cardiology Foundation; and the Heart Rhythm Society. Endorsed by the International Society for Computerized Electrocardiology. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 53(11):992-1002. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2008.12.015
10. Bornstein AB, Rao SS, Marwaha K. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy. In: StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing; 2021.
11. Sharma D, Mehta DK, Bhatti K, Das R, Chidurala RM. Amlodipine and Atenolol: Combination Therapy Versus Monotherapy In Reducing Blood Pressure-A Focus On Safety And Efficacy. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020; 13(6):3007-3013. https://doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00532.6.
12. Ferdinand KC, Maraboto C. Is Electrocardiography‐Left Ventricular Hypertrophy an Obsolete Marker for Determining Heart Failure Risk with Hypertension? In: Am Heart Assoc; 2019. https://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.012457
13. Sai Baba K, Noorjahan M. The Biomarker Armamentarium for Heart Failure. Indian Journal of Cardiovascular Disease in Women WINCARS. 2017; 02(03):004-006.
14. Anghel L, Sascău R, Zota IM, Stătescu C. Well-Known and Novel Serum Biomarkers for Risk Stratification of Patients with Non-ischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy. Int J Mol Sci. 2021; 22(11):5688. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115688
15. Stojkovic S, Kaider A, Koller L, et al. GDF-15 is a better complimentary marker for risk stratification of arrhythmic death in non-ischaemic, dilated cardiomyopathy than soluble ST2. J Cell Mol Med. 2018; 22(4):2422-2429. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.13540
16. Lind L, Wallentin L, Kempf T, et al. Growth-differentiation factor-15 is an independent marker of cardiovascular dysfunction and disease in the elderly: results from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) Study. Eur Heart J. 2009; 30(19):2346-2353. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehp261.
17. Montoro-García S, Hernández-Romero D, Jover E, et al. Growth differentiation factor-15, a novel biomarker related with disease severity in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. European journal of internal medicine. 2012; 23(2):169-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2011.08.022
18. Kou H, Jin X, Gao D, et al. Association between growth differentiation factor 15 and left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients and healthy adults. Clinical and experimental hypertension. 2018; 40(1):8-15. https://doi.org/10.1080/10641963.2016.1273948
19. Jaleta GN, Gudina EK, Getinet W. Left ventricular hypertrophy among black hypertensive patients: focusing on the efficacy of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. BMC research notes. 2014; 7(1):1-8.https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-7-45
20. Ruggenenti P, Iliev I, Costa GM, et al. Preventing left ventricular hypertrophy by ACE inhibition in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes: a prespecified analysis of the Bergamo Nephrologic Diabetes Complications Trial (BENEDICT). Diabetes Care. 2008; 31(8):1629-1634. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc08-0371.
21. Thokada SS. A Case Report on Hepatic Encephalopathy in Chronic Liver Disease with Portal Hypertension. Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Science. 2019; 9(4):270-272. https://dx.doi.org/10.4103%2F1319-3767.101123
22. Chatki PK, Tabassum S. Analytical Methods of Dihydropyridines Based Calcium Channel Blockers-Amlodipine, Lacidipine, Isradipine, Nifedipine, Felodipine, Cilnidipine and its related formulations: A Review. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2021; 14(3):221-234. https://doi.org/10.52711/0974-4150.2021.00039
23. Vasudevan N. Flax Seeds-An Overview in Hypertension. International Journal of Advances in Nursing Management. 2017; 5(3):273-278. https://doi.org/10.5958/2454-2652.2017.00060.9
24. Sangle D, Naik A, Ghorpade A, et al. Cost effectiveness analysis study between Atenolol and Amlodipine in essential hypertension. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2013; 6(9):1001-1003.
25. Hussein SN. Study of the diagnosis and isolation of bacteria associated with dental caries in pregnant women in Baghdad province. EurAsian Journal of BioSciences. 2020; 14(1):2221-2227.
26. Algburi RH, Adem S, Hashim RD. Serum GDF-15 in Patients with essential hypertension. Biochemical and Cellular Archives, 2021; 21(1): 45-52.
27. Tektonidou MG, Papassotiriou I, Sfikakis PP. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) as potential cardiovascular risk biomarker in antiphospholipid syndrome. Rheumatology. 2021 Dec 24;61(1):394-399. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keab277. PMID: 33748838.
28. Wang J, Wei L, Yang X, Zhong J. Roles of Growth Differentiation Factor 15 in Atherosclerosis and Coronary Artery Disease. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2019; 8(17). https://dx.doi.org/10.1161%2FJAHA.119.012826
29. Wang W, Song X-T, Chen Y-D, et al. Growth differentiation factor-15 is a prognostic marker in patients with intermediate coronary artery disease. J Geriatr Cardiol. 2020; 17(4):210-216. https://dx.doi.org/10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.04.004
30. Sökmen E, Uçar C, Sivri S, et al. Association between Growth Differentiation Factor 15 and Non-Dipping Circadian Pattern in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Essential Hypertension. Medical Principles and Practice. 2019; 28(6):566-572. https://doi.org/10.1159/000501096
31. Hanatani S, Izumiya Y, Takashio S, et al. Growth differentiation factor 15 can distinguish between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hypertensive hearts. Heart and Vessels. 2014; 29(2):231-237. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00380-013-0337-y
32. Barma M, Khan F, Price RJG, et al. Association between GDF-15 levels and changes in vascular and physical function in older patients with hypertension. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. 2017; 29(5):1055-1059. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40520-016-0636-0
33. Shichijo S, Okura T, Nagao T, et al. Abstract P1119: Serum Gdf-15 is a Determinant Factor of Renal Vascular Resistance in Patients With Essential Hypertension. Hypertension. 2019; 74(Suppl_1):AP1119-AP1119. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-019-5278-0
34. Sökmen E, Uçar C, Sivri S, Çelik M, Güçlü K. Relationship of growth differentiation factor-15 with aortic stiffness in essential hypertension. Future Science OA. 2019;5(7):FSO406. https://dx.doi.org/10.2144%2Ffsoa-2019-0029
35. Nickel N, Kempf T, Tapken H, et al. Growth Differentiation Factor-15 in Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2008; 178(5):534-541. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.200802-235oc
36. Khan H. Uhplc/q-tof-ms method for determination of antihypertensive drugs and its application to pharmacokinetic study. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis. 2021; 11(1). https://doi.org/10.5958/2231-5675.2021.00004.1
37. Bouabdallaoui N, Claggett BL, Zile MR, et al. Circulating Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15) in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: Insights From PARADIGM-HF. Circulation. 2017;136(suppl_1):A16903-A16903.
38. Xue H, Fu Z, Chen Y, et al. The Association of Growth Differentiation Factor-15 with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Hypertensive Patients. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7(10):e46534. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046534
39. Rawat R, Joshi Y. Effect of Antihypertensive Drugs on Homocysteine level among Hypertensive Patients. Age (Years). 2018; 20(30):31-40. https://doi.org/10.0.23.70/2231-5659.2018.00037.1