Moumita Chowdhury, Pintu Kumar De, Himangshu Sekhar Maji
Moumita Chowdhury1,2*, Pintu Kumar De1, Himangshu Sekhar Maji1
1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, JIS University, 81, Nilgunj Road, Agarpara, Kolkata -700109, West Bengal, India.
2Guru Nanak Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, 157/F Nilgunj Road, Panihati, Sodepur, Kolkata - 114, West Bengal, India.
Volume - 15,
Issue - 6,
Year - 2022
Basella alba is a commonly available plant having significant quantity of mucilage present in its leaves and stem. The review focuses on the method of extraction of mucilage, its chemical composition, monosaccharide composition and various chemical and physical properties of mucilage. The rheological properties of B.alba mucilage, exhibiting pseudoplastic flow enable it to be used for formulating artificial human saliva. The B.alba mucilage is found to be used as disintegrating agent, binding agent, suspending agent, matrix former, gelling agent, encapsulating agent and as release retardant in pharmaceutical formulation. The properties of mucilage have been evaluated against standard excipient and confirmed of their adjuvant properties. The mucilage also possesses drag reducing ability due to which it can be used as natural flow improver in pipelines for reducing the frictional pressure drop. The plant is rapidly growing, commonly available and possesses wide additive properties; even then it remains under- utilized as pharmaceutical excipient so its versatility in targeted drug delivery, micro-/nano-drug delivery, tissue engineering and stimuli responsive delivery system is highly desirable. Apart from this, several opportunities of mucilage which are left unexplored is discussed in the review like formation of BioMEMS, formation of microneedles and as theranostic agents. Thus, the review explores various pharmaceutical applications and opportunities of B.alba mucilage to act as smart novel carrier in pharmaceutical formulation.
Cite this article:
Moumita Chowdhury, Pintu Kumar De, Himangshu Sekhar Maji. Exploration of Basella alba mucilage as a novel adjuvant in Pharmaceutical Formulation. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(6):2609-5. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00436
Moumita Chowdhury, Pintu Kumar De, Himangshu Sekhar Maji. Exploration of Basella alba mucilage as a novel adjuvant in Pharmaceutical Formulation. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(6):2609-5. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00436 Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2022-15-6-40
1. Baveja SK, Rao KV and Aroara J. Examination of natural gums and mucilages as sustaining materials in tablet dosage forms; part-II. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 1989; 51: 115–118.
2. Durso DF. Handbook of Water Soluble Gums and Resins. McGraw Hill, Kingsport Press, New York, NY, 1989; 12
3. Narkhede Sachin B, Vidyasagar G, Jadhav Anil G, Bendale Atul R and Patel KN. Isolation and evaluation of mucilage of Artocarpus heterophyllus as a tablet binder. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research 2010; 2: 161–166.
4. Naveen G, Naik VV, Kumar D and Samifer S. Effect of mucilage Abelmoschus esculentus as Tablet binder in Diclofenac Sodium matrix Tablets. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Sciences 2013; 2: 1320–1323.
5. Banker GS and Anderson NR. Theory and practice of industrial pharmacy. Varghese Publishing House Mumbai. 1987; pp. 296–303.
6. Kumar Shankul, Prasad A. K., Iyer S. V. and Vaidya S. K. Systematic pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological review on an ethno medicinal plant, Basella alba L. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy. 2013; 5(4): 53-58
7. Daniel M. Medicinal plants: chemistry and properties. Science publishers, New Hampshire, USA. 2006; 198.
8. Pareek Vijender, Singhv Manjitv, Bhat Z A, Singh Popinder, Kumar Dinesh, S. Sheela. Studies on mucilage of Basella alba Linn. Journal of Pharmacy Research 2010, 3(8):1892-1894
9. Cai, W., Gu, X., and Tang, J. Extraction, purification, and characterization of the polysaccharides from Opuntia milpa alta. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2008; 71(3), 403–410.
10. Chowdhury Moumita, Sengupta Abhijit, Chatterjee Sumana, Datta Lopamudra. Extraction and physicochemical characterization of Basella alba L fruit mucilage and its comparative study. JIPBS. 2018; 5 (2): 82-86.
11. Ramu G., Krishna Mohan G., Jayaveera K. N.. Preliminary investigation of patchaippasali mucilage (Basella alba) as tablet binder. International Journal of Green Pharmacy. 2011; 24-27
12. Saha Sarkar G, Roy NR, Bhattacharyya A, Bose M,Mishra R, Rana D, Bhattacharjee D and Chattopadhyay D:Taro corms mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patch: an efficient device for delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride. International journal of biological macromolecules. 2014; 66: 158-65.
13. Kokate C. K., Purohit A. P., Gokhale S. B.. Pharmacognosy. Pune, India: Nirali Prakashan; 2006
14. Chatchawal Chuennapa, Nualkaew Natsajee, Preeprame Srisomporn, Porasuphatana Supatra, Priprame Aroonsri. Physical and Biological Properties of Mucilage from Basella alba L. Stem and Its Gel Formulation. IJPS 2010; 6(3): 105-112
15. Bhat Vishnu, Nayak Ravikumar, Praveena M.B. Isolation and Evaluation of Disintegrating Properties Of Basella Alba Linn. Leaf Mucilage in Tablet Formulations. Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research 4 (2) 2015, 29-42
16. Chou, T. D., and Kokini, J. L. Rheological properties and conformation of tomato paste pectins, citrus and apple pectins. Journal of Food Science. 1987; 52(6): 1658–1664.
17. Hung Po-Yuan, Lai Lih-Shiuh. Structural characterization and rheological properties of the water extracted mucilage of Basella alba and the starch/aqueous mucilage blends. Food Hydrocolloids. 2019; 93: 413–421.
18. Palanuvej C, Hokputsa S, Tunsaringkarn T, Ruangrungsi N. In vitro glucose entrapment and alpha-glucosidase inhibition of mucilaginous substances from selected Thai medicinal plants. Sci Pharm 2009; 77:837-849.
19. Haq QN, Awal A, Chowdhury MK, Khan NA. Water-soluble polysaccharides from the leaves of Basella rubra. Sci Res 1969; 6: 63-66.
20. Pilpel N, Otuyemi SO, Kurup TR. Factors affecting the disintegration and dissolution of chloroquine phosphate/starch tablets. J Pharm Pharmacol 1978; 30: 214-9.
21. Seager H: Drug delivery products and the Zydis fast dissolving dosage forms. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1998; 50(4): 375-382.
22. Sharma Brijesh, Singh Lal Ratnakar. Pharmaceutical gels for topical drug delivery: An overview. International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2018; 3(2): 19-24.
23. Bravo, S.A., Lamas M.C. and Salomon C.J.: Swellable matrices for the controlled release of diclofenac sodium: formulation and in-vitro studies. Pharm. Dev. Technol. 2004; 9(1): 75-83.
24. Yamunappa, Ravi Kumar, Shetty Pooja, Suvarna Prathibha, Swamy Narayana VB. Isolation and evaluation of Basella alba linn. Leaf mucilage as release retardant in tablet formulation. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Technology. 2016; 8(2): 81-94
25. Harika B., Shanmuganathan S, Gowthamarajan K. Formulation and Evaluation of Controlled Release Cefixime Nanoparticles Prepared using Basella alba
Leaf Mucilage and Chitosan as Matrix Formers. Journal of Pharmceutical Science and Research. 2016; 8(2): 92-99
26. Das Sreeparna, Alam Md. Niharul, Batuta Shaikh, Ahamed Giassuddin, Fouzder Chandrani, Kundu Rakesh, Mandal Debabrata and Begum Naznin Ara. Exploring the efficacy of Basella alba mucilage towards the encapsulation of the hydrophobic antioxidants for their better performance. Process Biochemistry 2017; 61:178-188.
27. Pal Dilipkumar, Nayak Amit, Kalia Samir. Studies on Basella alba L. leaves mucilage: Evaluation of suspending properties. International Journal of Drug Discovery and Technology.2010; 1:15-20.
28. Manosroi A., Pattamapun K., Chankhampan C., Kietthanakorn B., Kitdamrongtham W., Zhang J., Manosroi J., A biological active artificial saliva formulation containing flower mucilage from Ceylon Spinach (Basella alba Linn.), Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 2020; 27(3): 769-776
29. Hayder A Abdulbari, Rosli Mohd. Yunus. A New Natural Drag Reducing Agent. IEEE Colloquium on Humanities, Science and Engineering Research (CHUSER 2012), Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia; December 3-4, 2012, 631-636
30. Hayder, A.B, Ahmad M.A., Yunus R.B.M. Formulation of Okra – natural Mucilage as Drag Reducing Agent in Different Size of Galvanized Iron Pipes in Turbulent Water Flowing System. Journal of Applied Sciences 2010; 10(23): 3105-3110
31. Hayder A.B., Letchmanan Kumaran, Yunus R.B.M. Drag Reduction Characteristics Using Aloe Vera Natural Mucilage: An Experimental Study. Journal of Applied Sciences. 2011; 11(6): 1039- 1043.
32. Ngwuluka, Ndidi and Ochekpe, Nelson and Aruoma, Okezie. Naturapolyceutics: The Science of Utilizing Natural Polymers for Drug Delivery. Polymers. 2014; 6:1312-1332
33. Bhosale, Rohit and Osmani, Riyaz and Moin, Afrasim. Natural Gums and Mucilages: A Review on Multifaceted Excipients in Pharmaceutical Science and Research. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. 2014; 6: 2014-15.
34. Singh, B.; Sharma, N. Modification of sterculia gum with methacrylic acid to prepare a novel drug delivery system. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2008; 43: 142–150.
35. Bharaniraja, B.; Jayaram Kumar, K.; Prasad, C.M.; Sen, A.K. Modified katira gum for colon targeted drug delivery. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2011; 119: 2644–2651.
36. Gliko-Kabir, I.; Yagen, B.; Penhasi, A.; Rubinstein, A. Phosphated crosslinked guar for colon-specific drug delivery: I. Preparation and physicochemical characterization. J. Control. Release. 2000; 63: 121–127.
37. Silva, D.A.; Feitosa, J.P.A.; Maciel, J.S.; Paula, H.C.B.; de Paula, R.C.M. Characterization of crosslinked cashew gum derivatives. Carbohydr. Polym. 2006; 66: 16–26.
38. Prajapati, V.D.; Jani, G.K.; Moradiya, N.G.; Randeria, N.P. Pharmaceutical applications of various natural gums, mucilages and their modified forms. Carbohydr. Polym. 2013; 92: 1685–1699.
39. Sen, G.; Pal, S. A novel polymeric biomaterial based on carboxymethylstarch and its application in controlled drug release. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2009; 114: 2798–2805.
40. Deshmukh, V.; Jadhav, J.; Masirkar, V.; Sakarkar, D. Formulation, optimization and evaluation of controlled release alginate microspheres using synergy gum blends. Res. J. Pharm. Technol. 2009; 2: 324–327.
41. Alvarez-Lorenzo, C.; Blanco-Fernandez, B.; Puga, A.M.; Concheiro, A. Crosslinked ionic polysaccharides for stimuli-sensitive drug delivery. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 2013; 65: 1148–1171.
42. Singh, B.; Sharma, N.; Chauhan, N. Synthesis, characterization and swelling studies of ph responsive psyllium and methacrylamide based hydrogels for the use in colon specific drug delivery. Carbohydr. Polym. 2007; 69: 631–643.
43. Attama, A.A.; Nwabunze, O.J. Mucuna gum microspheres for oral delivery of glibenclamide: In vitro evaluation. Acta Pharm. 2007; 57: 161–171.
44. Lee, J.W.; Park, J.; Prausnitz, M.R. Dissolving microneedles for transdermal drug delivery. Biomaterials. 2008; 29: 2113–2124.
45. Wu, W.; Shen, J.; Banerjee, P.; Zhou, S. Water-dispersible multifunctional hybrid nanogels for combined curcumin and photothermal therapy. Biomaterials, 2011; 32(2): 598-609.
46. Zhu, H.; Li, Y.; Qiu, R.; Shi, L.; Wu, W.; Zhou, S. Responsive fluorescent Bi (2)O(3)@PVA hybrid nanogels for temperature-sensing, dual-modal imaging, and drug delivery. Biomaterials. 2012; 33(10): 3058-3069.