Premala Krishnan, Kamala Krishnan, Chiew Jie Xiang
Premala Krishnan1*, Kamala Krishnan2, Chiew Jie Xiang3
1Lecturer, Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia.
2Lecturer, Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia.
3Year 3 Bachelor of Physiotherapy (Honours) Student, Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia.
Volume - 15,
Issue - 5,
Year - 2022
Background and Objectives: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a lifestyle disease that affects 463 million of adults worldwide. In Malaysia, DM especially Type 2 DM (T2DM) has an alarming increasing trend. Physiotherapy has been demonstrated to be effective in preventing and managing T2DM. Hence, a Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) survey is conducted to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and current practices of Malaysian physiotherapists in preventing and managing Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Malaysian physiotherapists were recruited to answer a KAP survey. The survey contained 44 items in four domains: demographics and education, attitudes and beliefs, current practices, and knowledge of diabetes. A descriptive analysis was completed for all the response variables from the survey. Results: 297 practicing physiotherapists in Malaysia predominantly from Kuala Lumpur and Selangor were recruited. The participants generally had a moderate knowledge in T2DM care, in which a lack of hypoglycaemia management knowledge was noticed. A great proportion of respondents was not confident in key aspects T2DM care. Even though 76.73% of respondents agreed that T2DM fall under physiotherapy scope of practice, only 55.22% provided counselling on T2DM prevention and management. A lack in practice of blood glucose testing and monitoring was also noticed in most of the respondents. A discrepancy between respondents’ self-efficacy and knowledge was observed, in which a proportion of respondents were confident in providing T2DM care but lacked the relevant knowledge. Conclusion: This study identified gaps in knowledge, attitude and practice on T2DM care by Malaysian Physiotherapists. Measures to close the gaps are therefore recommended.
Cite this article:
Premala Krishnan, Kamala Krishnan, Chiew Jie Xiang. The Knowledge, Attitudes and Current practices of Malaysian Physiotherapists in Preventing and Managing Type 2 Diabetes. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(5):2228-5. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00370
Premala Krishnan, Kamala Krishnan, Chiew Jie Xiang. The Knowledge, Attitudes and Current practices of Malaysian Physiotherapists in Preventing and Managing Type 2 Diabetes. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(5):2228-5. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00370 Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2022-15-5-52
1. National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2019.
2. Social Statistics Bulletin, 2019. (2019).
3. Abdullah et al, Validation of the comprehensive ICF core sets for diabetes mellitus:a Malaysian perspective. Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore. 2011; 40(4), 168–178.
4. Hussein et al. Diabetes Care in Malaysia: Problems, New Models, and Solutions. Annals of global health, 2015; 81(6), 851–862. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aogh.2015.12.016
5. Doehring et al. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Current Practices of Canadian Physiotherapists in Preventing and Managing Diabetes. Physiotherapy Canada. Physiotherapie Canada, 2016; 68(3), 298–306. https://doi.org/10.3138/ptc.2015-63
6. Dankoly et al. Perceived Barriers, Benefits, Facilitators, and Attitudes of Health Professionals towards Multidisciplinary Team Care in Type 2 Diabetes Management: a Systematic Review. Current diabetes reviews, Advance online publication. 2020; https://doi.org/10.2174/1573399816999201110200126
7. U. S. Mahadeva Rao et al. Cross-Sectional Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice regarding Diabetes mellitus among Medical and Non-Medical Students. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2018; 11(11): 4837-4841. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00879.X
8. Maharaj et al. Integrating Physiotherapists into Primary Health Care Organizations: The Physiotherapists’ Perspective. Physiotherapy Canada. Physiotherapie Canada, 2018; 70(2), 188–195. https://doi.org/10.3138/ptc.2016-107.pc
9. Launiala, A. How much can a KAP survey tell us about people’s knowledge, attitudes and practices? Some observations from medical anthropology research on malaria in pregnancy in Malawi. Anthropology Matters Journal 2009, 2019; Vol 11 (1).
10. Clinical Practice Guidelines Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (5th Edition). 2015; MOH/P/PAK/303.15(GU)
11. Mustapha et al. Variations in the Delivery of Primary Diabetes Care in Malaysia: Lessons to Be Learnt and Potential for Improvement. Health services research and managerial epidemiology, 2020; 7, 2333392820918744. https://doi.org/10.1177/2333392820918744
12. Ramli et al. The Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI): Issues and Challenges for Malaysia as a Trailblazer Country, 2019.
13. Lim S.C. et al. Impact of continuing medical education for primary healthcare providers in Malaysia on diabetes knowledge, attitudes, skills and clinical practices, Medical Education Online, 2020; 25:1, 1710330, DOI: 10.1080/10872981.2019.1710330
14. Clark, M., & Hampson, S. E. Comparison of patients' and healthcare professionals' beliefs about and attitudes towards Type 2 diabetes. Diabetic medicine: a journal of the British Diabetic Association, 2002; 20(2), 152–154. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1464-5491.2003.00896.x
15. Vasudevan N. J., Sara B. A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme on Knowledge regarding Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus attending Diabetic OPD, RMMCH, Annamalai University. Int. J. Nur. Edu. and Research 2(2): April- June 2014; Page 113-116.
16. T. Linda Daphne, Vijayarani Prince. A Study to assess the Effectiveness of Aloe Vera Gel Dressing on Wound Status among Patients with Diabetes Mellitus in Government Hospital, Dindigul. Int. J. of Advances in Nur. Management. 2019; 7(2):159-162. doi: 10.5958/2454-2652.2019.00038.6
17. P. Tamilselvi, Rajasankar, N. Kokilavani. A Study to assess the knowledge Regarding Diabetic foot Ulcer among Diabetic Clients in a selected Hospital, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu. Asian J. Nur. Edu. & Research 3(1): Jan.-March 2013; Page 01-04.
18. J. Bini Janet, K. Kanchana, T. Nirmala. Effect of Structured Teaching Programme on knowledge regarding Foot Care among Patients with Diabetes Mellitus at selected Hospital, Coimbatore. Int. J. of Advances in Nur. Management. 2019; 7(4): 336-338. doi: 10.5958/2454-2652.2019.00078.7
19. Rekha Kumari, Himani Chauhan. A Descriptive study to assess the Knowledge and Practices regarding Foot Care of Clients who are suffering from Diabetes in a selected community area of Haldwani block. Int. J. of Advances in Nur. Management. 2018; 6(3): 205-209. doi: 10.5958/2454-2652.2018.00045.8
20. Jenyfer Renu Margret W., Tamilselvi S., Christy Mekala V. A Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Buerger Allen Exercise on improving lower Extremity perfusion among patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus in selected Hospitals at Erode. Asian J. Nursing Education and Research. 2021; 11(2):249-252. doi: 10.5958/2349-2996.2021.00059.8
21. Sinam Ranjana Devi, B. Venkatesan. Effectiveness of foot Reflexology on Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain among Patients with Diabetes. Int. J. of Advances in Nur. Management. 2018; 6(2): 91-92. doi: 10.5958/2454-2652.2018.00019.7
22. Bani-issa et al.Perspectives on the Attitudes of Healthcare Professionals toward Diabetes in Community Health Settings in United Arab Emirates. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, 2015; 5, 1-11. doi: 10.4236/jdm.2015.51001.
23. Jingi et al. Primary care physicians’ practice regarding diabetes mellitus diagnosis, evaluation and management in the West region of Cameroon. BMC endocrine disorders, 2015; 15, 18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12902-015-0016-3
24. Abu Kahf et al. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Primary Health Care Physicians Regarding Diabetes Management: A Cross Sectional Study in Gharbia Governorate, Egypt. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, 2020; 17(4), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajmah/2019/v17i430169
25. Khan et al. Knowledge, attitude and practice of ministry of health primary health care physicians in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study in the Al Hasa District of Saudi Arabia, 2010. Nigerian journal of clinical practice, 2011; 14(1), 52–59. https://doi.org/10.4103/1119-3077.79241
26. Theban et al. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Diabetes among Saudi MOH Primary Healthcare Physicians in Jeddah: A Cross Sectional Study, 2019.
27. World Physiotherapy. (2019). Description of physical therapy, Policy statement.
28. Chinnasamy et al. Diabetes Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice – A Survey Among Oral Health Professionals in Victoria, Australia. Clinical, cosmetic and investigational dentistry, 2020; 12, 111–121. https://doi.org/10.2147/CCIDE.S240212
29. Rahman et al. How much does screening bring forward the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and reduce complications? Twelve year follow-up of the Ely cohort. Diabetologia, 2012; 55(6), 1651–1659. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-011-2441-9
30. Manoj Abraham M, Teh Shiueh Tyng, K. Rekha, Shanmugananth E, Kiruthika S. Comparison of Four Screening Methods for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Cross Sectional Study. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2018; 11(12): 5551-5558. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.01010.7
31. Smith et al. Musculoskeletal manifestations of diabetes mellitus. British journal of sports medicine, 2003; 37(1), 30–35. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.37.1.30
32. Pai et al. Musculoskeletal pain in people with and without type 2 diabetes in Taiwan: a population-based, retrospective cohort study. BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 2015; 16, 364. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-015-0819-4
33. Mohamed et al. DiabCare 2013: Across-sectional study of hospital based diabetes care delivery and prevention of diabetes related complications in Malaysia. The Medical journal of Malaysia, 2016; 71(4), 177–185.
34. Sharma Priya, Malik Sujeeta. Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme on Fasting Blood Sugar among Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus in a selected Community Health Centre of Dadra and Nagar Haveli area. Int. J. Nur. Edu. and Research. 2019; 7(2): 170-172. doi: 10.5958/2454-2660.2019.00034.6
35. Nidhin Abraham. Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme [STP] on knowledge regarding management of modifiable risk factors of Coronary Artery Disease in patients with Diabetes Mellitus in selected rural areas of Mehsana District. Int. J. Nur. Edu. and Research. 2017; 5(3): 310-314. doi: 10.5958/2454-2660.2017.00063.1
36. Binal D Joshi. A Study to Assess the effectiveness of self Instructional Module on the Knowledge and Practice of the Mothers of School age Children with Juvenile Diabetes in the Selected community area of Ahmedabad City of Gujarat State. Int. J. Nur. Edu. and Research. 2018; 6(3): 223-225. doi: 10.5958/2454-2660.2018.00051.0
37. Sangeeta M, Raghavendra N. S. A Study to assess the effectiveness of Planned Teaching Programme on knowledge regarding self care behaviour among people suffering from Diabetes Mellitus in selected urban health centres of Belgavi. Int. J. Nur. Edu. and Research. 2019; 7(3):399-402. doi: 10.5958/2454-2660.2019.00090.5