Dewi Melani Hariyadi, Noorma Rosita, Isnaeni, Sisunandar Sudarma, Deavisca Rezania
Dewi Melani Hariyadi1*, Noorma Rosita1, Isnaeni1, Sisunandar Sudarma2, Deavisca Rezania1
1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Airlangga, Campus C Jl. Mulyorejo Surabaya 60115, Indonesia.
2Department of Biology, Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, Indonesia.
Volume - 15,
Issue - 5,
Year - 2022
Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is mostly produced from Cocos nucifera L. Kopyor coconut from Cocos nucifera L.is a coconut that has fruit flesh apart from its shell with mainly consist of lauric acid, vitamin C and a-tocopherol as antioxidants. Kopyor coconut has high lauric acid content in the flesh or VCO and has been found effective against Propionibacterium acnes bacteria. To increase its acceptability as anti-acne or skin diseases, VCO of kopyor coconut was formulated into emulgel. VCO concentration as the active agent was used of 20% and 30%. A selected gelling agent was Carbopol 940 at concentration of 1% and 2%. The emulgel then evaluated for physical characterization such as viscosity, pH, spreadability, particle size, particle size distribution, and zeta potential. The emulgel was also tested for antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes and stability tests using thermal cycling method. The selected formula was formula 4 that had good zeta potential, suitable with skin pH, had a good particle size and distribution and was effective against Propionibacterium acnes bacteria.
Cite this article:
Dewi Melani Hariyadi, Noorma Rosita, Isnaeni, Sisunandar Sudarma, Deavisca Rezania. Virgin Coconut Oil Emulgel: Effect of VCO and Carbopol 940 Concentration on Characterization and Antibacterial Activity. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(5):2087-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00345
Dewi Melani Hariyadi, Noorma Rosita, Isnaeni, Sisunandar Sudarma, Deavisca Rezania. Virgin Coconut Oil Emulgel: Effect of VCO and Carbopol 940 Concentration on Characterization and Antibacterial Activity. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(5):2087-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00345 Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2022-15-5-27
1. Movita T. Acne vulgaris. Erha Clinic and Erha Apothecary (4th Ed.). 2013. 269-272.
2. Madelina W. Sulistyaningsih S. Review: Antibiotic Resistance in Antiacne Therapy. Farmaka. 2018; 16(2): 105-117. doi.org/10.24198/jf.v16i2.17665.g8481.
3. Chauhan SB. Formulation and Evaluation of Emulgel for the treatment of Acne. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020; 13(8): 3598-3602. doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00636.8
4. Satpute KL. Kalyankar TM. Investigation of Antiacne activity of some Medicinal Plants against Pathogenic Bacteria. Research J.ournal of Pharmacy and Technlogy. 2018; 11(7): 2776-2781. doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00513.9
5. Yang D. Pornpattananangkul D. Nakatsuji T. Chan M. Carson D. Huang CM. Zhang L. The Antimicrobial Activity of Liposomal Lauric Acids against Propionibacterium acnes. Biomaterials. 2009; 30(30): 6035–6040. doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.07.033.
6. Sukandar D. Hermanto S. Silvia E. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Virgin Coconut Oil from Fermentation of Rhizopus orizae. Indonesian Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2009; 11(2): 7-14. doi.org/10.14203/jkti.v11i2.157
7. Dahliatul Q. Ma Asuncion GB. Aulanni’ am A. Agri KA. Indah AA. Effect of Citrus acidity on profile of fatty acid in Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO). Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020; 13(2):791-794. doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00149.3.
8. Suryani. Sahumena MH. Mabilla SY. Ningsih R. Adjeng ANT. Aswan M. Yamin R. Nisa M. Preparation and Evaluation of Physical Characteristics of Vitamin E Nanoemulsion using virgin coconut Oil (VCO) and olive oil as oil phase with variation Concentration of tween 80 Surfactant. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020; 13(7): 3232-3236. doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00572.7.
9. Setiaji B. Prayugo S. Production of High Quality of VCO (2nd Ed.). Jakarta: Penebar Swadana. 2006. 1-70.
10. Aziz T. Olga Y. Sari AP. Production of VCO by Salting Method. Jurnal Teknik Kimia. 2017; 23(2): 129–136.
11. Eshtiaghi MN. Kuldiloke J. Formulation of Anti-Acne Cream Containing Natural Antimicrobials. International Research Journal of Pharmacy. 2013; 4(11): 20-25. doi.org/10.7897/2230-8407.041105
12. Roudhatini. Effectivity of Gel Antiacne of (X Citrofortunella microcarpa (Bunge) Wijnands) leaves against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Thesis. Faculty of Pharmacy Tanjungpura University. 2013.
13. Yani TN. Anwar E. Saputri FC. Formulation of Emulgel Ethanolic Extract of Binahong leaves (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) and In Vitro Activity against Propionibacterium acnes. Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy. 2016; 6(2): 89–97. doi.org/10.22435/jki.v6i2.2923.
14. Eswaraiah S. Swetha K. Lohita MP. Jaya Preethi. Priyanka B, Reddy KK. Emulgel: Review on Novel Approach to Topical Drug Delivery. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2014; 4(1): 4-11.
15. Redkar MR. Hasabe PS. Jadhav ST. Mane PS. Kare DJ. Review on Optimization base Emulgel Formulation. Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2019; 9(3): 228-237. doi.org/10.5958/2231-5713.2019.00038.2.
16. Shrikhande PV. Formulation and Evaluation of Polyherbal Topical Anti-Inflammatory Emulgel. Research Journal Pharmacy and Technology. 2013; 6(1): 118-122.
17. Rowe RC. Sheskey PJ. Quinn ME. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients (6th Ed.). Washington: American Pharmacist Assoc. 2009. 326-328.
18. Dewi CC. Saptarini NM. Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose and Carbomer and Its Physicochemical as Gelling Agent. Farmaka. 2016; 14(3): 1-9.
19. Rana N. Singh V. Ali M. Formulation and Characterization of Ginger oil loaded Polyherbal Emulgels having extracts of Nardostachys jatamansi, Andrographis paniculata and Celaestrus paniculatus. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020; 13(9):4077-4083. doi.org/ 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00720.9
20. Gite SS. Jadhav AJ. Zalte AG. Saudagar RB. A Review on Oils used in Herbal Cosmetics. Research Journal of Topical and Cosmetic Science. 2013; 4(1): 61-64.
21. Panwar AS. Upadhyay N. Bairaqi M. Gujar S. Darwhekar GN. Jain DK. Emulgel: Review. Asian Journal of Pharmacy & Life Science. 2011; 333-343.
22. Suganya S. Bharathidasan R. Senthilkumar G. Madhanraj P. Panneerselvam A. Antibacterial activity of essential oil extracted from Coriandrum sativam (L.) and GC-MS analysis. Research Journal of Science and Technology. 2012; 4(5): 203-207.
23. Suksaeree J. Chuchote C. Formulation and Characterization of Topical Anti-acne Spot Gel Containing Herbal Extract. Matec Web of Conferences. 2018; 237: 1-6. doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201823702005
24. Wardani EE. Quality Test of VCO Based on the Method of the Stirring Process with and Without Fishing and the Stirring Process. Thesis. Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Universitas Negeri Semarang. 2007.
25. Zettira N. Antibacterial activity of Gel Rosella Extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)-HPMC 6000 on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Thesis. Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Airlangga. 2016.
26. Beama CA. Effect of Lipid Ratio (Solid Lipid Cetyl Palmitate and Liquid Lipid Soybean Oil) on Stability and Effectivity of Resveratrol (in NLC) as Anti-Aging. Thesis. Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Airlangga. 2018.
27. Mardikasari. Formulation and In-Vitro Penetration Study of Topical Dosage Form of Nanoemulsion from Genistein of Sophora japonica Linn. Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016; 14(2): 190-198.
28. Abdurrahman HN. Mohammed FS. Yunus RM. Arman A. Demulsification of Virgin Coconut Oil by Centrifugation Method: A Feasibility Study. International Journal of Chemical Technology. 2009; 1: 59-64. doi.org/10.3923/ijct.2009.59.64
29. Novarianto H. Tulalo M. Content of Lauric Acid on Variety of Coconut as VCO Materials. Littri. 2007; 13(1): 28-33. doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v13n1.2007.28-33.
30. Sanjeewani NA. Sakeena MHF. Formulation and Characterization of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) Based Emulsion. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publication. 2013; 3(12): 1-6.
31. Fatimah F. Rorong J. Gugule S. The Stability and Viscosity of Virgin Coconut Oil Emulsion. The Stability and Viscosity of Virgin Coconut Oil-Honey Emulsion. Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan 2012; 23(1): 75-80.
32. Mu’awanah IAU. Setiaji B. Syoufian A. The Concentration Effect of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) on Stability of Emulsion Cosmetic and Sun Protection Factor (SPF) Value. Berkala MIPA. 2014; 24(1): 1-11.
33. Naibaho OH. Yamlean PVY. Wiyono W. Effect of Ointment Base on Formulation of Ointment of Ocimun Sanctum L. leaves extract on Rabbits Skin infected by Staphyloccocus aureus, Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi. 2013; 2(2): 27-33. doi.org/10.35799/pha.2.2013.1553.
34. Christianti L. Prakosa AH. Production of Virgin Coconut Oil by Fermentation of Yeast. Thesis. Faculty of Engineering Universitas Sebelas Maret. 2009.
35. Li LC. Tian Y. Zeta Potential in: Encyclopedia of Pharmaceutical Technology (1st Ed.). New York: Marcel Dekker. 2007; 429-458.
36. Utami DF. Optimation of Tween 80 as Emulsifying Agent and Carbopol 940 as Gelling Agent in Emulgel Sunscreen Aloe Vera Extract (Aloe barbadensis Mill.) with Factorial Design Method. Thesis. Faculty of Pharmacy Sanata Dharma University. 2016.
37. Danael M. Dehghankhold M. Ataei S. Hasanzadeh DF. Javanmard R. Dokhani A. Khorasani S. Mozafari MR. Impact of Particle Size and Polydisperity Index on the Clinical Applications of Lipidic Nanocarrier Systems. Pharmaceutics. 2018; 10(57): 1-17. doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020057.
38. Wei K. Ng M. Yazan LS. Yap LH. Hafiza WAG. How CW. Abdullah R. Thymoquinone-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carrier Exhibited Cytotoxicity towards Breast Cancer Cell Lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) and Cervical Cancer Cell Lines (HeLa and SiHa). Biomed Research International. 2015; 1-10. doi.org/10.1155/2015/263131.
39. Karouw S. Indrawanto C. Kapu’allo M. Characterization of Virgin Coconut Oil with Centrifugation Method using Two Types of Coconut. Bulletin of Palmae. 2014; 15(2): 128-133.