Author(s): Zainab


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00297   

Address: Zainab*
Poltekkes Kemenkes Banjarmasin, Indonesia.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 15,      Issue - 4,     Year - 2022

One of factors that influences the immunization coverage below the global target is immunization adverse events as well as local reactions, such as pain. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of topical shallots and whether they reduce the incidence of immunization adverse events in infants aged 0 - 11 months, especially the level of pain. This study used a quasi-experimental design with a pre-post design. The sample was infants aged 0 - 11 months. The experimental group consisted of 15 participants and the control group consisted of 15 participants. The pain was measured using the NIPS (Neonatal Infant Pain Scale). In this study, the experimental group was given shallots (Allium Cepa L. Var aggregatum) topically before they were rubbed around the area of the injection. The control group was not given any intervention. We measured the pain every day until 3 days post-immunization. The data was analyzed using the Wilcoxon Sign Rank test. The study showed that there were changes in the level of pain in the experimental group on day 1, day 2, and day 3 post-immunization (p < 0.05). There were also changes in the level of pain in the control group on day 1, day 2 and day 3 (p < 0.05). The frequency distribution data showed that no respondents experienced pain in the experimental group, whereas in the control group, there were still two respondents who experienced mild pain. This study recommends using shallots topically, where they are rubbed around the injection area to reduce the local reaction and pain.

Cite this article:
Zainab. The effect of the application of topical shallots on infant pain post-immunization. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(4):1775-8. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00297

Zainab. The effect of the application of topical shallots on infant pain post-immunization. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(4):1775-8. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00297   Available on:

1.    WHO. Immunization coverage reaches 84%, still short of 90% goal 2014 [Available from:
2.    Health Mo. Situasi dan Analisis Imunisasi. 2014.
3.    Bhattacharyya S, Vutha A, Bauch CT. The impact of rare but severe vaccine adverse events on behaviour-disease dynamics: a network model. Scientific reports. 2019; 9(1):1-13.
4.    Spencer JP, Pawlowski RHT, Thomas S. Vaccine adverse events: separating myth from reality. American family physician. 2017; 95(12):786-94.
5.    Kaur R, Kumari N, Kaur L. An exploratory study to assess the immunization coverage and factors leading to dropout among mothers of children in selected rural areas of district Mohali, Punjab with a view to develop an information booklet. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2020; 10(2):121-6.
6.    Panari H. Study on immunization among the mothers of under five children, Halaga Village, Belgaum, Karnataka. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2016; 6(2):191.
7.    Kaur G. An Exploratory Study to assess the Knowledge and Practices regarding Immunization among mothers of Infants attending Pediatric OPD of Bebe Nanaki Mother and Child Care Centre, Guru Nanak Dev Hospital, Amritsar. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2018; 8(3):379-84.
8.    Handono NP. Pemanfaatan Ramuan Tradisional Kombinasi Jahe Dan Bawang Merah Terhadap Skala Nyeri Pada Pasien Osteoartritis Di Dusun Matah Singodutan Selogiri. Jurnal Keperawatan GSH. 2020; 8(2):10-5.
9.    Cahyaningrum ED, Putri D. Perbedaan suhu tubuh anak demam sebelum dan setelah kompres bawang merah. MEDISAINS. 2017; 15(2):66-74.
10.    Shahrajabian MH, Wenli S, Cheng Q. Chinese onion, and shallot, originated in Asia, medicinal plants for healthy daily recipes. Notulae Scientia Biologicae. 2020; 12(2):197-207.
11.    Nurmala S, Moerfiah M, Purnama RT. Anti-inflammatory Activity of the Gel Containing a Combination of Neem Leaf Extract and Shallot Extract. Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research. 2020; 5(1):33-9.
12.    Teshika JD, Zakariyyah AM, Zaynab T, Zengin G, Rengasamy KR, Pandian SK, et al. Traditional and modern uses of onion bulb (Allium cepa L.): a systematic review. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition. 2019; 59(sup1):S39-S70.
13.    Mikaili P, Maadirad S, Moloudizargari M, Aghajanshakeri S, Sarahroodi S. Therapeutic uses and pharmacological properties of garlic, shallot, and their biologically active compounds. Iranian journal of basic medical sciences. 2013; 16(10):1031.
14.    Kohl KS, Marcy SM, Blum M, Jones MC, Dagan R, Hansen J, et al. Fever after immunization: current concepts and improved future scientific understanding. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2004; 39(3):389-94.
15.    Zafack JG, De Serres G, Kiely M, Gariépy M-C, Rouleau I, Top KA-M. Risk of recurrence of adverse events following immunization: a systematic review. Pediatrics. 2017; 140(3).
16.    Schechter NL, Zempsky WT, Cohen LL, McGrath PJ, McMurtry CM, Bright NS. Pain reduction during pediatric immunizations: evidence-based review and recommendations. Pediatrics. 2007; 119(5):e1184-e98.
17.    Fraenkel JR, Wallen NE, Hyun HH. How to design and evaluate research in education: McGraw-hill New York; 1993.
18.    Lawrence J, Alcock D, McGrath P, Kay J, MacMurray SB, Dulberg C. The development of a tool to assess neonatal pain. Neonatal network: NN. 1993; 12(6):59-66.
19.    Panda S, Mandal M, Satpathy M. Evaluation of the Extract of Allium cepa Linn. for Biochemical and Antibacterial Activities. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2016; 9(3):113-5.
20.    Lolok N, Mashar HM, Annah I, Saleh A, Yuliastri WO, Isrul M. Antidiabetic effect of the combination of garlic peel extract (Allium sativum) and onion peel (Allium cepa) in rats with oral-glucose tolerance method. Research Journal Pharmacy and Technology. 2019; 12(5):2153-6.
21.    Fadholly A, Ansori AN, Jayanti S, Proboningrat A, Kusala MK, Putri N, et al. Cytotoxic effect of Allium cepa L. extract on human colon cancer (WiDr) cells: in vitro study. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2019; 12(7):3483-6.
22.    Arifin B, Ibrahim S. Struktur, bioaktivitas dan antioksidan flavonoid. Jurnal Zarah. 2018; 6(1):21-9.
23.    Hollman PCH, Arts ICW. Flavonols, flavones and flavanols–nature, occurrence and dietary burden. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2000; 80(7):1081-93.
24.    Tan E, Braithwaite I, McKinlay CJ, Dalziel SR. Comparison of Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) With Ibuprofen for Treatment of Fever or Pain in Children Younger Than 2 Years: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA network open. 2020; 3(10):e2022398-e.
25.    Allegaert K, van den Anker JN, editors. Perinatal and neonatal use of paracetamol for pain relief. Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine; 2017: Elsevier.
26.    GÜNGÖR T, ŞAHIN ÖÖ. Analysis of two non-pharmacological pain management methods for vaccine injection pain in infants: A randomized controlled trial. 2021.
27.    Shijila MS, Tresa JJ. Effect of dry cold application on pain perception and ecchymosis among patients receiving low molecular weight heparin. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2016; 6(4):503.
28.    Arana A, Morton N, Hansen TG. Treatment with paracetamol in infants. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. 2001; 45(1):20-9.
29.    Shah V, Taddio A, Rieder MJ, Team H. Effectiveness and tolerability of pharmacologic and combined interventions for reducing injection pain during routine childhood immunizations: systematic review and meta-analyses. Clinical therapeutics. 2009; 31:S104-S51.
30.    Doss JJK. Effectiveness of foot massage on level of pain among patients with cancer. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2014; 4(2):228.
31.    Chithra P, D'Almeida S. Effectiveness of hand and foot massage on pain among women who have undergone abdominal hysterectomy in selected hospitals at Mangalore. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2014; 4(3):337.
32.    Pradhan R, Chhotaray A, Acharyya S, Bhowal G. Effectiveness of Breastfeeding on Intensity of Pain Prior to Immunizing Intramuscular Injection among Infants. AGE. 2016; 6:7WKS.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available