Author(s): Lia Agustina, Emilia Gan, Ninis Yuliati, Giftania W. Sudjarwo


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00263   

Address: Lia Agustina1, Emilia Gan2, Ninis Yuliati3, Giftania W. Sudjarwo4
1,2,3Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Institut Ilmu Kesehatan Bhakti Wiyata, Kediri, Indonesia.
4Department of Pharmacy Biology, Faculthy of Pharmacy, Hang Tuah University, Surabaya, Indonesia.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 15,      Issue - 4,     Year - 2022

Coronary heart disease is one of the deadliest cardiovascular disease in the world. Recent studies have shown an increase in aspirin resistance as a gold standard therapy causing recurrent heart attacks. Antiplatelet of natural resources thus need to be explored. Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to be effective as an antiplatelet, but the problem arose after consuming garlic prolonged is the presence of unpleasant breath and body odor which reduces patient compliance in therapy. Black Garlic is a product made of garlic which tastes delicious and does not smell pungent like raw garlic. There has been no study of Black Garlic as an antiplatelet before. The aim of this research was to determine the antiplatelet activities of aqueous extract of garlic (AEG) and Black Garlic (AEBG) and to evaluate their differences in human blood in vitro. This research was designed to be experimental posttest only, which was performed in 10 groups, namely the vehicle controls, positive controls, as well as the concentration groups of AEG and AEBG (each 1-4µg/µL). The antiplatelet activity was tested using the Born method, which measured the plasma uptake before and after induced with Papain. Evaluation was done by calculating the percent inhibition of platelet aggregation of the concentration groups relative to vehicle controls. The results showed that both AEG and AEBG have antiplatelet activities ([H=16.664; 5 df; p=0.005] and [H=16.225; 5 df; p=0.006] respectively). The inhibition of platelet aggregation is also shown to be significantly different in both samples [H=21.693; 7 d.f; p=0.003].

Cite this article:
Lia Agustina, Emilia Gan, Ninis Yuliati, Giftania W. Sudjarwo. In vitro Antiplatelet Activities of Aqueous Extract of Garlic (Allium sativum) and black Garlic in Human Blood. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(4):1579-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00263

Lia Agustina, Emilia Gan, Ninis Yuliati, Giftania W. Sudjarwo. In vitro Antiplatelet Activities of Aqueous Extract of Garlic (Allium sativum) and black Garlic in Human Blood. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(4):1579-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00263   Available on:

1.    Strauer BE, Myocardial Oxygen Consumption In Chronic Heart Disease: Role Of Wall Stress, Hypertrophy, and Coronary Reserve. Am J Cardiol.1979 Oct 44 (4) : 730–740.doi: 10.1016/0002-9149(79)90295-9.
2.    Wijeysundera HC, Machado M, Farahati F, Wang X, Witteman W, Velde G, et al. Association of Temporal Trends in Risk Factors and Treatment Uptake With Coronary Heart Disease Mortality, 1994-2005. JAMA.2010 May 303 (18) :1841–1847.doi:10.1001/jama.2010.580.
3.    Grossman E, Messerli FH. Diabetic and Hypertensive Heart Disease. Ann Intern Med.1996 Aug 125 (4) : 304–10.doi:10.7326/0003-4819-125-4-199608150-00009.
4.    Scheidt S. Changing mortality from coronary heart disease among smokers and nonsmokers over a 20-year interval. Prev Med.1997 July 26 (4 ): 441–446.doi:10.1006/pmed.1997.0185.
5.    Bennet A, Di Angelantonio E, Erqou S. Lipoprotein (a) level and risk of future coronary heart disease. Archives of Internal Medicine.2008 March 168 (6): 598-608.doi:10.1001/archinte.168.6.598.
6.    Watson RDS, Chin BSP, Lip GYH. ABC of Antithrombotik Therapy: Antithrombotic Therapy In Acute Coronary Syndromes. Clinical Review. BMJ. 2002 Dec 325 (7376) : 1348 - 1351.doi:10.1136/bmj.325.7376.1348.
7.    Schwinghammer, Terry L, Wells BG. Pharmacotherapy Handbook 9th ed. 2015; New York, Chicago: McGraw-Hill Education.
8.    Pramodh BM, Ashok KP, Shanmugasundaram. A Prospective Observational Study on Drug Use Evaluation of Antiplatelet Agents in Tertiary Care Hospital. Research J. Pharm. And Tech. 2017 Mrach 10(12): 4328-4332.doi:10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00793.4.
9.    Gholkar AA, Yogesh PN, Krushna KZ, Kavya VR, Akash DG. Potential Anticoagulant Herbal Plants: A Review. Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2020 June 10 (1): 51-55.doi:10.5958/2231-5659.2020.00010.
10.    Chilsom-Burns, M, Schwinghammer TL, Malone PM, Kolesar JM, Lee KC, Bookstaver PB, Pharmacotherapy Principles and Practice. Third Ed., New York: Mc Graw Hill. 133-167. 2013.
11.    Kishu, T. A review: Garlic, The Spice of Life. Asian. J. Research Chem. 2009 March 2 (1): 8-13.
12.    Parvathi, P. Garlic: A Golden Wonder. Research J. Pharm. And Tech. 2018 Sept 11 (1): 393-396.doi:10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00072.0.
13.    Hussein JH, Imad H H, Mohammed YH. A Review: Anti-microbial, Anti-inflammatory Effect and Cardiovascular Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum). Reseach J. Pharm. And Tech. 2017 Aug 10 (11): 4069-4078.doi:10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00738.7.
14.    Roshan S, Abdullah K, Sadath A, Tazneem B. Effect of Allium sativum in Immobilization Stress Induced Albino Rats. Research J. Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2010 May 2(4): 293-295.
15.    Bezlon G, Shanmugha SD, Rinu ERE. Design and Stabilization of Natural Antibacterial Compound Allicin Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus for Treatment as a Novel Antibiotic. Reseach J. Engineering and Tech. 2013 Oct 4(4): 179-181.
16.    Nidhiya ISR, Pratima AT, Satish YG, Ashok BV. Comparative Antioxidant Activity of Three Garlic Varieties: An in Vitro Study. Research J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2011 March 3(4): 162-165.
17.    Hermawan UE, Setyawan AD. Review: Senyawa Organosulfur Bawang Putih (Allium sativum  L.) dan Aktivitas Biologinya. Biofarmasi. 2003 Aug 1 (2): 65-76.doi:10.13057/biofar/f010205.
18.    Bayan L, Koulivand PH, Gorji A. Garlic: A Review of Potential Therapeutic Effects. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine. 2014 Jan 4 (1) : 1-14.
19.    Kendler BS, Garlic (Allium sativum) and Onion (Allium cepa): A Review of Their Relationship to Cardiovascular Diseases. Prev Med. 1987; 16 (5): 670-685.
20.    Srivastava KC, Bordia A, Verma SK. Garlic (Allium sativum) for Disease Prevention. South Afr J Sci.1995; 91 : 68-77.
21.    Sable KD, Kathwate GS, Mane SS. Formulation and Evaluation of Herbal Antidiabetic Tablet. Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2020; 10(3): 145-148.
22.    Rutuja RS, Rohan RV. Formulation and Evaluation of Antifungal Soap of Garlic Oil. Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2020; 10(1): 13-16.
23.    Choi IS, Cha HS, Lee YS. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Black Garlic. Molecules. 2014; 19 (10) : 16811-16823.
24.    Kimura S,  Tung Y-C, Pan M-H, Su N-W, Lai Y-J, Cheng K-J. Black Garlic: A Critical Review of Its Production, Bioactivity and Application. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis. 2017; 25 (1) : 62-70.
25.    Erfani IA, et al., Uji Aktivitas Antiplatelet Fraksi N-Heksana, Kloroform, dan Etanol Daun Belimbing Wuluh (Averrhoa bilimbi L) In Vitro. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Current Challenges in Drug Use and Development. 2016.
26.    Vogel HG. Drug and Evaluation: Pharmacological Assays. 2008.
27.    Born GVR and Cross MJ. The Aggregation of blood platelet. J Physiol. 1963. 168 (1): 178-193.
28.    Sukandar EY, Sigit JI, Fitriyani N. Efek Antiagregasi Platelet Ekstrak Air Bulbus Bawang Putih (Allium sativum L.), Ekstrak Etanol Rimpang Kunyit (Curcuma domestica Val.) dan Kombinasinya pada Mencit Jantan Galur Swiss Webster. Majalah Farmasi Indonesia. 2008; 19 (1): 1-11.
29.    Zhou L, and Schmaier AH, Platelet Aggregation Testing in Platelet-Rich Plasma: Description of Procedures with Aim to Develop Standards in the Field. Am J Clin Pathol. 2005; 123 (2): 172-183.
30.    Mesa MG, Piccineli AL, Valiente MAA, Pinto A, Fazio A, Rastreli L. et al. Inhibition of Human Platelet Aggregation in vitro by Standardized Extract of Wedtia calcina. Rev Bras Pharmacogn. 2011; 21 (5): 884-888.
31.    Faggio C, Sureda A, Morabito S, Sanches-Silva A, Mocan A, et. al., Flavonoids and Platelet Aggregation: A Brief Review. Eur J Pharmacol. 2017; 807 : 91-101.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available