Author(s): Suganya M, Sibikar Prabakar, US Mahadeva Rao

Email(s): raousm@gmail.com , raousm@unisza.edu.my

DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00222   

Address: Suganya M1, Sibikar Prabakar2, US Mahadeva Rao3*
1Post Graduate Student, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, People's College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.
2Post Graduate, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
3Professor, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 15,      Issue - 3,     Year - 2022


ABSTRACT:
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an active, problem-focused, and time-sensitive approach to treatment that aims to reduce emotional distress and increase adaptive behaviour in patients with a host of mental health and adjustment problems. Cognitive behavioural therapists deliver interventions in a strategic manner, such that interventions emerge from the customized case formulation of the patient’s clinical presentation, are delivered in a collaborative manner with the patient, are designed to move patients forward and directly towards meeting their treatment goals, It has been shown to be effective for a wide variety of mental health disorders, including anxiety disorders, Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), insomnia, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), social anxiety, autism, depression in children and adolescents. CBT has also been associated with improvements in quality of life in all the mental health disorders. CBT is typically conceptualized as a short-term, skills-focused treatment aimed at altering maladaptive emotional responses by changing the patient’s thoughts, behaviours, or both. It is the combination of one’s thoughts, feelings and behaviours. Cognitive therapy focuses on changing cognitions, which is proposed to change emotions and behaviours. Subsequently, the terms cognitive therapy, behavioural therapy, and cognitive-behavioural therapy have emerged. For the purposes of parsimony and to facilitate discussion of this diverse set of treatments, in this article we group the cognitive and behavioural therapies under the umbrella term “CBT” while acknowledging that the relative emphasis of cognitive vs behavioural techniques differs across treatment programs.


Cite this article:
Suganya M, Sibikar Prabakar, US Mahadeva Rao. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in Children and Adolescents. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(3):1330-6. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00222

Cite(Electronic):
Suganya M, Sibikar Prabakar, US Mahadeva Rao. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in Children and Adolescents. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(3):1330-6. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00222   Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2022-15-3-65


REFERENCES:
1.    Freeman J, Garcia A, Frank H, Benito K, Conelea C, Walther M, Edmunds J, 2014 Evidence base update for psychosocial treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. J. Clin. Child Adolesc. Psychol. 43(1), 7–26. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2013.804386 [PubMed: 23746138]
2.    McGuire JF, Piacentini J, Lewin AB, Brennan EA, Murphy TK, Storch EA, 2015 A meta-analysis of cognitive behavior therapy and medication for child obsessive compulsive disorder: Moderators of treatment efficacy, response, and remission. Depress. Anxiety 32(8), 580–593. doi: 10.1002/da.22389 [PubMed: 26130211]
3.    Torp NC, Dahl K, Skarphedinsson G, Compton S, Thomsen PH, Weidle B, Hybel K, Nissen JB, Ivarsson T, 2015 Predictors associated with improved cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 54(3), 200–207. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2014.12.007 [PubMed: 25721185]
4.    Arch JJ, Craske MG. First-line treatment: a critical appraisal of cognitive behavioral therapy developments and alternatives. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2009;32:525-547.
5.    Craske M. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. New York, NY: APA Books; 2010.
6.    Wang PS, Berglund P, Olfson M, Pincus HA, Wells KB, and Kessler RC (2005). Failure and delay in initial treatment contact after first onset of mental disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 603–613. 10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.603 [PubMed: 15939838]
7.    Wang PS, Lane M, Olfson M, Pincus HA, Wells KB, and Kessler RC (2005). Twelve-month use of mental health services in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 629–640. 10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.629 [PubMed: 15939840]
8.    Cullen B, Samuels JF, Pinto A, Fyer AJ, McCracken JT, Rauch SL, and Nestadt G (2008). Demographic and clinical characteristics associated with treatment status in family members with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 25, 218–224. 10.1002/da.20293 [PubMed: 17345603]
9.    Trusler K, Doherty C, Mullin T, Grant S, and McBride J (2006). Waiting times for primary care psychological therapy and counselling services. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 6, 23–32. 10.1080/14733140600581358
10.    DiMino J, and Blau G (2012). The relationship between wait time after triage and show rate for intake in a nonurgent student population. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 26, 241–247. 10.1080/87568225.2012.685857
11.    Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Waters EE. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSMIV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005; 62: 617–27. PMID: 15939839
12.    Kessler RC, Avenevoli S, Merikangas KR. Mood disorders in children and adolescents: an epidemiologic perspective. Biol Psychiatry. 2001; 49: 1002–1014. PMID: 11430842
13.    Mathers C, Boerma T, Ma Fa D. The Global Burden of Disease: 2004 Update. 2008. Available: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GBD_report_2004update_full.pdf
14.    Kessler RC. The costs of depression. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2012; 35: 1–14. doi: 10.1016/j.psc. 2011.11.005 PMID: 22370487
15.    National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. Depression: The treatment and management of depression in adults. 2010. Available: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg90/evidence/cg90-depression-in-adults-full-guidance2
16.    Cuijpers P, Van Straten A, Warmerdam L. Behavioral activation treatments of depression: a meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev. 2007; 27: 318–26. PMID: 17184887
17.    Butler AC, Chapman JE, Forman EM, Beck AT. The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clin Psychol Rev. 2006; 26: 17–31. PMID: 16199119
18.    Polanczyk GV, Willcutt EG, Salum GA, Kieling C, Rohde LA. ADHD prevalence estimates across three decades: an updated systematic review and metaregression analysis. Int J Epidemiol. 2014;43:434–42.
19.    Faraone SV, Asherson P, Banaschewski T, Biederman J, Buitelaar JK, Ramos- Quiroga JA, et al. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2015;1:23.
20.    Jarrett MA, Ollendick TH. A conceptual review of the comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and anxiety: implications for future research and practice. Clin Psych Rev. 2008;28:1266–80.
21.    Sciberras E, Mulraney M, Anderson V, Rapee RM, Nicholson JM, Efron D, et al. Managing anxiety in children with ADHD using cognitive-behavioural therapy: a pilot randomised controlled trial. J Atten Disord. 2018;22:515–20.
22.    Rapee RM, Schniering CA, Hudson JL. Anxiety disorders during childhood and adolescence: origins and treatment. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2009;5:311–41.
23.    James A, Soler A, Weatherall R. Cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;19(4).
24.    Jarrett MA, Ollendick TH. Treatment of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and anxiety in children: a multiple baseline design analysis. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2012;80:239–44.
25.    Suganya, M., and Mahadeva Rao US Yadavi Soondron. "Oral and Dietary Habits, and Immunological and Clinical Impacts on the Incidence of Dental Caries–A Review." Research J. Pharm. and Tech 7.11 (2014): 1348-1353.
26.    Rao, US Mahadeva, Suganya M. Utharkar, and C. Shanmuga Sundaram. "Halitosis: Classification, Causes, and diagnostic as well as Treatment Approach-A Review." Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 8.12 (2015): 1707.
27.    Thomas JJ, Becker KR, Breithaupt L, Murray HB, Jo JH, Kuhnle MC, Dreier MJ, Harshman S, Kahn DL, Hauser K, Slattery M, Misra M, Lawson EA, Eddy KT. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adults with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder. J Behav Cogn Ther. 2021 Mar;31(1):47-55. doi: 10.1016/j.jbct.2020.10.004. Epub 2021 Mar 3. PMID: 34423319; PMCID: PMC8375627.
28.    Luik, Annemarie I., et al. "Digital delivery of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia." Current psychiatry reports 21.7 (2019): 1-8.
29.    Luik AI, van der Zweerde T, van Straten A, Lancee J. Digital Delivery of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2019 Jun 4;21(7):50. doi: 10.1007/s11920-019-1041-0. PMID: 31161406; PMCID: PMC6546653.
30.    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.
31.    Morin CM, LeBlanc M, Belanger L, Ivers H, Merette C, Savard J. Prevalence of insomnia and its treatment in Canada. Can J Psychiatr. 2011;56(9):540–8.
32.    Morin CM, Drake CL, Harvey AG, Krystal AD, Manber R, Riemann D, et al. Insomnia disorder. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2015;1:15026.
33.    Roy AN, Smith M. Prevalence and cost of insomnia in a state Medicaid fee-for-service population based on diagnostic codes and prescription utilization. Sleep Med. 2010;11(5):462–9.
34.    Qaseem A, Kansagara D, Forciea MA, Cooke M, Denberg TD. Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of P. Management of chronic insomnia disorder in adults: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2016;165(2):125–33
35.    Riemann D, Baglioni C, Bassetti C, Bjorvatn B, Dolenc Groselj L, Ellis JG, et al. European guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of insomnia. J Sleep Res. 2017;26(6):675–700.
36.    van Straten A, van der Zweerde T, Kleiboer A, Cuijpers P, Morin CM, Lancee J. Cognitive and behavioral therapies in the treatment of insomnia: a meta-analysis. Sleep Med Rev. 2018;38:3–16
37.    Edinger JD, Carney CE, editors. Overcoming insomnia: a cognitive-behavioral therapy approach, Therapist Guide (Treatments That Work) (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Oxford University Press; 2014.
38.    Manber R, Carney CE. Treatment plans and interventions for insomnia: a case formulation approach. New York: The Guilford Press; 2015.
39.    Weiss JA, Thomson K, Burnham Riosa P, Albaum C, Chan V, Maughan A, Tablon P, Black K. A randomized waitlist-controlled trial of cognitive behavior therapy to improve emotion regulation in children with autism. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2018 Nov;59(11):1180-1191. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12915. Epub 2018 Apr 23. PMID: 29687457; PMCID: PMC6220772.
40.    Grant, Roy, and Molly Nozyce. "Proposed changes to the American Psychiatric Association diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder: Implications for young children and their families." Maternal and child health journal 17.4 (2013): 586-592.
41.    Howes OD, Rogdaki M, Findon JL, Wichers RH, Charman T, King BH, Loth E, McAlonan GM, McCracken JT, Parr JR, Povey C. Autism spectrum disorder: Consensus guidelines on assessment, treatment and research from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. Journal of Psychopharmacology. 2018 Jan;32(1):3-29.
42.    Mazefsky, Carla A., and Susan W. White. "Emotion regulation: Concepts and practice in autism spectrum disorder." Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics 23.1 (2014): 15-24.
43.    Thompson, Ross A. "Emotion and emotion regulation: Two sides of the developing coin." Emotion Review 3.1 (2011): 53-61.
44.    Samson, Andrea C., et al. "Emotion regulation in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder." Autism Research 8.1 (2015): 9-18.
45.    Stein DJ, Costa DLC, Lochner C, Miguel EC, Reddy YCJ, Shavitt RG, van den Heuvel OA, Simpson HB. Obsessive-compulsive disorder. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2019 Aug 1;5(1):52. doi: 10.1038/s41572-019-0102-3. PMID: 31371720; PMCID: PMC7370844
46.    Robbins TW, Vaghi MM and Banca P Obsessive-compulsive disorder: puzzles and prospects. Neuron 102, 27–47 (2019). [PubMed: 30946823]
47.    Phillips KA et al. Should an obsessive-compulsive spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V? Depress. Anxiety 27, 528–555 (2010). [PubMed: 20533367]
48.    Monzani B, Rijsdijk F, Harris J and Mataix-Cols D The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for dimensional representations of DSM-5 obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. JAMA Psychiatry 71, 182–189 (2014). [PubMed: 24369376]
49.    Stein DJ et al. The classification of obsessive–compulsive and related disorders in the ICD-11. J. Affect. Disord 190, 663–674 (2016). [PubMed: 26590514]
50.    Bienvenu OJ et al. The relationship of obsessive–compulsive disorder to possible spectrum disorders: results from a family study. Biol. Psychiatry 48, 287–293 (2000). [PubMed: 10960159]
51.    Brakoulias V, Perkes IE and Tsalamanios E A call for prevention and early intervention in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Early Interv. Psychiatry 12, 572–577 (2017). [PubMed: 29239120]
52.    Fineberg NA et al. Early intervention for obsessive compulsive disorder: an expert consensus statement. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol 29, 549–565 (2019). [PubMed: 30773387]
53.    Sarris J, Camfield D and Berk M Complementary medicine, self-help, and lifestyle interventions for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and the OCD spectrum: a systematic review. J. Affect. Disord 138, 213–221 (2012). [PubMed: 21620478]
54.    Amerio A, Odone A, Marchesi C and Ghaemi SN Treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder and obsessive–compulsive disorder: a systematic review. J. Affect. Disord 166, 258–263 (2014). [PubMed: 25012439]
55.    McGuire JF et al. A meta-analysis of cognitive behavior therapy and medication for child obsessive-compulsive disorder: moderators of treatment efficacy, response, and remission. Depress. Anxiety 32, 580–593 (2015). [PubMed: 26130211]
56.    Dell’Osso B et al. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in the elderly: a report from the International College of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS). Eur. Psychiatry 45, 36–40 (2017). [PubMed: 28728093]
57.    Skapinakis P et al. A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pharmacological and psychological interventions for the management of obsessive–compulsive disorder in children/adolescents and adults. Health Technol. Assess 20, 1–392 (2016).
58.    Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry.2005;62:593-602.
59.    Kessler RC, Ruscio AM, Shear K, Wittchen HU. Epidemiology of anxiety disorders. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2010;2:21-35.
60.    Olatunji BO, Cisler JM, Deacon BJ. Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: a review of meta-analytic findings. Psychiatr ClinN Am. 2010;33:557-577.
61.    Butler AC, Chapman JE, Forman EM, Beck AT. The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: a review of meta-analyses. Clin Psychol Rev. 2006;26:17-31.
62.    Stewart RE, Chambless DL. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult anxiety disorders in clinical practice: a meta-analysis of effectiveness studies. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2009;77:595-606.
63.    Hofmann SG, Smits JA. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69:621-632.
64.    Klein DF. Flawed meta-analyses comparing psychotherapy with pharmacotherapy.Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157:1204-1211.
65.    Arch JJ, Craske MG. First-line treatment: a critical appraisal of cognitive behavioral therapy developments and alternatives. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2009;32:525-547.
66.    Norton PJ, Price EC. A meta-analytic review of adult cognitive-behavioral treatment outcome across the anxiety disorders. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2007;195:521-531.
67.    Stewart RE, Chambless DL. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult anxiety disorders in clinical practice: a meta-analysis of effectiveness studies. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2009;77:595-606.
68.    Bisson J, Andrew M. Psychological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007:CD003388.
69.    Stewart RE, Chambless DL. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult anxiety disorders in clinical practice: a meta-analysis of effectiveness studies. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2009;77:595-606.
70.    Fowler D, Garety P, Kuipers E. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychosis: Theory and Practice. Chichester, UK: Wiley; 1995.
71.    Chadwick P, Birchwood M, Trower P. CognitiveBehaviour Therapy for Delusions, Voices and Paranoia. Chichester, UK: Wiley; 1996.
72.    Otte, Christian. "Cognitive behavioral therapy in anxiety disorders: current state of the evidence." Dialogues in clinical neuroscience 13.4 (2011): 413.
73.    Kingdon D, Turkington D. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy of Schizophrenia. Hove, UK:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1994.
74.    Morrison A, Renton J, Dunn H, Williams S,Bentall R. Cognitive Therapy for Psychosis: A Formulation-Based Approach. New York, NY:Routledge; 2004.
75.    Bighelli I, Salanti G, Huhn M, et al. Psychological interventions to reduce positive symptoms in schizophrenia: systematic review and network meta-analysis. World Psychiatry. 2018;17(3):316- 329. doi:10.1002/wps.20577.
76.    Wright NP, Turkington D, Kelly OP, DaviesD, Jacobs AM, Hopton J. Treating Psychosis: A Clinician’s Guide to Integrating Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Compassion-Focused Therapy and Mindfulness Approaches within the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Tradition. Oakland; CA: New Harbinger; 2014.
77.    National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. 2019 Exceptional Surveillance of Psychosis and Schizophrenia in Adults: Prevention and Management (NICE Guideline CG178).London, UK: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence; 2019.
78.    Lincoln T, Pedersen A, Hahlweg K, WiedlK-H, Frantz I. Evidenzbasierte Leitlinie zur Psychotherapie von Schizophrenie und anderen psychotischen Störungen [Evidence-Based Guideline for the Psychotherapy of Schizophrenia and OtherPsychotic Disorders]. Göttingen, Germany:Hogrefe; 2019.
79.    Gaebel W, Alkomiet H, Falkai P. S3-LeitlinieSchizophrenie. Berlin, Germany: Springer;2019.
80.    Galletly C, Castle D, Dark F, et al. RoyalAustralian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for the management of schizophrenia and related disorders. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2016;50(5):410-472. doi:10.1177/0004867416641195.
81.    Moritz, Steffen, and Todd S. Woodward. "Metacognitive training in schizophrenia: from basic research to knowledge translation and intervention." Current Opinion in Psychiatry 20.6 (2007): 619-625.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

0.38
2018CiteScore
 
56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus


SCImago Journal & Country Rank


Recent Articles




Tags


Not Available