Author(s): Rahaf Mahfoud, Rim Salame

Email(s): ,

DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00191   

Address: Rahaf Mahfoud1, Rim Salame2
1Master Student in Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Drug Control Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.
2Doctor in Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 15,      Issue - 3,     Year - 2022

Spartium junecum L. was collected from Baksa in Lattakia, Syria, and studied morphologically depending on characteristics of plant life-form, flowers, leaves, fruits and seeds according to specialized floras, in addition to some characteristics of stomata types, trichomes, pollen grains and fibers that have been demonstrated by this study. The study of the leaves stomata confirmed the presence of 4 types, namely; anisocytic, isotricytic, brachyparahexacytic, and tetracytic. The type of trichomes was the same in all the studied areas, which is: non-glandular trichomes with different densities. Pollen grains were, tricolpate, triangular, the dimensions of the polar axis and equatorial axis were (35µm), and (31µm), respectively. Spartium junecum L. cellulose fibers were extracted by DiCoDe method (digestion–compression–decompression). The morphology of the obtained fibers was studied by optical microscopy (OM). The results showed that Spartium junecum L. fibers are elementary fibers arranged in bundles. The diameter of a single elementary fiber ranged from 7 to 10µm approximately, while the diameter of the whole bundle was about (50µm). The cross-sections showed an irregular polygonal shape with a very much characterized lumen. The essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from the dried flowers of Spartium junceum L. was investigated by Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. The GC/MS analysis of the oil revealed the presence of 6 constituents, of which heptacosene (28.75%), 3-ethyl-5-(2-ethylbutyl)-octadecane (22.45%), heptacosane (21.2%) and heneicosane (18.82%) were the major compounds constituting altogether almost 91.22% of the total composition.

Cite this article:
Rahaf Mahfoud, Rim Salame. A Study of some Morphological and Essential Oil Characteristics of Spartium junecum L. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(3):1137-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00191

Rahaf Mahfoud, Rim Salame. A Study of some Morphological and Essential Oil Characteristics of Spartium junecum L. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(3):1137-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00191   Available on:

1.    Alege GO. Shaibu DO. Phylogenetic and systematic value of leaf epidermal characteristics in some members of Nigerian Fabaceae. International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology. 2015; 3(2):301-7.doi: 10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12733  
2.    Kumar AS. Ramaswamy NM. Anti-Inflammatory activity of Sesbania Grandiflora (Fabaceae). Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2009; 2(1):214-5.
3.    Shankar S. Sathiavelu M. A Comparative Study on the Biological Activities of Medicinal Plants Leaf Extracts Belongs to the Family Fabaceae. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2019; 12(3):1129-36.doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00186.0 ‏
4.    Post GE. Dinsmore JE. Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai: a handbook of the flowering plants and ferns, native and naturalized from the Taurus to Ras Muhammad and from the Meditarranean sea to the Syrian desert. 2nd ed. American Press, Beirut. 1932.
5.    Jafri S. El-Gadi A. Flora of Libya. 60, Mimosaceae. Al Faateh University, Dept. of Botany, Tripoli. 1978.
6.    Cronquist A. An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. Columbia University Press, N.Y. 1981 (In: Classification of plants, AL Sahar F K.1997).
7.    Carmona MD. Llorach R. Obon C. Rivera D. “Zahraa”, a Unani multicomponent herbal tea widely consumed in Syria: components of drug mixtures and alleged medicinal properties. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2005; 102(3):344-50.doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.06.030
8.    Yeşilada E. Takaishi Y. Fujita T. Sezik E. Anti-ulcerogenic effects of Spartium junceum flowers on in vivo test models in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2000; 70(3):219-26.doi: 10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00180-4
9.    Duman R. Doğan HH. Karakış H. Antiviral Activity of Spartium Junceum against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1: an in-vitro study. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2019; 10(7): 3274-3282.doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.10(7).3274-82
10.    Abusamra YA. Scuruchi M. Habibatni S. Maammeri Z. Benayache S. D'Ascola A. Avenoso A. et al Evaluation of putative cytotoxic activity of crude extracts from Onopordum acanthium leaves and Spartium junceum flowers against the U-373 glioblastoma cell line. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015; 28(4).
11.    Baccetti B. Burrini AG. Chen JS. Collodel G. Giachetti D. Matteucci F. Menesini-Chen MG. Moretti E. Piomboni P. Sensini C. Evaluation of the antifertility activity of the broom Spartium junceum in the mammalian male. Zygote. 1993; (1):71-8.doi: 10.1017/S0967199400001313
12.    Zengin G. Mahomoodally MF. Picot-Allain CM. Cakmak YS. Uysal S. Aktumsek A. In vitro tyrosinase inhibitory and antioxidant potential of Consolida orientalis, Onosma isauricum and Spartium junceum from Turkey. South African Journal of Botany. 2019; 120:119-23.doi: 10.1016/j.sajb.2018.01.010
13.    Habibatni S. Miceli N. Ginestra G. Maameri Z. Bisignano C. Cacciola F. Utczas M. et al Original Research Article Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of extract and phases from stems of Spartium junceum L. growing in Algeria. International Journal of Phytomedicine. 2016; 8:37-46.
14.    Rocha LG. Almeida JR. Macedo RO. Barbosa-Filho JM. A review of natural products with antileishmanial activity. Phytomedicine. 2005; 12(6-7):514-35.doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2003.10.006
15.    Menghini L. Massarelli P. Bruni G. Pagiotti R. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Spartium junceum L. flower extracts: a preliminary study. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2006; 9(3): 386-90.doi: 10.1089/jmf.2006.9.386
16.    Genders R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale, London .1994.
17.    Ghasemi Y. Abedtash H. Morowvat MH. Mohagheghzadeh A. Ardeshir-Rouhani-Fard S. Essential oil composition and bioinformatic analysis of Spanish broom (Spartium junceum L.). Trends in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015; 1(2):97-104.
18.    Katović D. Katović A. Krnčević M. Spanish broom (Spartium junceum L.)—history and perspective. Journal of Natural Fibers. 2011; 8(2):81-98.doi: 10.1080/15440478.2011.577277
19.    Bledzki AK. Gassan J. Composites reinforced with cellulose based fibres. Progress in Polymer Science. 1999; 24(2):221-74.doi: 10.1016/S0079-6700(98)00018-5
20.    Babu NT. Singh AK. Mandliya A. Singh A. Prabha RD. Evaluation of Flexural Strength of Epoxy Resin Based hybrid Composites Reinforced with Jute, Banana and Flax Natural Fibers for Bio medical applications. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2018; 11(2): 547-52.doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00102.6
21.    Ratnaparkhi MP. Andhale RS. Karnawat GR. Nanofibers–A Newer Technology. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(4): 2321-7.doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00410
22.    Angelini LG. Lazzeri A. Levita G. Fontanelli D. Bozzi C. Ramie (Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud.) and Spanish Broom (Spartium junceum L.) fibres for composite materials: agronomical aspects, morphology and mechanical properties. Industrial Crops and Products. 2000; 11(2-3):145-61.doi: 10.1016/S0926-6690(99)00059-X
23.    Cerchiara T. Giordani B. Melgoza LM. Prata C. Parolin C. Dalena F. Abruzzo A. et al New spanish broom dressings based on vitamin E and Lactobacillus plantarum for superficial skin wounds. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2020; 56:101499.doi: 10.1016/j.jddst.2020.101499
24.    Cerchiara T. Abruzzo A. Palomino RA. Vitali B. De Rose R. Chidichimo G. Ceseracciu L. et al Spanish Broom (Spartium junceum L.) fibers impregnated with vancomycin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles as new antibacterial wound dressing: Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 99:105-12.doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2016.11.028
25.    Juradin S. Boko I. Grubeša IN. Jozić D. Mrakovčić S. Influence of harvesting time and maceration method of Spanish Broom (Spartium junceum L.) fibers on mechanical properties of reinforced cement mortar. Construction and Building Materials. 2019; 225:243-55.doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.07.207
26.    Kovačević Z. Bischof S. Vujasinović E. Fan M. The potential of nanoclay modified Spartium junceum L. fibres used as reinforcement in PLA matrix composites for automotive applications. International Journal of Nanotechnology. 2018; 15(8-10):695-700.doi: 10.1504/IJNT.2018.098436 ‏
27.    Cerchiara T. Chidichimo G. Gallucci MC. Ferraro R. Vuono D. Nastro A. Use of Spanish broom (Spartium junceum L.) canvas as a painting support: Evaluation of the effects of environmental conditions. Journal of cultural heritage. 2009; 10(3):396-402.doi: 10.1016/j.culher.2008.12.002‏
28.    Mouterde P. Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie. volume 2. Dar el-Machreq, Beirut. 1970.
29.    Sass J E. Botanical Microtechnique (2nd ed.). Iowa State College Press, Ames IA, USA. 1951.
30.    Gabriele B. Cerchiara T. Salerno G. Chidichimo G. Vetere MV. Alampi C. Gallucci MC. et al A new physical–chemical process for the efficient production of cellulose fibers from Spanish broom (Spartium junceum L.). Bioresource Technology. 2010; 101(2):724-9.doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.08.014
31.    Erdtman G. The acetolysis method-a revised description. Sven Bot Tidskr, 1960; 54: 516-564. ‏
32.    Zohary M. Flora Palaestina, Part 2, Text Platanaceae to Umbelliferae. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem. 1972.
33.    Masoumi SM. Fathi N. Hajmoradi F. Baghaeifar Z. The micromorphological investigation of pollen grains of some important allergenic plants in Kermanshah (West of Iran). Cellular and Molecular Biology. 2019; 65(8):32-8.doi: 10.14715/cmb/2019.65.8.6
34.    Sosam AA. Al-Mayyahi TF. Pollen Morphology of Some Species of Cypeus L. and Bolboschoneus is Growing in Diwaniyah River. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2018; 11(4): 1573-9.doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00293.7
35.    Prabhakar M. Structure, delimitation, nomenclature and classification of stomata. acta botanica sinica-english edition-. 2004; 46(2):242-52.
36.    Reddy CR. Vijayabhaskar K. Srikanth M. Rao PS. Morphology and Microscopical Studies of Leaves, Stem and Roots of Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. Tella galijeru (Aizoaceae). Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2019; 11(4): 132-6.doi: 10.5958/2321-5836.2019.00023.5 ‏
37.    Dmitruk M. Weryszko-Chmielewska E. Morphological differentiation and distribution of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Dracocephalum moldavicum L. shoots. Acta Agrobotanica. 2010; 63(1).doi: 10.5586/aa.2010.002
38.    Kovačević Z. Vukušić SB. Zimniewska M. Comparison of Spanish broom (Spartium junceum L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum) fibre. Textile Research Journal. 2012; 82(17):1786-98.doi: 10.1177/0040517512447526
39.    Del Río C. Caballero JM. Preliminary Agronomical Characterization of 131 Cultivars Introduced in The Olive Germplasm Bank of Cordoba in March 1987. Acta Hortic. 1994; 356: 110-115.doi: 10.17660/ActaHortic.1994.356.24
40.    Padmavathi D. Deshpande N. Sarala A. Dillenia indica: a review on morphology, phytochemistry and pharmacological aspects. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2011;4(7):1037-9.
41.    Aher N. Chaudhari S. Zalte A. Morphological and microscopical studies and Phytochemical analysis of Markhamia falcata (Seem). Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020; 13(3): 1117-20.doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020. 00205.X
42.    Tiwari P. Ansari VA. Mahmood T. Ahsan F. A Review on Taxonomical Classification, Phytochemical Constituents and Therapeutic Potential of Ficus religiosa (Peepal). Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2019;12(11):5614-20. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00972.7
43.    Oliveira AC. De Borges RL. Perez AP. Lewis GP. Silva JS. Characteristics of the exine and aperture of pollen grains of Eriosema and Rhynchosia (Leguminosae–Papilionoideae–Phaseoleae). Grana. 2019; 58(4):292-307.doi: 10.1080/00173134.2019.1600576
44.    Tamta R. Trichome structure and distribution in the family Fabaceae Lindl (Doctoral dissertation, GB Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand)). 2018.
45.    Arnold E. Stace CA. Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics. Hoddoer and Stoughton, London. 1989.
46.    Miraldi E. Ferri S. Giorgi G. Identification of volatile constituents from the flower oil of Spartium junceum. Journal of Essential Oil Research. 2004; 16(6):568-70.doi: 10.1080/10412905.2004.9698800
47.    Owen S. Boissard C. Street RA. Duckham SC. Csiky O. Hewitt CN. Screening of 18 Mediterranean plant species for volatile organic compound emissions. Atmospheric Environment. 1997; 31:101-17.doi: 10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00078-2
48.    Salih B. Çelikbıçak Ö. editors. Gas Chromatography in Plant Science, Wine Technology, Toxicology and Some Specific Applications. BoD–Books on Demand. 2012.
49.    Vanitha V. Vijayakumar S. Nilavukkarasi M. Punitha VN. Vidhya E. Praseetha PK. Heneicosane—A novel microbicidal bioactive alkane identified from Plumbago zeylanica L. Industrial Crops and Products. 2020; 154:112748.doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2020.112748
50.    Marrufo T. Nazzaro F. Mancini E. Fratianni F. Coppola R. De Martino L. Agostinho AB. et al Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil from leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. cultivated in Mozambique. Molecules. 2013; 18(9):10989-1000.doi: 10.3390/molecules180910989
51.    Joshi RK. Essential oil composition of Thymus linearis (Benth) from western Himalaya of Uttrakhand, India. Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2016; 6(4): 199-201.doi: 10.5958/2231-5713.2016.00029.5
52.    Subasree S. Geetha RV. Essential oils in prevention of Dental Caries-An In-Vitro study. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2015;8(7):909-11.doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2015.00148.1
53.    Paul AV. Singh S. Singh AK. Kairomonal effect of some saturated hydrocarbons on the egg parasitoids, Trichogramma brasiliensis (Ashmead) and Trichogramma exiguum, Pinto, Platner and Oatman (Hym., Trichogrammatidae). Journal of Applied Entomology. 2002; 126(7-8):409-16.doi: 10.1046/j.1439-0418.2002.00661.x‏
54.    Jones RL. Lewis WJ. Beroza M. Bierl BA. Sparks AN. Host-seeking stimulants (kairomones) for the egg parasite, Trichogramma evanescens. Environmental Entomology. 1973; 2(4):593-6.doi: 10.1093/ee/2.4.593
55.    Lewis WJ. Nordlund DA. Gueldner RC. Teal PE. Tumlinson JH. Kairomones and their use for management of entomophagous insects. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 1982; 8(10):1323-31.doi: 10.1007/BF00987765 ‏
56.    Uphof JC Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Verlag J. Cramer, Lehre.1968.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available