Author(s): Jagadeesan M, Vijayakumar T M


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00949   

Address: Jagadeesan M, Vijayakumar T M*
Department of Pharmacy Practice, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur, Chengalpattu - 603203, Tamil Nadu, India.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 15,      Issue - 12,     Year - 2022

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the major global health problem with increasing incidence and comorbidities. These patients require life-long treatment with a wide class of drugs which can lead to more number of drug-related problems and cost-effectiveness. Time to time drug utilization study is required to minimize morbidities associated with medication errors. A retrospective, observational study conducted for the period of five months, in the multi-speciality tertiary care teaching hospital. The total number of 200 patients’ records collected from the Medical Record Department. All the data were analysed using Microsoft Excel 2010 software, SPSS software (v26.0) and GraphPad Prism software (V.8.2.0). Medscape drug interaction checker (v1033.0), Stockley’s drug interaction book (12th edition), Micromedex drug interaction software (v2130), This study revealed that males (60%) were highly affected by CKD than the female patients (40%). The mean age of the total population was 48.97±14.67 years. Hypertensions followed by diabetes are the most common comorbidities and anti-hypertensives are the most commonly prescribed drugs, next to nutritional supplements. Drug-drug interactions were identified in 151 prescriptions, where 46.73 % in them were found to be moderate. There were 13 nephrotoxic drugs which found to be repeatedly administered for 253 times and 81.5% of patients were discharged with improved conditions. The prevalence of comorbidities like hypertension and diabetes complicates the treatment regimen which increases drug-drug interactions. We believe that Clinical pharmacist can play a vital role to promote rationality in drug utilization.

Cite this article:
Jagadeesan M, Vijayakumar T M. A Retrospective Study on Drug Utilization Evaluation and Outcomes Assessment in the Department of Nephrology of Tertiary Care Multi speciality Teaching Hospital. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2022; 15(12):5626-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00949

Jagadeesan M, Vijayakumar T M. A Retrospective Study on Drug Utilization Evaluation and Outcomes Assessment in the Department of Nephrology of Tertiary Care Multi speciality Teaching Hospital. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2022; 15(12):5626-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00949   Available on:

1.    Gerogianni, K., Babatsikou, P.,2014. Psychological Aspects in Chronic Renal Failure. Health Science Journal,8(2). (Available at:
2.    World Health Organization: Burden of Disease Project. (Available at: )
3.    Hill, N., Fatoba, S., Oke, J., Hirst, J., O’Callaghan, C., Lasserson, D. and Hobbs, F., 2016. Global Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease – A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLOS ONE, 11(7), p.e0158765. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0158765  
4.    Ahlawat, R. and D’cruz, S., 2016. Drug Utilization Pattern in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients at a Tertiary Care Public Teaching Hospital: Evidence from a Cross- Sectional Study. Journal of Pharmaceutical Care and Health Systems, 03(01). doi:10.4172/2376-0419.1000149  
5.    Piparva, K., Singh, A., Trivedi, H., Parmar, D. and Gajera, M., 2011. Drug utilization study of psychotropic drugs in outdoor patients in a teaching hospital. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 33(1), p.54. doi:10.4103/0253-7176.85396  
6.    Kamath, L., G., H. and S., H., 2019. A study of drug utilization pattern in patients of chronic kidney disease at a tertiary care hospital. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 8(2), p.170. doi:10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20190131  
7.    Tamilselvan, T., Veerapandiyan,  K., Karthik, N., 2014. Study on drug utilization pattern of chronic renal failure patients in a tertiary care hospital. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6(9), p.482-4. (Available at:
8.    Al Ramahi R., 2012. Medication prescribing patterns among chronic kidney disease patients in a hospital in Malaysia. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl, 23,p.403-8. ( Available at: )
9.    Nayagam BD, Sarala N, Prasad R., 2015. Drug Utilization study in Haemodylisis unit in a tertiary care centre in Kolar. IJPBS, 5(1), p.72-78. (Available Online through (or)
10.    Abhisek, P., Panda, R., Samal, R., Mohapatra, N. and Mohanty, S., 2017. Drug Utilization Pattern and Adverse Events in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Undergoing Maintenance Haemodialysis at a Tertiary Care Hospital of Odisha. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2017/25444.10793   
11.    Bajait, C., Pimpalkhute, S., Sontakke, S., Jaiswal, K. and Dawri, A., 2014. Prescribing pattern of medicines in chronic kidney disease with emphasis on phosphate binders. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 46(1), p.35. doi:10.4103/0253-7613.125163
12.    Devi, D. and George, J., 2008. Diabetic nephropathy: Prescription trends in tertiary care. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 70(3), p.374. doi:10.4103/0250-474X.43007  
13.    Prudhivi, R., Monika, K.A., Charitha, K.S., Ramana Reddy, M., Vaishnavi, K., Jyothi., 2018. A Study on Drug Utilization Review and Potential Drug-Drug Interactions in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients. Global Journal Of Medical Research, 18(4). (Available at:
14.    Santra, S., Agrawal, D., Kumar, S. and Mishra, S., 2015. A Study on the Drug Utilization Pattern in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease with Emphasis on Antibiotics. Journal of Integrative Nephrology and Andrology, 2(3), p.85. doi: 10.4103/2225-1243.161435   
15.    Jessani, S., Bux, R. and Jafar, T., 2014. Prevalence, determinants, and management of chronic kidney disease in Karachi, Pakistan - a community based cross-sectional study. BMC Nephrology, 15(1). doi: 10.1186/1471-2369-15-90  
16.    Manley, H., Garvin, C., Drayer, D., Reid, G., Bender, W., Neufeld, T., Hebbar, S. and Muther, R., 2004. Medication prescribing patterns in ambulatory haemodialysis patients: comparisons of USRDS to a large not-for-profit dialysis provider. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 19(7), pp.1842-1848. (oi: 10.1093/ndt/gfh280  
17.    Joshi, A., Holdford, D., Brophy, D., Harpe, S., Mays, D. and Gehr, T., 2012. Utilization Patterns of IV Iron and Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents in Anemic Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Multihospital Study. Anemia, 2012, pp.1-11. doi: 10.1155/2012/248430  
18.    Chacko, S. C., Shareef, J., Kamath, J., 2016. Assessment of Drug-Drug Interactions in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients in Nephrology Unit of A Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital. Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 6(03), p.4962-9.doi: 10.1044/1980-iajpr.160329
19.    Acharya, L., Attur, R., Rama, M., Viswanathan, G., Reddy, P. and Raghavan, S., 2012. Assessment of drug-drug interactions among renal failure patients of nephrology ward in a south Indian tertiary care hospital. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 74(1), p.63. doi:10.4103/0250-474X.102545.  
20.    Okoro, R. and Farate, V., 2019. The use of nephrotoxic drugs in patients with chronic kidney disease. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, 41(3), pp.767-775.doi: 10.1007/s11096-019-00811-9. Epub 2019 Mar 21. PMID: 30900109.
21.    Gasparini, A., Wettermark, B., Schmidt-Mende, K., Evans, M., Qureshi, A., Barany, P., Elinder, C. and Carrero, J., 2017. Inappropriate prescription of nephrotoxic drugs to individuals with chronic kidney disease: a community-based analysis from the stockholm creatinine measurements (scream) project. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 32(suppl_3), pp.iii13-iii13. (Available at:  )
22.    Holm, H., Bjerke, K., Holst, L. and Mathiesen, L., 2015. Use of renal risk drugs in patients with renal impairment. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, 37(6), pp.1136-1142. doi:10.1007/s11096-015-0175-3

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available