Author(s): Alfred Maroyi

Email(s): amaroyi@ufh.ac.za

DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00898   

Address: Alfred Maroyi
Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 15,      Issue - 11,     Year - 2022


ABSTRACT:
Paropsia brazzeana is a shrub used traditionally to treat various human diseases and ailments. Paropsia brazzeana naturally occurs from Cameroon and the Central African Republic south to Angola, the Caprivi strip of Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe. The aim of this review was to provide an overview and critically analyze the ethnomedical uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of P. brazzeana. The results of the current study are based on literature survey conducted using various search engines such as Elsevier, Pubmed, Google scholar, Springer, Science Direct, Taylor and Francis, and pre-electronic sources such as books, book chapters, scientific journals and other grey literature. The fruit, leaf, leaf sap, root, root bark and stem bark decoction or infusion of P. brazzeana are mainly used as charm and rituals, and traditional medicine for gastro-intestinal infections, gonorrhoea, malaria and toothache. Chemical constituents identified from P. brazzeana include alkaloids, hydrocyanic acid, polyphenol, proanthocyanidins, reducing sugars, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenes. The species possesses biological activities such as antiamoebic, antibacterial and antispasmodic activities. Paropsia brazzeana is a valuable medicinal plant species and future research should focus on animal experiments aimed at assessing toxicity and clinical efficacy of species extracts.


Cite this article:
Alfred Maroyi. A Synthesis and Review of Ethnomedicinal Uses, Phytochemistry and Biological Activities of Paropsia brazzeana Baill. (Passifloraceae). Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(11):5331-6. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00898

Cite(Electronic):
Alfred Maroyi. A Synthesis and Review of Ethnomedicinal Uses, Phytochemistry and Biological Activities of Paropsia brazzeana Baill. (Passifloraceae). Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(11):5331-6. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00898   Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2022-15-11-83


REFERENCES:
1.    Holm-Nielsen LB, Jørgensen PM, Lawesson JE. Passifloraceae. Edited by Harling G, Andersson L. Flora of Ecuador. Vol 31. Stockholm, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Uppsala, 1988, pp. 1-130.
2.    Brummitt RK. Vascular plants families and genera. Kew, Royal Botanic Gardens, Richmond, 1992.
3.    Feuillet C. Passifloraceae (passion flower family). Edited by Smith N, Mori SA, Henderson A, Stevenson DW, Held SV. Flowering Plants of the Neotropics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2004, pp. 286–287.
4.    MacDougal JM, Feuillet C. Systematics. Edited by Ulmer T, Mac Dougal JM, Passiflora: Passion flowers of the World. Timber Press, Portland, 2004; pp. 27–31.
5.    Feuillet C, MacDougal J. Passifloraceae. Edited by Kubitzki K, Kadereit JW, Jeffrey C, The families and genera of vascular plants. Springer Verlag, Berlin; 2007, pp. 270–280.
6.    Tokuoka T. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Passifloraceae sensu lato (Malpighiales) based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. Journal of Plant Research. 2012;125:489–97. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10265-011-0472-4.
7.    Muschner VC, Zamberlan PM, Bonatto SL, Freitas LB. Phylogeny, biogeography and divergence times in Passiflora (Passifloraceae). Genetics and Molecular Biology. 2012;35:1036–43. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-47572012000600019.
8.    Cerqueira-Silva CBM, Jesus ON, Santos ESL, Corrêa RX, Souza AP. Genetic breeding and diversity of the genus Passiflora: Progress and perspectives in molecular and genetic studies. International of Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014;15;14122-52. doi: 10.3390/ijms150814122.
9.    Mezzonato-Pires AC, Mendonça CBF, Gonçalves-Esteves V. Pollen morphology of selected species of Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae) from the Atlantic Forest. Acta Botanica Brasilica. 2015;29(3):391-9. https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-33062015abb0014.
10.    Martínez C. Passifloraceae seeds from the late Eocene of Colombia. American Journal of Botany. 2017;104(12):1857–66. doi: 10.3732/ajb.1700224.
11.    Cauz-Santos LA, Munhoz CF, Rodde N, Cauet S, Santos AA, Penha HA, Dornelas MC, Varani AM, Oliveira GCX, Bergès H, Vieira MLC. The chloroplast genome of Passiflora edulis (Passifloraceae) assembled from long sequence reads: Structural organization and phylogenomic studies in Malpighiales. Frontiers of Plant Sciences. 2017;8:334. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00334.
12.    Pérez JO, d’Eeckenbrugge GC. Morphological characterization in the genus Passiflora L.: An approach to understanding its complex variability. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 2017;303:531–58. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-017-1390-2.
13.    Breteler FJ. Novitates Gabonenses 48: A new species of Paropsia (Passifloraceae) from Gabon. Adansonia. 2003;25:247-9. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5181239.
14.    Mezzonato-Pires AC, de Sousa HCF, Mendonça CBF, Gonçalves-Esteves V. Pollen morphology of Barteria and Paropsia: Implications for the systematics of Passifloraceae sensu stricto. Palynology. 2019;43:373-82. https://doi.org/10.1080/01916122.2018.1449028.
15.    Joseph SA, Theophilus FC, Dominic EA, Rita DA, Kwaw MA, Kofi A, Eric W, George KA, Alfred AA, Henry BD. Antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant effects of Adenia lobata Engl. (Passifloraceae) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. African. Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013;10(5):386–93. doi: 10.4314/ajtcam.v10i5.28.
16.    Petry RD, Reginatto F, de-Paris F, et al. Comparative pharmacological study of hydroethanol extracts of Passiflora alata and Passiflora edulis leaves. Phytotherapeutic Research. 2001;15:162–4. doi: 10.1002/ptr.694.
17.    Dos Santos KS, Kurtz SMTF, Muller SD, Biavatti MW, De Oliveira RMMW, Santos CAD. Sedative and anxiolytic effects of methanolic extract from the leaves of Passiflora actinia. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. 2006;49:565–73. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132006000500005
18.    Lolli LF, Sato CM, Romanini CV, Villas-Boas Lde B, Santos CA, de Oliveira RM. Possible involvement of GABAA benzodiazepine receptor in the anxiolytic-like effect induced by Passiflora actinia extracts in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2007;111:308–14. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2006.11.021.
19.    De Paris FP, Reginatto HF, Grosmann G, et al. Pharmacochemical study of aqueous extracts of Passiflora alata Dryander and Passiflora edulis Sims. Acta Farmaceutica Bonaerense. 2002;21:5–8.
20.    Barbosa PR, Valvassori SS, Bordignon CL, et al. The aqueous extracts of Passiflora alata and Passiflora edulis reduce anxiety-related behaviors without affecting memory process in rats. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2008;11:282–8. https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2007.722
21.    Boeira JM, Fenner R, Betti AH, et al. Toxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of Passiflora alata Curtis (Passifloraceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2010;128:526–32. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2009.09.037.
22.    Braga A, Stein AC, Dischkaln Stolz E, et al. Repeated administration of an aqueous spray-dried extract of the leaves of Passiflora alata Curtis (Passifloraceae) inhibits body weight gain without altering mice behavior. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2013;145:59–66. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.10.034.
23.    Barbosa ST, De Araujo FP, Neto AF, De Freitas ST, De Souza Araújo J et al. Phytochemical compounds and antioxidant activity of the pulp of two Brazilian passion fruit species: Passiflora cincinnata Mast. and Passiflora edulis Sims. International Journal of Fruit Science. 2021;21(1):255-69. https://doi.org/10.1080/15538362.2021.1872050.
24.    Maluf E, Barros HMT, Frochtengarten ML, Benti R, Leite JR. Assessment of the hypnotic sedative effects and toxicity of Passiflora edulis aqueous extract in rodents and humans. Phytotherapy Research. 1991;5:262–6. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2650050607.
25.    Doss A, Doss PA, Dhanabalan R. In-vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts of Passiflora edulis (Passilfloraceae) and Sphaeranthus indicus (Asteraceae). Ethnobotanical leaflets. 2008;12:728–33.
26.    Deng J, Zhou Y, Bai M, Li H, Li L. Anxiolytic and sedative activities of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2010;128:148–53. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2009.12.043.
27.    Li HW, Zhou P, Yang QQ, et al. Comparative studies on anxiolytic activities and flavonoid compositions of Passiflora edulis ‘edulis’ and Passiflora edulis ’flavicarpa’. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011;133:1085–90. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.11.039.
28.    Ahmad FB, Holdsworth DK. Traditional medicinal plants of Sabah, Malaysia part III the Rungus People of Kudat. International Journal of Pharmacy. 1995;33:262–264. https://doi.org/10.3109/13880209509065377.
29.    Echeverri F, Arango V, Quinones W, Torres F, Escobar G, Rsero Y, Archbold R. Passifloricins polyketides α pyrones from Passiflora foetida resin. Phytochemistry. 2001;56(8):881–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)00478-7.
30.    Abourashed EA, Vanderplank JR, Khan IA. High speed extraction and HPLC fingerprinting of medicinal Plants: I. Application to Passiflora flavonoids. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2002;40(2):81–91. https://doi.org/10.1076/phbi.40.2.81.5844.
31.    Anandan M, Jayakar B, Jeganathan S, Manalavan R, Kumar RS. Effect of ethanol extract of fruits of Passiflora foetida Linn. on CCl4 induced hepatic injury in rats. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2009;2(3):413–15.
32.    Ingale AG, Hivrale AU. Pharmacological studies of Passiflora sp. and their bioactive compounds. African Journal of Plant Science. 2010;4(10):417–26.
33.    Balangcod TD, Balangcod AKD. Ethnomedical knowledge of plants and healthcare practices among the Kalanguya Tribe in Tinoc, Ifugao, Luzan, Philippines. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. 2011;10(2):227–38.
34.    Chivapat S, Bunjob M, Shuaprom A, Banshidi J, Chavalittumiong P, Rangsripipat A, Sincharoenpokai P. Chronic toxicity of Passiflora foetida L. extract. International of Journal of Applied Research of Natural Products. 2011;4(2):24–31.
35.    Santosh P, Venugopl R, Nilakash AS, Kunjbihari S, Mangala L. Antidepressant activity of methanolic extract of Passiflora foetida leaves in mice. International of Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science. 2011;3(1):112–15.
36.    Sasikala V, Saravanan S, Thangaraj P. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of different parts of wild edible plant Passiflora foetida L. Journal of Applied and Pharmaceutical Science. 2011;1(4):89–96.
37.    Satish R, Sahu A, Natararajan K. Antiulcer and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Passiflora foetida L. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2011;43(3):336–9. doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.81501.
38.    Neamsuvan O, Singdam P, Yingcharoen K, Sengnom N. A survey of medicinal plants in mangrove and beach forests from sating Phra Peninsula, Songkhla province, Thailand. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research. 2012;6(12):2421–37. doi: 10.5897/JMPR11.1395.
39.    Patil AS, Paikrao HM. Bioassay guided phytometabolites extraction for screening of potent antimicrobials in Passiflora foetida L. Journal of Applied and Pharmaceutical Science. 2012;2(9):137–42. doi: 10.7324/JAPS.2012.2927.
40.    Asadujjaman M, Mishuk AU, Hossaim MA, Karmakar UK. Medicinal potential of Passiflora foetida L. plant extracts: Biological and pharmacological activities. Journal of Integrated Medicine. 2014;12(2):121–6. doi: 10.1016/S2095-4964(14)60017-0.
41.    Asir PJ, Hemmalakshmi S, Priyanga S, Devaki K. Antidiabetic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Passiflora foetida L. in alloxan induced diabetes rats. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 2014;3(4):1627–41.
42.    Neamsuvan O, Sengnon N, Haddee U, Mard EW, Sae-Tang W. Medicinal plants in tropical rain forest from Hua Khao Subdistrict, Singha Nakhon District, Songkhla province, Thailand. American - Eurasia Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 2014;8(5):1–11.
43.    Paulraj JA, Subharamanian H, Suriyamoorthy P, Kanakasabapathi D. Phytochemical screening, GC-MS analysis and enzyme inhibitory activity of Passiflora foetida L. Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2014;4(8):3526–33.
44.    Birudu RB, Naik MJ, Janardhan M. Anti-dyslipidemia effect of ethanol extract of Passiflora foetida on dextrose induced diabetic rats. UK Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biosciences. 2016;4(1):13–19. doi: 10.20510/ukjpb/4/i1/87840.
45.    Shankar PD, Basker S, Karthik S. In vitro cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of Passiflora foetida against cervical cancer cells and its fourier transform infrared profiling. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2017;10(1):46–9. doi: https://doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i11.20226.
46.    Ahmad N, Chillara R, Karvande A, Tripathi AK, Kothari P, Kushwaha P, Adhikary S, Maurya R, Trivedi R. Ethyl acetate fraction from Passiflora foetida promotes rat femoral fracture healing by the BMP-2 signaling pathway. International of Journal of Regent Medicine. 2018;14:1–13.
47.    Park JW, Kwon OK, Ryu HW, Paik JH, Paryanto I, Yuniato P, Choi S, Oh SR, Ahn KS. Antiinflammatory effects of Passiflora foetida L. in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. International of Journal and Molecular Medicine. 2018;41:3709–16. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2018.3559.
48.    Olouwa OO, Iganboh PD, Taiwo OM. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Passiflora foetida (Linnaeus) stems and fruit essential oils. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 2019;6(6):21–8. doi: 10.3303/CET1864041
49.    Saravanan S, Parimelazhagan T. In vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and antidiabetic properties of polyphenols of Passiflora ligularis Juss. fruit pulp. Food Science and Human Wellness. 2014;3:56–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fshw.2014.05.001
50.    Vivekraj P, Vinotha S, Vijayan A, Anand GV. Preliminary phytochemical screening and GC-MS analysis of methanolic extract of Turnera subulata Smith (Passifloraceae). The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2017;6(3):174-7.
51.    Saravanan M, Senthilkumar P, Kalimuthu K, Chinnadurai V, Vasantharaj S, Pugazhendhi A. Phytochemical and pharmacological profiling of Turnera subulata Sm., a vital medicinal herb. Industrial Crop Products. 2018;124:822–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.08.065
52.    Ayensu ES, Stern WL. Systematic anatomy and ontogeny of the stem in Passifloraceae. Contributions United States Natational Herbarium 1964;34:45–73.
53.    Schmidt E, Lotter M, McCleland W. Trees and shrubs of Mpumalanga and Kruger National Park. Jacana Media, Johannesburg; 2017.
54.    Hyde MA, Wursten BT, Ballings P, Coates Palgrave M. Paropsia brazzeana Baill. Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information; 2021: Available from: https://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=141020, retrieved on 12 August 2021
55.    Fernandes R, Fernandes A. Passifloraceae. Edited by Launert E, Flora Zambesiaca volume 4. Flora Zambesiaca Managing Committee, London; 1978, pp. 368–411.
56.    Palgrave MC. Keith Coates Palgrave trees of southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town; 2002.
57.    Germishuizen G, Meyer NL. Plants of southern Africa: An annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14, National Botanical Institute, Pretoria; 2003.
58.    Drummond RB. A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia. 1975;10:229-85.
59.    Setshogo MP. Preliminary checklist of plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37, Pretoria; 2005.
60.    Figueiredo E, Smith GF. Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria; 2008.
61.    Ndlovu LR, Nherera FV. Chemical composition and relationship to in vitro gas production of Zimbabwean browsable indigenous tree species. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 1997;69:121-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(97)81627-6.
62.    Cunningham AB. African medicinal plants: Setting priorities at the interface between conservation and primary health care. People and Plants working paper 1, UNESCO, Paris; 1993.
63.    Schmelzer GH, Gurib-Fakim A. Plant resources of tropical Africa 11: Medicinal plants 1. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden; 2008.
64.    Obiang-Obounou BW, Kang O-H, Choi J-G, Keum J-H, Kim S-B, Y-S Kim, Mun S-H, Choi M-S, Maroufath L, Kwon D-Y. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of seven Gabonese medicinal plants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella. Natural Product Sciences. 2011;17(1):33-37.
65.    Ramarumo LJ, Maroyi A, Tshisikhawe MP. Warburgia salutaris (G.Bertol.) Chiov.: An endangered therapeutic plant used by the Vhavenḓa ethnic group in the Soutpansberg, Vhembe Biosphere Reserve, Limpopo province, South Africa. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2019;12:5893-8. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.01022.9.
66.    Maroyi A. Evaluation of pharmacological properties, phytochemistry and medicinal uses of Vernoniastrum ambiguum. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020;13:4715-19. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00830.6.
67.    Maroyi A. Hilliardiella elaeagnoides: Review of its medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020;13:5539-45. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00967.1.
68.    Maroyi A. Pharmacological properties and medicinal applications of Lantana rugosa Thunb. (family Verbenaceae). Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021;14:259-64. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2021.00046.9.
69.    Maroyi A. Evaluation of pharmacological properties, phytochemistry and medicinal uses of Linzia glabra (Asteraceae). Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021;14(3):1741-6. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2021.00310.3.
70.    Maroyi A. Evaluation of pharmacological properties, phytochemistry and medicinal uses of Cissampelos owariensis. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021;14:3416-22. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00594.
71.    Maroyi A. Pharmacological properties and medicinal applications of Halleria lucida L. (family Stilbaceae). Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021;14:5227-31. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00910.
72.    Maroyi A. Hilliardiellia aristata: Review of its medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021;14:5563-8. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00969.
73.    Mohammed M, Mahdi MF, Talib B, Abaas IS. Identification and isolation of lupeol and β-sitosterol from Iraqi Bauhinia variegata and determination the cytotoxic activity of the hexane extract of its leaves, stems and flowers. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021;14(11):5703-08. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00991.
74.    Sharmila KJ, Kanimozhi L, Shanmuga PJ, Vidhya GV, Jeba CR, Kowsalya R. Anti-diabetic potential of Indian medicinal plants with Garcinia kola and Syzygium cumini. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021;14(11):5696-702. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00990.
75.    Disengomoka I, Delaveau P. Medicinal plants used for child’s respiratory diseases in Zaire. Part i. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1983;8:257-63. doi: 10.1016/0378-8741(83)90063-6.
76.    de Ruijter A. Paropsia brazzeana Baill. Edited by Schmelzer GH, Gurib-Fakim A, Plant resources of tropical Africa 11: Medicinal plants 1. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden; 2008, pp. 396-397.
77.    Lautenschläger T, Monizi M, Pedro M, Mandombe JL, Bránquima MF, Heinze C, Neinhuis C. First large-scale ethnobotanical survey in the province of Uíge, northern Angola. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2018;14:51. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-018-0238-3.
78.    Turner V. The ritual process: Structure and anti-structure. Routledge, London; 1969.
79.    Tona L, Kambu K, Ngimbi N, Cimanga K, Vlietinck AJ. Antiamoebic and phytochemical screening of some Congolese medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1998;61:57–65. doi: 10.1016/s0378-8741(98)00015-4.
80.    Lathan P, ku Mbuta AK. Useful plants of Bas-Congo province, Democratic Republic of Congo. Department for International Development (DFID), London; 2014.
81.    Watt JM, Breyer-Brandwijk MG. The medicinal and poisonous plants of southern and eastern Africa. 2nd Edition. E. and S. Livingstone, London; 1962.
82.    Manya MH, Keymeulen F, Ngezahayo J, Bakari AS, Kalonda ME, Kahumba BJ, Duez P, Stévigny C, Lumbu SJ-B. Antimalarial herbal remedies of Bukavu and Uvira areas in DR Congo: An ethnobotanical survey. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2010;249:112422. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2019.112422.
83.    Tona L, Kambu K, Ngimbi N, Mesia K, Penge O, Lusakibanza M, Cimanga K, De Bruyne T, Apers S, Totte J, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ. Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrhoeal traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo. Phytomedicine. 2000;7:31-8. doi: 10.1016/S0944-7113(00)80019-7.
84.    Cimanga KR, Makila BMF, Kambu KO, Tona LG, Vlietinck AJ, Pieters L. In vitro amoebicidal activity of aqueous extracts and their fractions from some medicinal plants used in traditional medicine as antidiarrheal agents in Kinshasa-Democratic Republic of Congo against Entamoeba histolytica. European Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Science. 2018;5:103-14.
85.    Tona L, Kambu K, Mesia K, Cimanga K, Apers S, De Bruyne T, Pieters L, Totte J, Vlietinck AJ. Biological screening of traditional preparations from some medicinal plants used as antidiarrhoeal in Kinshasa, Congo. Phytomedicine. 1999;6:59–66. doi: 10.1016/S0944-7113(99)80036-1.
86.    Cimanga KR, Kimbuira L, Tona LG, Kambu KO, Vlietinck AJ, Pieters L. Assessment of antispasmodic effects of polyphenol and complex catechic tannin extracts from some medicinal plants used to treat diarrhoea in traditional medicine in Kinshasa-Democratic Republic of Congo. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science. 2018;8:170-84.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

0.38
2018CiteScore
 
56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus


SCImago Journal & Country Rank


Recent Articles




Tags


Not Available