Corona virus disease (COVID19) is viral disease caused by recently discovered corona virus. Corona viruses (COV) are family of viruses causing diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), and COVID-19 ranging from common cold to severe illnesses. Corona viruses are named after crown-like spikes, which are RNA viruses on their surface. Corona Virus Disease (COVID 19) is initiated by Corona Virus 2 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-COV-2). So we will have a brief summary of immune system regarding its defense of the human body from COVID-19, explaining the immune system's process, how it functions, and its virus-fighting mechanism. The immune system faces a dynamic overtime adaptation, resulting in functional and phenotyping improvements, which may clarify at least age distribution in COVID-19 lethality by remodeling the immune response observed among the elderly.
Cite this article:
Hyam Raouf Al-Hamamy. COVID-19: Immune response. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(1):467-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00076
Hyam Raouf Al-Hamamy. COVID-19: Immune response. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(1):467-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00076 Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2022-15-1-76
1. Gorbalenya AE, Baker SC, Baric RS, de Groot -RJ, Drosten C, Gulyaeva AA, et al. Coronaviridae Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. The species severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2. Nat Microbiol. 2020; 5(4):536-44.
2. Masters PS. The molecular biology of coronaviruses. Advances in virus research. 2006; 66:193-292.
3. Wertheim JO, Chu DK, Peiris JS, Pond SLK, Poon LL. A case for the ancient origin of coronaviruses. Journal of Virology. 2013; 87(12):7039-45.
4. Dawood AA. SARS-CoV-2 is Originated from Bat Corona Virus. Research Journal of Science and Technology. 2021; 13(1):31-2.
5. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. New England journal of medicine. 2020.
6. Ingole RD, Thalkari AB, Karwa PN. Is Prevaccination the reason for less morbidity and mortality for COVID-19 in India: An Epidemiological study. Research Journal of Science and Technology. 2020; 12(4):285-8.
7. Organization WH. Modes of transmission of virus causing COVID-19: implications for IPC precaution recommendations: scientific brief, 27 March 2020. World Health Organization, 2020.
8. Goldsmith CS, Tatti KM, Ksiazek TG, Rollin PE, Comer JA, Lee WW, et al. Ultrastructural characterization of SARS coronavirus. Emerging infectious diseases. 2004; 10(2):320.
9. Derouiche S. Current Review on Herbal Pharmaceutical improve immune responses against COVID-19 infection. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Technology. 2020; 12(3):181-4.
10. Lalchhandama K. The chronicles of coronaviruses: the electron microscope, the doughnut, and the spike. Science Vision. 2020; 20:78-92.
11. Patil PA, Jain RS. Theoretical Study and treatment of Novel COVID-19. Research journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2020; 12(2):71-2.
12. Neuman BW, Kiss G, Kunding AH, Bhella D, Baksh MF, Connelly S, et al. A structural analysis of M protein in coronavirus assembly and morphology. Journal of structural biology. 2011; 174(1):11-22.
13. Kumar R, Chawla A. A valuable insight to the novel deadly covid-19: A review. Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2020; 12(3):111-6.
14. Lai M. Cavanagh d The molecular biology of coronaviruses. Adv Virus Res. 1997; 48:1-100.
15. Shankhdhar PK, Mishra P, Kannojia P, Joshi H. Turmeric: Plant immunobooster against covid-19. Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2020; 12(3):174-7.
16. Dewangan V, Sahu R, Satapathy T, Roy A. The exploring of current development status and the unusual symptoms of coronavirus pandemic (Covid-19). Research journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2020; 12(4):172-6.
17. Naskalska A, Dabrowska A, Szczepanski A, Milewska A, Jasik KP, Pyrc K. Membrane protein of human coronavirus NL63 is responsible for interaction with the adhesion receptor. Journal of virology. 2019; 93(19).
18. Perrotta F, Matera MG, Cazzola M, Bianco A. Severe respiratory SARS-CoV2 infection: Does ACE2 receptor matter? Respiratory medicine. 2020:105996.
19. Hoffmann M, Kleine-Weber H, Schroeder S, Krüger N, Herrler T, Erichsen S, et al. SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. cell. 2020; 181(2):271-80. e8.
20. Ou X, Liu Y, Lei X, Li P, Mi D, Ren L, et al. Characterization of spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 on virus entry and its immune cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV. Nature communications. 2020; 11(1):1-12.
21. Lan Q, Zhu Q, Xu L, Xu T. Application of 3D-Printed Craniocerebral Model in Simulated Surgery for Complex Intracranial Lesions. World Neurosurg. 2020; 134:e761-e70.
22. Imai Y, Kuba K, Penninger JM. The discovery of angiotensin‐converting enzyme 2 and its role in acute lung injury in mice. Experimental physiology. 2008; 93(5):543-8.
23. Schouten LR, Helmerhorst HJ, Wagenaar G, Haltenhof T, Lutter R, Roelofs JJ, et al. Age-dependent changes in the pulmonary renin-angiotensin system are associated with severity of lung injury in a model of acute lung injury in rats. Critical care medicine. 2016; 44(12):e1226-e35.
24. Kishor RS, Ramhari BM. Introduction to Covid-19. Research Journal of Science and Technology. 2020; 12(4):338-45.
25. Ahmad S, Shoaib A, Ali S, Alam S, Alam N, Ali M, et al. Epidemiology, risk, myths, pharmacotherapeutic management and socio economic burden due to novel COVID-19: A recent update. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020; 13(9):4435-42.
26. Qin C, Zhou L, Hu Z, Zhang S, Yang S, Tao Y, et al. Dysregulation of immune response in patients with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. Clinical infectious diseases. 2020; 71(15):762-8.
27. Mor S, Saini P, Wangnoo SK, Bawa T. Worldwide spread of COVID-19 Pandemic and risk factors among Co-morbid conditions especially Diabetes Mellitus in India. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020; 13(5):2530-2.
28. Fung TS, Liu DX. Human coronavirus: host-pathogen interaction. Annual review of microbiology. 2019; 73:529-57.
29. Kuser AK, Tarar SM, Kassid OM, Zayer NH. CNS and COVID-19: Neurological symptoms of Hospitalized Patients with Coronavirus in Iraq: a surveying case sequences study. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020; 13(12):6291-4.
30. Dandekar AA, Perlman S. Immunopathogenesis of coronavirus infections: implications for SARS. Nature reviews immunology. 2005; 5(12):917-27.
31. Jun C, Kanta S. The Immunobiology of SARS.[J]. Annu Rev Immunol. 2007; 25:443-72.
32. Chu H, Chan JF-W, Wang Y, Yuen TT-T, Chai Y, Hou Y, et al. Comparative replication and immune activation profiles of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in human lungs: an ex vivo study with implications for the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2020; 71(6):1400-9.
33. Flores-Ramirez F, Palacios-Guerrero C, Garcia-Delgado C, Morales-Jimenez AB, Arias-Villegas CM, Cervantes A, et al. Cytogenetic profile in 1,921 cases of trisomy 21 syndrome. Archives of medical research. 2015; 46(6):484-9.
34. Grifoni A, Weiskopf D, Ramirez SI. Targets of T Cell Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus in Humans with COVID-19 Disease. 2020.
35. Weiskopf D, Schmitz KS, Raadsen MP, Grifoni A, Okba NM, Endeman H, et al. Phenotype and kinetics of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Science immunology. 2020; 5(48).
36. Braun J, Loyal L, Frentsch M, Wendisch D, Georg P, Kurth F, et al. Presence of SARS-CoV-2 reactive T cells in COVID-19 patients and healthy donors. MedRxiv. 2020.
37. Wang F, Nie J, Wang H, Zhao Q, Xiong Y, Deng L, et al. Characteristics of peripheral lymphocyte subset alteration in COVID-19 pneumonia. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2020; 221(11):1762-9.
38. Fontanet A, Cauchemez S. COVID-19 herd immunity: where are we? Nature Reviews Immunology. 2020; 20(10):583-4.
39. Deng W, Bao L, Liu J, Xiao C, Liu J, Xue J, et al. Primary exposure to SARS-CoV-2 protects against reinfection in rhesus macaques. Science. 2020; 369(6505):818-23.
40. Chen G, Wu D, Guo W, Cao Y, Huang D, Wang H, et al. Clinical and immunological features of severe and moderate coronavirus disease 2019. The Journal of clinical investigation. 2020; 130(5):2620-9.
41. Poland GA, Ovsyannikova IG, Kennedy RB. SARS-CoV-2 immunity: review and applications to phase 3 vaccine candidates. The Lancet. 2020.
42. Sekine T, Perez-Potti A, Rivera-Ballesteros O, Strålin K, Gorin J-B, Olsson A, et al. Robust T cell immunity in convalescent individuals with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19. Cell. 2020; 183(1):158-68. e14.
43. Wong SK, Li W, Moore MJ, Choe H, Farzan M. A 193-amino acid fragment of the SARS coronavirus S protein efficiently binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2004; 279(5):3197-201.
44. Tai W, He L, Zhang X, Pu J, Voronin D, Jiang S, et al. Characterization of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of 2019 novel coronavirus: implication for development of RBD protein as a viral attachment inhibitor and vaccine. Cellular & molecular immunology. 2020; 17(6):613-20.
45. Jiang H-w, Li Y, Zhang H-n, Wang W, Men D, Yang X, et al. Global profiling of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG/IgM responses of convalescents using a proteome microarray. MedRxiv. 2020.
46. Okba NM, Müller MA, Li W, Wang C, GeurtsvanKessel CH, Corman VM, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2− specific antibody responses in coronavirus disease patients. Emerging infectious diseases. 2020; 26(7):1478-88.
47. Ibarrondo FJ, Fulcher JA, Goodman-Meza D, Elliott J, Hofmann C, Hausner MA, et al. Rapid decay of anti–SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in persons with mild Covid-19. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020; 383(11):1085-7.
48. Seow J, Graham C, Merrick B, Acors S, Steel K, Hemmings O, et al. O Hara G. Macmahon E, Douthwaite S, Nebbia G, Batra R, Martinez-Nunez R, Edgeworth JD, Neil SLD, Malim NH, Doores K. 2020.
49. Robbiani DF, Gaebler C, Muecksch F, Lorenzi JC, Wang Z, Cho A, et al. Convergent antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in convalescent individuals. Nature. 2020; 584(7821):437-42.
50. Jin J-M, Bai P, He W, Wu F, Liu X-F, Han D-M, et al. Gender differences in patients with COVID-19: focus on severity and mortality. Frontiers in public health. 2020; 8:152.
51. Bastard P, Rosen LB, Zhang Q, Michailidis E, Hoffmann H-H, Zhang Y, et al. Autoantibodies against type I IFNs in patients with life-threatening COVID-19. Science. 2020; 370(6515):eabd4585.
52. Le Bert N, Tan AT, Kunasegaran K, Tham CY, Hafezi M, Chia A, et al. SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity in cases of COVID-19 and SARS, and uninfected controls. Nature. 2020; 584(7821):457-62.