Author(s): Hidayah Karuniawati, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad Hassali, Sri Suryawati, Wan Ismahanisa Ismail, Taufik Taufik, M Mutalazimah


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00052   

Address: Hidayah Karuniawati1,2*, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad Hassali2, Sri Suryawati3, Wan Ismahanisa Ismail4, Taufik Taufik5, M Mutalazimah6
1Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Surakarta, Indonesia.
2Discipline of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugor, Malaysia.
3Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
4Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.
5Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Surakarta, Indonesia.
6Faculty of Health Science, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Surakarta, Indonesia.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 15,      Issue - 1,     Year - 2022

Understanding the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) towards antibiotics with a valid and reliable questionnaire is essential to design an intervention to minimize misuse and overuse of antibiotics in the general community setting. This study aimed to develop and validate knowledge, attitude, and practice towards antibiotics questionnaire (KAPAQ). This study consists of the development and validation phase. The development questionnaire was based on a literature review, early individual interviews, and panel experts. The validation phase consisted of face, content, and construct validity. Content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI) was used to analyze Content validity. Construct validity for attitude and practice was measured using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Item analysis was employed for knowledge evaluation. Reliability was evaluated with internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability. Validity and reliability were assessed using 407 respondents. The final KAPAQ consisted of three domains with 45 items. Items’ difficulty and discrimination index in the knowledge domain was acceptable, with the Cronbach’s a and test-retest reliability being 0.827 and 0.713, respectively. Four factor-solutions emerged for the attitude and practice domain with a cumulative contribution of 59.79% and 58.99%, respectively. The CFA result indicated acceptable fit indices for the proposed model. Every factor in both attitude and practice domain had an acceptable internal consistency and test-retest reliability range. The KAPAQ was psychometric valid and reliable to assess KAP among the general community towards antibiotics.

Cite this article:
Hidayah Karuniawati, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad Hassali, Sri Suryawati, Wan Ismahanisa Ismail, Taufik Taufik, M Mutalazimah. Development and Validation of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Towards Antibiotics Questionnaire (KAPAQ) for General Community. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(1):315-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00052

Hidayah Karuniawati, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad Hassali, Sri Suryawati, Wan Ismahanisa Ismail, Taufik Taufik, M Mutalazimah. Development and Validation of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Towards Antibiotics Questionnaire (KAPAQ) for General Community. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(1):315-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00052   Available on:

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