Sanjana Basavanahally Lokesh, Rekha D Kini, Nayanatara Arunkumar, Sneha Shetty B, Anupama N, Bhagyalakshmi K
Sanjana Basavanahally Lokesh1, Rekha D Kini2, Nayanatara Arunkumar2, Sneha Shetty B2, Anupama N2, Bhagyalakshmi K2
1III MBBS Student, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India.
2Department of Physiology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India.
Volume - 14,
Issue - 9,
Year - 2021
One of major threat to the environmental pollution is the contamination the by various heavy metals. Cadmium is found to have toxic effects on testis. VCO is increasingly getting the reputation of being the most versatile and healthiest antioxidant. Objective: To study the effect pre-treatment of virgin coconut oil in cadmium induced testicular toxicity in rats. Materials and methods: Institutional ethics committee clearance was obtained before beginning the experiments. Male rats of wistar strain approximately 150-200 gm body weight was used. They were housed in the central animal house under controlled conditions of temperature and light with normal rat feed and drinking water. Animals were divided into four groups with 6 rats in each group. Sperm count and sperm morphology was done. One of the testis was used for histopathological study. The data was expressed as mean ? SD. Significance of the test was set at p<0.05. Results: In the present study administration of cadmium chloride showed a significant decrease in the testicular and epididymal weight as well as sperm count and testosterone level and increase in sperm shape abnormality. Pre-treatment with Virgin coconut oil showed a significant increase in the testicular and epidydimal weight as well as sperm count and testosterone level and decrease in sperm shape abnormality Testicular section in normal control rats and Virgin treated rats showed normal features. But, in cadmium treated rats the testis showed necrosis of most of the tubules but rats pre-treated with virgin coconut oil showed that less than 25 % of the tubules had necrosis. Conclusion: In conclusion, present study showed that Cadmium administration showed a damaging effect on the testis and Virgin coconut oil showed protective role in attuning cadmium induced testicular damage
Cite this article:
Sanjana Basavanahally Lokesh, Rekha D Kini, Nayanatara Arunkumar, Sneha Shetty B, Anupama N, Bhagyalakshmi K. Effects of Virgin coconut oil on Testicular toxicity induced by Cadmium in rats. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(9):4630-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00804
Sanjana Basavanahally Lokesh, Rekha D Kini, Nayanatara Arunkumar, Sneha Shetty B, Anupama N, Bhagyalakshmi K. Effects of Virgin coconut oil on Testicular toxicity induced by Cadmium in rats. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(9):4630-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00804 Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2021-14-9-18
1. Jarup L, Akesson A. Current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2009; 238(3): 201-08.
2. Santhosh Kumar R, Asha Devi. S. Lead Toxicity on Male Reproductive System and its Mechanism: A Review. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2018; 11(3): 1228-1232.
3. Adams RG. Manufacturing process, resultant risk profiles and their control in the production of nickel-cadmium(alkaline) batteries. Occup Med.1992; 42: 101-6
4. Ellis KJ, Cohn SH, Smith TJ. Cadmium inhalation exposure estimates their significance with respect to kidney and liver cadmium burden. J Toxicol Environmental Health.1985; 15: 173-81
5. Akinloye O, Arowojolu AO, Shittu OB, Anetor JI. Cadmium toxicity:A possible cause of male infertility in Nigeria. Reprod Biol. 2006; 6(1): 17-30.
6. Nimbalkar V.V., Pansare P.M., Nishane B.B. Screening Methods for Hepatoprotective Agents in Experimental Animals. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 8(12): Dec., 2015; Page 1725-1732
7. Tristiana Erawati, Dewi Melani Hariyadi, Noorma Rosita, Tutiek Purwanti. The Anti-inflammatory Activity of p-methoxycinnamic acid (PMCA) in the Nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) system using combinations of solid lipid, beeswax-oleum cacao and liquid lipid, Virgin Coconut oil (VCO). Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2019; 12(8): 3619-3625
8. Hew KW, Ericson WA, Welsh MJ. A single low cadmium dose causes failure of spermiation in the rat. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 1993; 121(1): 1521.
9. S. Intahphuak, P. Khonsung, and A. Panthong, “Antiinflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconutoil, ”Pharmaceutical Biology. 2010:.48, 151–157.
10. Z. A. Zakaria, M. N. Somchit, A. M. Mat Jais, L. K. Teh, M. Z. Salleh, and K. Long, “In vivo anti nociceptive and anti inflammatory activities of dried and fermented processed virgin coconut oil,” Medical Principles and Practice. 2011: l., 231–236.
11. Patra RC, Swarup D, Senapati SK. Effects of cadmium on lipid peroxides and superoxide dismutase in hepatic, renal and testicular tissue in rats. Vet Human,1999; Toxicol 41: 65–67
12. K. Narayana, U.J.A. D’Souza, K.P.S. Rao 2002. Effect of ribavirin on epididymal sperm count in rat, Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol: 46(1): 97–101.
13. K. Narayana, U.J.A. D’Souza, K.P.S. Rao 2002. Ribavirin induced sperm shape abnormalities in Wistar rat, Mutat. Res: 513 (1–2): 193–196.
14. Santhosh Kumar R, Asha Devi. S. Lead Toxicity on Male Reproductive System and its Mechanism: A Review. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2018; 11(3): 1228-1232
15. Siu E, Mruk D, Porto C, Cheng C. Cadmium-induced testicular injury. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2009; 238(3): 240-249
16. Ebru Beytut. Mesut Aksakal. 2002. The effect of long term supplement of dietary cadmium on lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant system in the liver and kidneys of rabbits. Turk J Vet Anim Sci: 26: 1055-1060
17. Reid TM, Daniel IF, Lawrence AL. 1994. Mutagenesis by metal-induced oxygen radicals. Environ Health Prespect: 102 (suppl 3): 57–61.
18. Acharya UR, Das SS, Mishra M. 2002. Role of vitamin C and E on sperm abnormality and sperm count in cadmium treated swissmice. Cytologia: 67: 47–52.
19. Santos FW, Oro T, Zeni G, Rocha JBT. Do Nascimento PC and Nogueira CW. Toxicol Lett 2004; 152: 255-63.
20. Vandana Gautam, Dhriti Kapoor, Saroj Arora, Renu Bhardwaj. Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of oil Extract of a Gymnosperm - Araucaria cunninghamii Aiton ex D. Don. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2016; 9(7): 875-879.
21. Pavithra. S, N. Banu. Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Antioxidant Capacity of Tin Chlorophyllin from Morinda citrifolia L. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2017; 10(2): 453-455.
22. Davis KJA. 1986. Intracellular proteolytic systems may function as secondary antioxidant defences: a hypothesis. Free Radical Biol. Med: 2: 155-173.
23. Rekha D. Kini, Tripathi Y., C.V. Raghuveer, Sheila R. Pai. Effect of Vitamin E Pre-Treatment on Histopathological Changes on Rat Testis Following Cadmium Chloride Administration. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 6(8): August 2013; Page 874-877.
24. Heffner JE, Repine JE. 1989. Pulmonary strategies of antioxidant defense. Am. Rev. Respir: 140: 531-554
25. Dahliatul, Qosimah, Ma. Asuncion, G.B, Aulanni’ am, A, Agri, K.A, Indah, A.A. Effect of Citrus acidity on profile of fatty acid in Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO). Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2020; 13(2): 791-794.
26. Smitha Sammith Shetty, Darrien Ray Quays, Justina John, Ng See Yee, Daneshwary a/p Appu, Lim Meng Tze, Tee Shin Chuen, Ahaliaa a/p Sachchithanantham, Sacha Miriam Augustus. Effect of Oil pulling on Oral Health- A Microbiological Study. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2019; 12(1): 01-04.
27. Arunima S, Rajmohan T. Effect of virgin coconut oil enriched diet on the antioxidant status and paraoxonase 1 activity in ameliorating the oxidative stress in rats - a comparative study. Food Funct.2013; 4: 1402