Author(s): Zainab B. Mohammed, Shatha F. Abdullah


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00701   

Address: Zainab B. Mohammed1*, Shatha F. Abdullah2
1Dept. of Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
2Assistant Professor, Dept. of Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 14,      Issue - 8,     Year - 2021

Human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) infection has increased recently in Arabic countries. HHV-8 in healthy persons does not necessarily cause life-threatening infection, and however, it causes a more severe infection among immunocompromised patients. The distribution of HHV-8 genotypes varies according to ethnicity and depends on the geographic region prior rapid development of global travel. A cross sectional prospective study included a hundred healthy blood donor samples with a mean age of (36.60±10.381), 81% were positive for molecular detection of HHV-8 DNA. PCR results for HHV-8 were strongly related with risk factors such as the number of sexual relations, previous surgeries, blood transfusion, dental operation, and the number of blood donations. In this study, genotypes (A, B, C and D) were detected, largely associated with blood donors residences and distributed to areas of Iraq through a map. Genotype A comprised 28 (34.6%) of blood donors and for genotype C it was 16 (19.8%) and both genotypes were found to be the predominant genotypes, followed by genotype B of 7 (8.7%) and D of 2 (2.5%), the latter is included into Mixed genotypes of 8 (9.9%), whereas, 22 (27.2%) were undetermined genotypes. Efforts should focus on these findings, which may indicate that Iraq is an endemic region of HHV-8 infection.

Cite this article:
Zainab B. Mohammed, Shatha F. Abdullah. Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Human Herpes Virus 8 in a sample of Iraqi Blood Donors. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(8):4047-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00701

Zainab B. Mohammed, Shatha F. Abdullah. Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Human Herpes Virus 8 in a sample of Iraqi Blood Donors. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(8):4047-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00701   Available on:

1.    Kalva S. and Agrawal N. Structure based Pharmacophore Modeling and Molecular Docking Studies of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpes Virus (KSHV) Protease-A Therapeutic Drug Target. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2019; 12(11): 5177-81.
2.    Sunil M, Reid E and Lechowicz MJ. Update on HHV-8-associated malignancies. Current Infectious Disease Reports. 2010 Mar; 12(2): 147-54.
3.    Guerini FR, Agliardi C, Mancuso R, Brambilla L, Biffi R, Ferrucci S, Zanetta L, Zanzottera M, Brambati M, Boneschi V, Ferrante P. Association of HLA-DRB1 and-DQB1 with Classic Kaposi's Sarcoma in Mainland Italy. Cancer Genomics-Proteomics. 2006 May; 3(3-4): 191-6.
4.    Pica F. and Volpi A. Transmission of human herpesvirus 8: an update. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 2007 Apr; 20(2): 152-6.
5.    Alzahrani AJ, El-Harith EH, Milzer J, Obeid OE, Stuhrmann M, Al-Dayel A, Mohamed EA, Al-Egail S, Daoud M, Chowdhury A. and Guella A. Increased seroprevalence of human herpes virus-8 in renal transplant recipients in Saudi Arabia. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 2005 Nov; 20(11): 2532-6.
6.    Ismail SI, Mahmoud IS, Salman MA, Sughayer MA. and Mahafzah AM. Frequent detection of Human Herpes Virus-8 in bone marrow of Jordanian patients of multiple myeloma. Cancer Epidemiology. 2011 Oct; 35(5): 471-4.
7.    Jalilvand S, Shoja Z, Mokhtari-Azad T, Nategh R. and Gharehbaghian A. Seroprevalence of Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) and incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in Iran. Infectious Agents and Cancer. 6(1); 2011 Dec : 5.
8.    Altuğlu İM, Yolcu A, Öcek ZA, Yazan SR. and Gökengin D. Investigation of human herpesvirus-8 seroprevalence in blood donors and HIV-positive patients admitted to Ege University Medical School Hospital, Turkey. Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni. 2016 Jan; 50(1): 104.  
9.    Zong JC, Ciufo DM, Alcendor DJ, Wan X, Nicholas J, Browning PJ, Rady PL, Tyring SK, Orenstein JM, Rabkin CS. and Su IJ. High-level variability in the ORF-K1 membrane protein gene at the left end of the Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus genome defines four major virus subtypes and multiple variants or clades in different human populations. Journal of Virology. 1999 May; 73(5):  4156-70.
10.    Sharquie KE and Noaimi AA. Treatment of Kaposi’s Sarcoma by Combination of Zinc Sulfate and Propranolol. Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications. 8(4); 2018 Oct: 249-55.
11.    Shakir DM, Abdullah SF. and Sharquie IK. Serodiagnosis of Human Herpesvirus 8 in Women with Breast Cancer. Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal. 2018 Mar; 11(1): 391-398.
12.    Azadmanesh K, Norouzfar ZS, Sohrabi A, Safaie-Naraghi Z, Moradi A, Yaghmaei P, Naraghi MM, Arashkia A. and Eslamifar A. Characterization of human herpes virus 8 genotypes in Kaposi's sarcoma patients in Tehran, Iran. International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics. 2012; 3(2): 144.
13.    Meng YX, Spira TJ, Bhat GJ, Birch CJ, Druce JD, Edlin BR, Edwards R, Gunthel C, Newton R, Stamey FR and Wood C. Individuals from North America, Australasia, and Africa are infected with four different genotypes of human herpesvirus 8. Virology. 1999 Aug; 261(1): 106-119.
14.    Abdulrazak SH. Hasan, Hadeel M. Fayyadh, Wisam S.S. Al-Taie. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Anti-Hepatitis B Core Antibodies among Blood Donors in Diyala, Iraq. Asian J. Nursing Education and Research. 2018; 8(4): 489-492.
15.     Singh UR, Mishra SK, Uike GPS, Singh AB, Gond S, Gupta J. Prevalence of HCV Infection in Healthy Donors of Rewa Division. Asian J. Research Chem 8(6): June 2015; Page 407-412.
16.    Tufon EN, Nji NA, Ndonhui NN. The Occurrence of Hepatitis B Virus amongst Blood Donors Attending the Bamenda Regional Hospital. Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2014; 6(4): 173-176.
17.     Suneetha. P. A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme on Blood Transfusion among Student Nurses in Selected Nursing Institution at Raichur. Asian J. Nur. Edu. & Research 1(1): Jan.-March 2011; Page 12-14.
18.    Bhatt V, Archana B, Doss JK. A Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of I.E.C. regarding benefits about Blood Donation among community people in Madhapar village at Rajkot. Int. J. Nur. Edu. and Research. 2020; 8(2): 179-180.
19.    Kundu G, Adhikari UR, Adhikari M. A Descriptive Study to assess the knowledge and Attitude towards Blood and Organ Donation among college students in a selected college of West Bengal. Asian J. Nursing Education and Research. 2019; 9(2): 256-262.
20.    Kaur A, Ahad R, Modgill M, Masih M, Kaur N, Kaur P, et al. A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of the Structured Teaching Programme on the Knowledge regarding blood Donation among the college going Students of the selected Colleges of Ludhiana, Punjab. Asian J. Nursing Education and Research. 2019; 9(2): 220-224.
21.    Rashmi, Nakul, Mohit, Meenakshi, Monika, Manish. Knowledge regarding Voluntary Blood Donation among Adolescents. Int. J. Nur. Edu. and Research. 2020; 8(1): 91-94.
22.    Japar S, Nor Yahya A, Abdul Raman R, Abdurrahman Muhammad Sani, Azura Abdul Halain, Kim Geok , Soh, Kim Lam Soh. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Blood Donation among Undergraduate Students in a Public University, Malaysia. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2018; 11(8): 3478-3482.
23.    Levi JE, Nascimento MC, Sumita LM, de Souza VA, Freire WS, Mayaud P and Pannuti CS. Non-detection of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA in HHV-8-seropositive blood donors from three Brazilian regions. PLoS One. 2011 Aug; 6(8): 6-9.
24.    Ghantous A, Saffery R, Cros MP, Ponsonby AL, Hirschfeld S, Kasten C, Dwyer T, Herceg Z and Hernandez-Vargas H. Optimized DNA extraction from neonatal dried blood spots: application in methylome profiling. BMC Biotechnology. 2014 Dec; 14(1): 1-3.
25.    Demeke T. and Jenkins GR. Influence of DNA extraction methods, PCR inhibitors and quantification methods on real-time PCR assay of biotechnology-derived traits. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 2010 Mar; 396(6): 1977-1990.
26.    Pérez CL. and Tous MI. Diversity of human herpesvirus 8 genotypes in patients with AIDS and non‐AIDS associated Kaposi's sarcoma, Castleman's disease and primary effusion lymphoma in Argentina. Journal of Medical Virology. 2017 Nov; 89(11): 2020-2028.
27.    Enbom M, Urassa W, Massambu C, Thorstensson R, Mhalu F. and Linde A. Detection of human herpesvirus 8 DNA in serum from blood donors with HHV-8 antibodies indicates possible bloodborne virus transmission. Journal of Medical Virology. 2002; 68(2): 264-267.
28.    Zhang T. and Wang L. Epidemiology of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in Asia: Challenges and opportunities. Journal of Medical Virology. 2017 Apr; 89(4): 563-570.
29.    Ouyang X, Zeng Y, Fu B, Wang X, Chen W, Fang Y, Luo M. and Wang L. Genotypic analysis of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus from patients with Kaposi’s sarcoma in Xinjiang, China. Viruses. 2014 Dec; 6(12): 4800-4810.
30.    Al-Otaibi LM, Moles DR, Porter SR and Teo CG. Human herpesvirus 8 shedding in the mouth and blood of hemodialysis patients. Journal of Medical Virology. 2012 May; 84(5): 792-7.
31.    Meng YX, Sata T, Stamey FR, Voevodin A, Katano H, Koizumi H, Deleon M, De Cristofano MA, Galimberti R. and Pellett PE. Molecular characterization of strains of Human herpesvirus 8 from Japan, Argentina and Kuwait The GenBank accession numbers of the DNA sequences obtained in this study are AF274308, AF274309 and AF278832–AF278855. Journal of General Virology. 2001; 82(3): 499-506.
32.    da Silva SR, da Silva AP, Bacchi MM, Bacchi CE and de Oliveira DE. KSHV genotypes A and C are more frequent in Kaposi sarcoma lesions from Brazilian patients with and without HIV infection, respectively. Cancer letters. 2011; 301(1): 85-94.
33.    Chakraborty, S., Valiya Veettil, M. and Chandran, B. Kaposi’s Sarcoma Associated Herpesvirus Entry into Target Cells, Frontiers in Microbiology. 2012; (3): p. 6.
34.    Kajumbula H, Wallace RG, Zong JC, Hokello J, Sussman N, Simms S, Rockwell RF, Pozos R, Hayward GS. and Boto W. Ugandan Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus phylogeny: evidence for cross-ethnic transmission of viral subtypes. Intervirology. 2006; 49(3): 133-143.
35.    Leao JC, de Faria AB, Fonseca DD, Gueiros LA, Silva IH. and Porter SR. Intrahost genetic variability of human herpes virus‐8. Journal of medical virology. 2013; 85(4): 636-645.
36.    Tozetto-Mendoza TR, Ibrahim KY, Tateno AF, de Oliveira CM, Sumita LM, Sanchez MC, Luna EJ, Pierrotti LC, Drexler JF, Braz-Silva PH. and Pannuti CS. Genotypic distribution of HHV-8 in AIDS individuals without and with Kaposi sarcoma: Is genotype B associated with better prognosis of AIDS-KS?. Medicine. 2016; 95(48): e5291.
37.    Houldcroft CJ. Human Herpesvirus Sequencing in the Genomic Era: The Growing Ranks of the Herpetic Legion. Pathogens. 2019; 8(4): 186.
38.    Wang X, He B, Zhang Z, Liu T, Wang H, Li X, Zhang Q, Lan K, Lu X. and Wen H. Human herpesvirus-8 in northwestern China: epidemiology and characterization among blood donors. Virology journal. 2010; 7(1): 62.
39.    Mbulaiteye SM. and James J. Goedert. Human herpesvirus 8 seropositivity in rural Uganda: maturation of Sero-epidemiological studies. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2011 Mar 1; 203(5): 575–577.
40.     Sareen A, Tandon S, Ramachandran A, Srimathi R. Saliva as A Diagnostic Tool for Detection of the Viruses: A Review. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2018; 11(10): 4739-4743.
41.    Borges JD, Souza VA, Giambartolomei C, Dudbridge F, Freire WS, Gregório SA, Torrez PP, Quiroga M, Mayaud P, Pannuti CS. and Nascimento MC. Transmission of human herpesvirus type 8 infection within families in American indigenous populations from the Brazilian Amazon. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2012 Jun; 205(12): 1869–1876.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available