Author(s): Roula Shakkour, Taghrid Hammoud, Yasser Mukhalalaty, Faizeh Al Quobaili


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00622   

Address: Roula Shakkour1*, Taghrid Hammoud2, Yasser Mukhalalaty3, Faizeh Al Quobaili4
1Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.
2Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.
3National Thalassemia Center, Ministry of Health, Damascus, Syria.
4Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Damascus.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 14,      Issue - 7,     Year - 2021

Objectives: Endocrine disorders continue to affect the health of thalassemia patients, foremost of which is hypogonadism being the most frequent endocrine complication that involves 70-80% of beta-thalassemia major (ß-TM) patients. Actually, the role of iron overload in endocrine complications is well known. Our study goals were to investigate gonadal function, assess pubertal status among Syrian male patients with ß-TM and correlate hormonal panel with serum ferritin as the marker of iron overload. Methods: 56 ß-TM regularly transfused male patients were enrolled in this study, they were 21.91±5.01 years old. FSH, LH, Total Testosterone, and Serum Ferritin were measured for all patients, 52 of them undergone pubertal status evaluation. Results: Results showed that 60.7% of patients suffered from hypogonadism, which was hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in 97.06% of them. Delayed puberty was seen in 7.7% of the patients, while arrested puberty was found in 82.69% of them. All patients had iron overload and 92.86% of them suffered from severe iron elevation. Both gonadal and pubertal status were independent of the serum ferritin levels (P=0.73), (P=0.81) respectively. There was significant positive correlation between FSH: LH (r=0.584, P=0.0001), FSH: Testosterone (r=0.562, P=0.0001), LH: Testosterone (r=0.746, P=0.0001), MCHC: Testosterone (r=0.292, P=0.038), and BMI: Hb (r=0.351, P=0.009). Conclusions: Our findings indicated that hypogonadism, arrested puberty and severe iron overload were highly prevalent among male patients with ß-TM. Patients with better gonadal reserve have higher BMI than those with gonadal dysfunction. We suggest that hypogonadism in ß-TM patients is not directly related to serum ferritin levels; other potential factors (such as chronic anemia, hypoxia, and genetic predisposition) may contribute. Also we suggest that adequate blood transfusion and appropriate iron chelation, along with regular evaluation for gonadal status and timely intervention can improve the management of aforementioned complications, thus ameliorating patients’ quality of life.

Cite this article:
Roula Shakkour, Taghrid Hammoud, Yasser Mukhalalaty, Faizeh Al Quobaili. Investigation of Gonadal Function, Puberty, and their relationship to Serum Ferritin in Male patients with β-Thalassemia major in Syria. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(7):3595-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00622

Roula Shakkour, Taghrid Hammoud, Yasser Mukhalalaty, Faizeh Al Quobaili. Investigation of Gonadal Function, Puberty, and their relationship to Serum Ferritin in Male patients with β-Thalassemia major in Syria. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(7):3595-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00622   Available on:

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