Amit Gupta, Karishma Ghosh, Dakshita Snud Sharma, Shubham Tyagi
firstname.lastname@example.org , email@example.com
Amit Gupta1,2*, Karishma Ghosh1, Dakshita Snud Sharma1, Shubham Tyagi1
1Department of Biotechnology, Graphic Era (Deemed to be) University, Dehradun.
2Vidya Pratishthan School of Biotechnology, Baramati, Pune, India.
Volume - 14,
Issue - 5,
Year - 2021
Allium cepa (onion; Liliaceae family), herbaceous annual plant and reported Sulphur based amino acids with many minerals including vitamins. Inspite of various medicinal uses of this plant as food and also showed various beneficial effects. The antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract from Allium cepa (onion bulb) was evaluated against bacterial strains using disc diffusion method. In contrast, inflammatory response or inhibition of T cell antigenic response was evaluated using typhoid vaccine and swine flu vaccine in Swiss mice. These studies were conducted according to ethical guidelines and determining T cell proliferation including estimation of cytokines from cell culture supernatant and also measuring its hemolytic activity. The results showed that aqueous extract show the highest inhibition rate against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enteritidis. In mice model studies, aqueous extract at higher doses showed inhibition in antigen specific T cell proliferation and also declining in the level of IFN-gamma production but enhancement in IL-4 production. In addition, aqueous extract at higher concentration does not showed any hemolytic activity. Overall, this study provides evidence for the presence of secondary metabolites in aqueous extract that probably interferes with bacterial growth (antimicrobial) and also declining in antigenic specific proliferation (i.e. anti-inflammatory) which would prevent and inhibit initiation and progression of many diseases.
Cite this article:
Amit Gupta, Karishma Ghosh, Dakshita Snud Sharma, Shubham Tyagi. In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activity and measuring its antigenic specific immune response in mice model studies: Allium cepa. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(5):2563-8. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00451
Amit Gupta, Karishma Ghosh, Dakshita Snud Sharma, Shubham Tyagi. In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activity and measuring its antigenic specific immune response in mice model studies: Allium cepa. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(5):2563-8. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00451 Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2021-14-5-35
1. Renuka, K. (2011). A Study to assess the effectiveness of teaching Programme in knowledge on selected infectious disease among mothers of under five children in Thiruvallur District. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research 1(2), 57-59.
2. Rathore, I. (2017). Scrub Typhus- A re-emerging infectious disease of India. International Journal of Advances in Nursing Management 5(2), 172-176.
3. Thirumurugan, D., Vijayakumar, R. (2013). Exploitation of antibacterial compound producing marine actinobacteria against fish pathogens isolated from less explored environments. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 3(2), 75-78.
4. Rammo, N.N.R. (2017). Bactericidal and anti-biofilm formation of aqueous plant extracts against pathogenic bacteria. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 7(1), 25-29.
5. Hugar, D.S., Heroor, S., Hussain, Z. (2010). Screening of immunomodulatory activity of extracts of seeds of Jatropha curcas Linn. On Human neutrophils. Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2(1), 70-74.
6. Palaksha, M.N., Ravishankar, K., Nandini, V. (2017). Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effect of Eclipta prostrata whole plant extract on albino rats. Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics 9(2), 41-45.
7. Hegde, K., Durga, P.M., Sajjan, P.K.C. (2019). Evaluation of immunomodulatory potentials of the leaves of Aquilaria malaccensis. Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics 11 (1), 32-36.
8. Weber, N.D., Anderson, D.O., North, J.A., Murray, B.K., Lawson, L.D., Hughes, B.G. (1992) In vitro virucidal effects of Allium sativum (garlic) extract and compounds. Planta Med 58, 417–423.
9. Ross, Z.M., O'gara, E.A., Hill, D.J., Sleightholme, H.V., Maslin, D.J. (2017) Antimicrobial properties of garlic oil against human enteric bacteria: Evaluation of methodologies and comparisons with garlic oil sulfides and garlic powder. Appl Environ Microb 67, 475–480.
10. Gupta, A., Chaphalkar, S.R. (2015) Immunopharmacological activity of Zingiber officinale on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical researches 5(2), 13-17.
11. Patil, N.S., Patil, K.B., Patil, M.R., Ahirrao, R.A. (2018). Antimitotic activity of fruits of Momordica dioica by using Allium cepa root tip assay. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 8(4), 221-224.
12. Panda1, S., Mandal, M., Satpathy, M. (2016). Evaluation of the extract of Allium cepa Linn. for biochemical and antibacterial activities. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry 9(3), 113-115.
13. Selvaraju, S., Vasanth, M., Rajarajan, R., Muralidharan, R., Raghupathy, V. (2015). Genotoxic effects of Carbendezim (fungicide) on the root apical meristems of Allium cepa L. Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 7(1), 29-33.
14. Marotti, M., Piccaglia, R. (2002) Characterization of flavonoids in different cultivars of onion (Allium cepa L.) J Food Sci 67, 1229–1232.
15. Gupta, A., Khajuria, A., Singh, J., Suri, K.A. (2015) Adjuvant effect of biopolymeric fraction from Picrorhiza kurroa to promote both Th1 and Th2 immune responses. Journal of progressive research in biology 1(1): 7–16.
16. Gupta, A., Khajuria, A., Singh, J., Singh, S., Suri, K.A., Qazi, G.N. (2011) Immunological adjuvant effect of Boswellia serrata (BOS 2000) on specific antibody and cellular response to ovalbumin in mice. International Immunopharmacology 11(8), 968–975.
17. Gupta, A., Chaphalkar, S.R. (2016) Hemolytic and immunoadjuvant effect of Butea frondosa on the immune response to hepatitis B vaccine containing surface antigen in mice. Journal of Herb Med Pharmacology 5 (3), 103 -106.
18. Gupta, A., Chaphalkar, S.R. (2016) Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities of flavonoids from medicinal plants. Journal of Herb Med Pharmacology 5 (3), 121 -124.
19. Gupta, A., Chaphalkar, S.R. (2016). Potential immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica. Advanced herbal medicine 4(1), 01–06.
20. Gupta, A., Chaphalkar, S.R. (2016). Anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities of aqueous leaves extract of Butea frondosa. Journal of Herb Med Pharmacology 5 (2), 07–11.
21. Gupta, A., Chaphalkar, S.R. (2015) Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Strychnos nuxvomica. Journal of Biology and nature 4(4), 217–223.
22. FDA, U.S. (2009a). U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) and Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER). Guidance for Industry: Animal Models—Essential Elements to Address Efficacy under the Animal Rule (draft). http://www.fda.gov/cber/ guidelines.htm.