Author(s): Geetha Balasubramaniam, Mahendran Sekar, Shrishailappa Badami

Email(s): , ,

DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00444   

Address: Geetha Balasubramaniam1,2, Mahendran Sekar3, Shrishailappa Badami4
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Swamy Vivekanandha College of Pharmacy, Elayampalayam, Tiruchengode – 637205, Tamilnadu, India.
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Rocklands, Udhagamandalam – 643001, Nilgiris, Tamilnadu, India.
3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences,
Universiti Kuala Lumpur Royal College of Medicine Perak, Ipoh – 30450, Perak, Malaysia.
4Chaitanya Vikas Yoga and Nature Cure Centre, Rajatgiri, Dharwad – 580004, Karnataka, India.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 14,      Issue - 5,     Year - 2021

Background: Strobilanthes kunthianus Nees T Anders (S. kunthianus, Neela kurinji) is a shrub in the grasslands of Western Ghats in India. The Nilgiris, which literally means the blue mountains got its name from the purplish blue flowers of Neelakurinji that blossoms gregariously once in twelve years. It is well known for its biological properties. However, so far there is no detailed antioxidant and cytotoxic studies has been carried out. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate in-vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of various parts of S. kunthianus extracts. Methods: Fourteen extracts were prepared in different parts of S. kunthianus including stem, leaves, flowers and roots. All the extracts were examined for in-vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activities using standard methods. The total phenol content was estimated by Folin Ciocalteau method. Results: The crude methanol flower extract was found to contain very high total phenol content among all the extracts. Among the tested extracts, the ethyl acetate extracts of root and stem showed potent in-vitro antioxidant activity, when compared to ascorbic acid in ABTS method. These extracts showed better activity than other successive extracts of root and stem. In case of methanol extracts, the crude extracts showed potent antioxidant activity in ABTS, H2O2, and total antioxidant capacity methods. The crude methanol flower extract was found to be the most potent among the methanol extracts. Many natural products have served as anticancer agents in the treatment and also as lead compounds for further research. All the extracts were tested for their cytotoxic activity against Hep-2 and HeLa cell lines. But all the extracts showed weak activity in the tested cell lines. Conclusion: S. kunthianus merits further investigation in animal models to confirm its antioxidant and anticancer properties and to isolate the phytoconstituents that are responsible for their biological activities.

Cite this article:
Geetha Balasubramaniam, Mahendran Sekar, Shrishailappa Badami. In-vitro Antioxidant and Cytotoxic properties of Strobilanthes kunthianus. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(5):2522-8. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00444

Geetha Balasubramaniam, Mahendran Sekar, Shrishailappa Badami. In-vitro Antioxidant and Cytotoxic properties of Strobilanthes kunthianus. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(5):2522-8. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00444   Available on:

1.    Heim KE, Tagliaferro AR, Bobilya DJ. Flavonoids antioxidants: chemistry, metabolism, and structure activity relationships. J Nutr Biochem 2002; 13: 572-84.
2.    Garg M, Singh KP, Bansal DD. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on oxidative stress in experimental diabetes. Indian J Exp Bio 1997; 35: 264-6.
3.    Sunarto PA. Materia Medica Indonesia. 1st Ed. Penerbitan Directorate Jenderwal Pengawasen Obat dan Makanan Jakarta, 1997.
4.    Kushumoto JT, Shimadu N, Kakiuchi M, Hattori M, Namba T. Inhibitory effects of Indonesian Plant extracts on reverse transcriptase of an RNA tumour virus (I). Phytother Res 1992; 6: 241-4.
5.    Ismail M, Manickam E, Dania A, Rahmat A, Yahaya A. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Strobilanthes crispus leaf extract. J Nut Biochem 2000; 11: 536-42.
6.    Jaksa S, Rahmat A, Obhman F, Ismail P, Mansor SM. Cancer induction and effect of Strobilanthes crispus leaf extract on liver histology and enzymes changes in rats. J Trop Plants 2004; 5: 187-92.
7.    Rahmat A, Edvini S, Ismail P, Yunthin T, Abu Bakar M. Chemical constituents, antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effects of essential oil from Strobilanthes inspus and Lawsonia inermis. J Biol Sci 2006; 6: 1005-10.
8.    Nair RB, Ravishankar B, Vijayan NP, Sasikala CK, Saraswathy VN. Anti-inflammatory effect of Strobilanthes heyneanus leaves a biochemical study. J Res Ayurveda and siddha 1988; 9: 49-58.
9.    Desu BSR, Elango K, Satish Kumar MN, Suresh B, Manimaran S, Nanjan MJ. In-vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoarthritic activities of Strobilanthes kunthianus and Strobilanthes cuspidatus. Int J Res Pharm Chem 2011; 1(4): 1265-8.
10.    Balasubramaniam G, Sekar M, Badami S. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Strobilanthes kunthianus in experimental animal models. Res J Pharm Tech 2020; 13(12): 5844-50.
11.    Balasubramaniam G, Sekar M, Varadarajan M, Badami S. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of Strobilanthes kunthianus against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Pharmacogn J 2020; 12(5): 1143-51.
12.    Everlyne IM, Darsini DTP, Yadav SA. Unraveling antibiofilm potency of Strobilanthes kunthiana Nees T. Anderson ex Benth against throat-infectious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Indo American J Pharma Res 2016; 6(6): 5707-16.
13.    Rajasekaran A, Loganathan V, Jaewanth A, Jayakar B. Central nervous activity of Strobilanthes kunthiana leaf. Hamdard Medicus 2000; 43(1): 38-40.
14.    Singh DN, Verma N, Kulshreshtha DK, Agrawal AK. In-vitro antigiardial activity of ethanolic extract and fractions from Phlebophyllum kunthianum. J Nat Rem 2012; 12(1): 68-71.
15.    Everlyne IM, Sangilimuthu AY, Darsini DTP. Spectral analyses of the bioactive compounds present in the ethanolic leaf extract of Strobilanthes kunthiana (Nees) T. Anderson ex Benth. Adv Biores 2015; 6(3): 65-71.
16.    Hwang BY, Kim HS, Lee JH, Hong YS, Lee KS, Lee JJ. Antioxidant activity of benzoylated flavon-3-ol glycosides from Celastrus obiculatus. J Nat Prod 2001; 64:82-4.
17.    Marcocci L, Packer L, Droy-Lefaix MT, Sekaki A, Gardes-Albert M. Antioxidant actions of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761). Methods in Enzymol 1994; 234: 462-75.
18.    Re R, Pellegrini M, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice EC. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorisation assay. Free radical Biol Med 1999; 26: 1231-7.
19.    Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC, Aruoma OI. The deoxyribose method: a simple test-tube assay for determination of rate constants for reactions of hydroxyl radicals. Anal Biochem 1987; 165: 215-9.
20.    Elizabeth K, Rao MNA. Oxygen radical scavenging activity of curcumin. Int J Pharmaceutics 1990; 58: 237-40.
21.    Huong NTT, Malsumato K, Kasai R, Yamasaki K, Watanabeth. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vietnamese ginseng saponin and its components. Biol Pharm Bull 1998; 21: 978–81.
22.    Francis D, Rita L. Rapid colorimetric assay forcell growth and survival modifications to the tetrazolium dye procedure giving improved sensitivity and reliability. J Immunol Methods 1986; 89: 271-7.
23.    Skehan P, Storeng R, Scudiero D, Monks A, Mcmohan J, Vistica D. New colorimetric cytotoxic assay for anti-cancer drug screening. J Nat Cancer Inst 1990; 82: 1107-12.
24.    Aniya Y, Koyama T, Miyagi C, Miyahira M, Inomata C, Kinoshita S, et al. Free radical scavenging and hepatoprotective actions of the medicinal herb, Crassocephalum crepidioides from the Okinawa Islands. Biol Pharm Bull 2005; 28: 19-23.
25.    Gutteridgde JMC. Free radicals in disease processes: A complication of cause and consequence. Free Radic Res Comm 1995; 19: 141-58.
26.    Tiwari A. Imbalance in antioxidant defence and human diseases: Multiple approach of natural antioxidants therapy. Curr sci 2001; 81: p1179-87.
27.    Joyce DA. Oxygen radicals in disease. Adv Drug Reac Bull 1987; 127: 476-9.
28.    Buyukokuroglu ME, Gulcin I, Oktay M, Kufrevioglu OI. In vitro antioxidant properties of dantrolene sodium. Pharmacol Res 2001; 44: 491-5.
29.    Shahidi F, Wanasundara PD. Phenolic antioxidants. Cri Rev Food Sci Nutr 1992; 32:67-103.
30.    Auudy B, Ferreira F, Blasina L, Lafon F, Arredondo F, Dajas R, Tripathi PC. Screening of antioxidant activity of three Indian medicinal plants, traditionally used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 1996; 84: 131-8.
31.    Miller AL. Antioxidant flavonoids: structure,function and clinical usage. Alt Med Rev 1996; 1: 103-11.
32.    Boyer RF, Clark HM, Laroche AP. Reduction and release of ferritin iron by plant phenolics. J Inorg Biochem 1988; 32: 171-81.
33.    Havsteen B. Flavonoids, a class of natural products of high pharmacological potency. Biocchem Pharmacol 1983; 30: 1141-8.
34.    Rangasamy P, Hansiya VS, Maheswari PU, Suman T, Geetha N. Phytochemical analysis and evaluation of in vitro antioxidant and anti-urolithiatic potential of various fractions of Clitoria ternatea L. Blue flowered leaves. Asian J Pharm Ana 2019; 9(2): 67-76.
35.    Muthukumaran P, Shanmuganathan P, Malathi C. In Vitro antioxidant evaluation of Mimosa pudica. Asian J Pharm Res 2011; 1(2): 44-6.
36.    Valli G, Jeyalakshmi M. Preliminary phytochemical and antioxidant study of Odina woodier leaf extract. Asian J Pharm Res 2012; 2(4): 153-5.
37.    Narasimhan R, Sathiyamoorthy M. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant studies in the Pulp extracts of Cucurbita maxima. Asian J Pharm Res 2016; 6(1): 1-4.
38.    Malathi R, John SA, Cholarajan A. Antioxidant activity of extract from the leaves of Tylophora asthmatica. Asian J Res Pharm Sci 2012; 2(2): 80-2.
39.    Jadhav GB, Saudagar RB. Free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of Punica granatum Linn. Asian J Res Pharm Sci 2014; 4(2): 51-4.
40.    Elayarani M, Shanmuganathan P, Muthukumaran P. In-vitro antioxidant activity of the various extracts of Cassia auriculata L. flower by UV spectrophotometer. Asian J Pharm Tech 2011; 1(3): 70-2.
41.    Prabakaran M, Thennarasu V, Panneerselvam A. Screening of antioxidant, antimutagenic, antimicrobial activities and phytochemical studies on Sphaeranthus amaranthoides (Burm). Asian J Pharm Tech 2011; 1(4): 125-9.
42.    Patel DS, Shah PB, Managoli NB. Evaluation of in-vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of Withania somnifera and Aloe vera. Asian J Pharm Tech 2012; 2(4): 143-7.
43.    Pramod HJ, Yadav AV, Raje VN, Mohite M, Wadkar G. Antioxidant activity of Borassus flabellifer (linn.) fruits. Asian J Pharm Tech 2013; 3(1): 16-9.
44.    Balasubramaniam G, Sekar M, Badami S. Pharmacognostical, physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation of Strobilanthes kunthianus (Acanthaceae). Pharmacog J 2020; 12(4): 731-41.
45.    Balasubramaniam G, Sekar M, Ravi S, Badami S. Isolation and structural characterization of phytoconstituents from Strobilanthes kunthianus. Pharmacogn J 2020; 12(6s):1605-11..
46.    Badami S, Mahesh KG, Suresh B. Antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract of Striga orobanchioides. J Ethnopharmocol 2003; 85: 227-9.

Recomonded Articles:

Author(s): U.S Mahadeva Rao, Khamsah Suryati Mohd, Abdurrazaq Muhammad, Bashir Ado Ahmad, Mohaslinda Mohamad, Rosmawati Mat Ali

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Deepak Karki, Gururaj S. Kulkarni, Shivakumar Swamy, Sheeba FR

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00750.8         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Rekha Rajendran, R Hemachander, T Ezhilarasan, C Keerthana, DL Saroja, KV Saichand, Mohamed Gasim Abdullah

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Hayat M. Mukhtar, Vandna Kalsi

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00395.5         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Som K. Madhvi, Manik Sharma, Javaid Iqbal, Mohd Younis

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00785.6         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Fathima Mariyam Niyas

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2015.00182.1         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Praveen D, Ranadheer Chowdary P, Gandikota Thanmayi, Gangabathina Poojitha, Vijey Aanandhi M

DOI: 0.5958/0974-360X.2016.00047.0         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Vandana Gautam, Dhriti Kapoor, Saroj Arora, Renu Bhardwaj*

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00166.9         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Pande S. D., Wagh A.S., Bhagure L.B., Patil S.G., Deshmukh A.R.

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2015.00070.0         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Gopinath G, Thirumal M, P. R. Kumar

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00362.5         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Trilokchandran. B, Vijayakumar G, Thippareddy K S

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00612.7         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Josephin Nerling Rashida G., T. Venkatarathnakumar, R. Gowri, Ajithadhas Aruna

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): J.S. Vaghela, S.S. Sisodia

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Krishnendu Acharya*, Somanjana Khatua, Salman Sahid

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Karpagam T, Jannathul Firdous, Revathy, Shanmuga Priya, Varalakshmi B, Gomathi S, Geetha S, Noorzaid Muhamad

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00360.3         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Rupesh Pandey, Priyanka Upadhayay, Shiv Shankar Shukla

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles