Author(s): Rouhullah Dehghani, Hamid Kassiri


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00406   

Address: Rouhullah Dehghani1, Hamid Kassiri2
1Social Determinants of Health (SDH) Research Center and Department of Environment Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.
2Department of Medical Entomology, School of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 14,      Issue - 4,     Year - 2021

Dengue Virus (DENV) is transmitted by mosquito bite. This paper discusses the importance of Dengue Fever (DF) as an emerging disease in the world. In this study, some keywords such as break bone fever, dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, epidemiology, transmission methods, clinical manifestations, treatment, prevention, reservoirs, vectors, and Iran were searched on the Internet and reputable medical journals in order to find the papers published from 1988 to 2020. Until the mid-20th century, Dengue fever was restricted to special parts of the tropics and subtropics. Climate changes, increasing international travels and urban population, ineffective vector control methods, the lack of safe and effective antiviral drug and vaccine to prevent the disease are among the various factors contributing to the global distribution of DF. Dengue fever is a serious global threat to the lives of over 2.5 billion people in over 100 countries. Today, DF is endemic to Asia, Africa, South America, and the Caribbean. In fact, approximately 40% of the world's population is now living in countries with a high risk of DF transmission. The disease is endemic to urban and suburban areas across the tropics and subtropics of the world. It has been reported as an imported disease in Iran in recent years. Due to the appropriate climatic conditions and the presence of vectors, DF is likely to become endemic to Iran and put a large proportion of the population at risk of transmission. Therefore, the DF vectors' control should be precisely and consistently included in the Iranian health system’s agendas.

Cite this article:
Rouhullah Dehghani, Hamid Kassiri. A Review on Epidemiology of Dengue Viral Infection as an Emerging Disease. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(4):2296-1. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00406

Rouhullah Dehghani, Hamid Kassiri. A Review on Epidemiology of Dengue Viral Infection as an Emerging Disease. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(4):2296-1. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00406   Available on:

1. Heydari M, Metanat M, Rouzbeh-Far MA, Tabatabaei SM, Rakhshani M, Sepehri-Rad N, Keshtkar-Jahromi M. Dengue fever as an emerging infection in southeast Iran. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018; 98(5): 1469-71.
2. Mardani M, Abbasi F, Aghahasani M, Ghavam B. First Iranian imported case of dengue. Int J Prev Medi. 2013; 4(9): 1075.
3. Sharifi Mood B, Mardani M, Dengue: A Re-Emerging Disease. Arch Clin Infect Dis. 2017; 12(1): e27970.
4. Shivpuri A, Shivpuri A. Dengue–An overview. Dent Med Probl. 2011; 48:153–6. 
5. Guzman MG, Halstead SB, Artsob H, Buchy P, Farrar J, Gubler DJ, et al. Dengue: A continuing global threat. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010; 8(Suppl): S7–16.
6. Linares EM, Pannuti CS, Kubota LT, Thalhammer S. Immunospot assay based on fluorescent nanoparticles for dengue fever detection. Biosens Bioelectron. 2013; 41: 180–5.
7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHFs).
8. Awasthi S, Chaturvedi VC. Dengue and other viral hemorrhagic fevers in India. Proc Natl Acad Sci Sect B Biol Sci. 2012; 82(1): 69-80.
9. Wang E, Ni H, Xu R, Barrett ADT, Watowich SJ, Gubler DJ, et al. Evolutionary relationships of endemic/epidemic and sylvatic dengue viruses. J Virol. 2000; 74: 3227e34.
10. Halstead SB. Pathogenesis of dengue: Challenges to molecular biology. Science. 1988; 239: 476–81.
11. Kurane I. Dengue hemorrhagic fever with special emphasis on immunopathogenesis. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007; 30: 329–40.
12. Gubler DJ. Dengue and dengue Hemorrhagic fever. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1998; 11: 480–96. 
13. New ed. Geneva. Switzerland. World Health Organization (WHO). Dengue- Guidelines for Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control. 2009.
14. Gupta N, Srivastava S, Jain A, Chaturvedi UC. Dengue in India. Indian J Med Res. 2012; 136: 373–90.
15. Thomas EA, John M, Bhatia A. Muco-Cutaneous manifstations of dengue viral infection in Punjab. Int J Dermatol. 2007; 46: 715–19.
16. Rasheed S, Butlin R, Boots M A review of dengue as an emerging disease in Pakistan. Public Health. 2013; 127 (1): 11-17.
17. Haider, Z, Ahmad F.Z, Mahmood A, Waseem T, Shafiq I, et al. Dengue fever in Pakistan: a paradigm shift; changing epidemiology and clinical patterns. Perspect Public Health. 2015; 135 (6): 294-298.
18. Ali A, Ahmad H, Idrees M, Zahir F, Ali I. Circulating serotypes of dengue virus and their incursion into non-endemic areas of Pakistan; a serious threat. Virol J. 2016; 13 (1): 144.
19. World Health Organization. Dengue and severe dengue. Media centre; 2013. Available from: factsheets/fs117/en/.
20. Hasan S, Faisal Jamdar S, Alalowi M,Sadun Al Ageel Al Beaiji M. Dengue virus: A global human threat: Review of literature. Journal ListJ Int Soc Prev Community Dentv. 2016; 6(1): 1-6. 
21. Zohaib A, Saqib M, Beck C, Hussain MH, Lowenski S, Lecollinet S, et al. High prevalence of West Nile virus in equines from the two provinces of Pakistan Epidemiol Infect. 2015; 143 (9): 1931-1935.
22. Durrani MR, Iqbal MD, Munir N, Jamal A. Dengue hemorrhagic fever-epidemic in Karachi: Pakistan (2006-2016) experience at a tertiary care centre. Pak J Surg. 2017; 33 (1): 53-58.
23. Khan E, Siddiqui J, Shakoor S, Mehraj V, Jamil B, Hasan R. Dengue outbreak in Karachi, Pakistan, 2006: experience at a tertiary care center. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007; 101 (11): 1114-1119.
24. Rai MA. Control of dengue fever in Pakistan. Nature. 2011; 479: 41.
25. Savioli LD. Daumerie D. Sustaining the drive to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases: second WHO report on neglected tropical diseases. World Health Organization. 2013; Vol. 2: 140 p. diseases/9789241564540/en/.
26. Haroon M, Jan H, Faisal S, Ali N, Kamran M, Ullah F. Dengue Outbreak in Peshawar: Clinical Features and Laboratory Markers of Dengue Virus Infection. J Infect Public Health. 2019; 12(2): 258-62.
27. Khan J, Khan I, Ijaz A, Iqbal A, Salman M. The role of vertical transmission of dengue virus among field-captured Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pak J Zool. 2017; 49(3). 761-1149.
28. Shahid M, Amin I, Afzal S, Fatima Z, Zahid S, Ashraf U, Idrees M. Prevalence and Molecular Detection of Dengue Virus in 2013 Outbreak in KPK and Punjab, Pakistan. Pak J Zool. 2017; 49(3): 1119-1122.
29. Chinikar S, Ghiasi S, Moradi M, Madihi S. Laboratory detection facility of dengue fever (DF) in Iran: the first imported case. Int J Infect Dis. 2010; 8(1): 18.
30. Ghasemzadeh I, Dalaki M, Safari R. Dengue fever in Iran. A case Report. Acta Medica Mediterranea. 2016; 32 (Specia): 2025-7.
31. Ebrahimi M, Abadi A, Bashizadeh-Fakhar H, Fahimi E. Dengue Fever in Iran: A Case Report. Zahedan J Res Med Sci. 2016; 18(12). E9953.
32. Chinikar S, Ghiasi SM, Shah-Hosseini N, Mostafavi E, Moradi M, Khakifirouz S, Varai FS, Rafigh M, Jalali T, Goya MM, Shirzadi MR. Preliminary study of dengue virus infection in Iran. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2013; 11(3): 166-9.
33. Chinikar S, Javadi A, Ataei B, Shakeri H, Moradi M, Mostafavi E, Ghiasi SM. Detection of West Nile virus genome and specific antibodies in Iranian encephalitis patients. Epidemiol Infect. 2012; 140: 1525–1529.
34. Aghaie A, Aaskov J, Chinikar S, Niedrig M, Banazadeh S, Mohammadpour HK. Frequency of West Nile virus infection in Iranian blood donors. Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus. 2016; 32: 343–346.
35. Doosti S, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Schaffner F, Moosa-Kazemi SH, Akbarzadeh K, Gooya MM, Vatandoost H, Shirzadi MR, MostaFavi E. Mosquito surveillance and the first record of the invasive mosquito species Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern Iran. Iran J Public Health. 2016; 45: 1064–1073.
36. Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Doosti S, Schaffner F, Moosa-Kazemi SH, Akbarzadeh K, Yaghoobi-Ershadi N. Morphological studies on adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and first report of the potential Zika virus vector Aedes (Stegomyia) unilineatus (Theobald, 1906) in Iran. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2017; 110: 116–121.
37. Kamal M, Kenawy MA, Rady MH, Khaled AS, Samy AM. Mapping the global potential distributions of two arboviral vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus under changing climate. PLoS ONE. 2018; 13(12): e0210122.
38. Delatte H, Gimonneau G, Triboire A, Fontenille D. Influence of temperature on immature development,survival, longevity, fecundity, and gonotrophic cycles of Aedes albopictus, vector of chikungunya and dengue in the Indian Ocean. J Med Entomol. 2009; 46(1): 33–41.
39. Ponlawat A, Harrington LC. Blood feeding patterns of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Thailand. J Med Entomol. 2005; 42(5): 844–9. 
40. Paupy C, Delatte H, Bagny L, Corbel V, Fontenille D. Aedes albopictus, an arbovirus vector: from the darkness to the light. Microbes Infect. 2009; 11(14–15): 1177–85. 
41. Delatte H, Desvars A, Bouetard A, Bord S, Gimonneau G, Vourc’h G, et al. Blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus, a vector of Chikungunya on La Reunion. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010; 10 (3): 249–58.
42. Azari-Hamidian S, Norouzia B, Harbach RE. A detailed review of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Iran and their medical and veterinary importance. Acta Tropica. 2019; 194: 106-122. 
43. Hanafi-Bojd AA, Azari-Hamidian S, Vatandoost H, Charrahy Z. Spatio-temporal distribution of malaria vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) across different climatic zones of Iran, Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011; 4(6): 498-504.
44. Sedaghat MM, Harbach RE. An annotated checklist of the Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran. J Vec Ecol. 2005; 30: 272-276.
45. Dorzaban H, Soltani A, Alipour H, Hatami J, Hashemi SAJ, Shahriari-Namadi M, Safari R, Azizi K. Morphological and molecular-based identification of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), a main vector of Dengue Fever, the first record in Iran after decades. Parasites Vectors. 2020. DOI: 10.21203/
46. Khoshdel-Nezamiha F, Vatandoost H, AzariHamidian S, Bavani MM, Dabiri F, Entezar-Mahdi R, et al. Fauna and larval habitats of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of West Azerbaijan Province, northwestern Iran. Iran J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2014; 8(2): 163-73.
47. Azari-Hamidian S. Checklist of Iranian mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), J Vector Ecol. 2007; 32 (2): 235-242.
48. Kassiri H, Amani H. Bionomics and Breeding Places of the Genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mahroo and Sepid-Dasht Districts, Luristan Province, Western Iran. Zahedan J Res Med Sci. 2012; 14(8): 11-17. 
49. Amani H, Yaghoobi Ershadi MR. Kassiri H. Fauna, Abundance, Distribution and Seasonal Activity of Anopheles Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Larval habitats. J Medical Hormozgan. 2013; 17((2): 133-143.
50. Amani H, Yaghoobi Ershadi MR. Kassiri H. The ecology and larval habitats characteristics of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Aligudarz County (Luristan province, western Iran). Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2014; 4(Suppl 1): S233-S241.
51. Bostan N, Javed S, Nabgha-E-Amen, Eqani SA, Tahir F, Bokhari H. Dengue fever virus in Pakistan: effects of seasonal pattern and temperature change on distribution of vector and virus. Rev Med Virol. 2017; 27: e1899.
52. Bagheri Lankarani K, Alavian SM, Peymani P. Health in the Islamic Republic of Iran, challenges and progresses. Med J Islamic Repub Iran (MJIRI). 2013; 27(1): 42-9.
53. Poole-Smith BK, Hemme RR, Delorey M, Felix G, Gonzalez AL, Amador M, et al. Comparison of vector competence of Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti for dengue virus: implications for dengue control in the Caribbean. PloS Negl Trop Dis. 2015; 9(2): e0003462.
54. Manrique-Saide P, Che-Mendoza A, Barrera-Perez M, Guillermo-May G, Herrera-Bojorquez J, Dzul-Manzanilla F, et al. Use of insecticide treated house screens to reduce infestations of dengue virus vectors, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015; 21(2): 308–11.
55. Guha-Sapir D, Schimmer B. Dengue fever: new paradigms for a changing epidemiology. Emerg Themes Epidemiol. 2005; 2: 1e10.
56. Wilder-Smith A, Gubler DJ. Geographic expansion of dengue:the impact of international travel. Med Clin N Am. 2008; 92: 1377e90.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available