S. Priyanka, R. Kirubagaran, J. T. Mary Leema
S. Priyanka1,2*, R. Kirubagaran2, J. T. Mary Leema2
1Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai-600119, Tamil Nadu, India.
2Ocean Science and Technology for Islands, National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT), Chennai-600100, Tamil Nadu, India.
Volume - 14,
Issue - 3,
Year - 2021
Dunaliella tertiolecta is a marine microalgae rich in pharmacologically important xanthophyll carotenoid, zeaxanthin. This study demonstrated ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) of zeaxanthin from D. tertiolecta (NIOT 141). Initially, the solvent type and antioxidant concentration for zeaxanthin extraction were optimized using one-variable-at-a-time (OVAT) experiments. Subsequently, three factors influencing the UAE yield of zeaxanthin like sonication time, sonication temperature and solid (algal biomass): liquid (solvent) ratio were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Both identification and quantification of zeaxanthin was done with aid of RP-HPLC (Reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography). The data obtained from the experimental runs were fitted into a quadratic model. The model for maximizing the zeaxanthin extraction yield from D. tertiolecta had a high coefficient of determination of 0.9801. The optimized parameters for UAE of zeaxanthin from D. tertiolecta were sonication time of 33.6 min, sonication temperature of 59.2oC with a solid –liquid ratio 1:62 (g ml-1) and a predicted zeaxanthin content of 13.42 mg g-1. The optimized UAE process parameters were verified by triplicate validation experiments and a zeaxanthin content of 13.85 ± 0.15 mg g-1 was obtained. This further confirmed the reliability and precision of the RSM design. The zeaxanthin yield obtained in the optimized UAE of zeaxanthin content was 2.2 fold higher than the zeaxanthin content obtained by conventional solvent extraction process (6.24 ± 0.05 mg g-1). Zeaxanthin from D. tertiolecta was purified and characterized using UHPLC-MS. The results indicated that D. tertiolecta can be used as a potential source of zeaxanthin.
Cite this article:
S. Priyanka, R. Kirubagaran, J. T. Mary Leema. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of zeaxanthin from marine microalgae Dunaliella tertiolecta (NIOT 141) using response surface methodology. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2021; 14(3):1729-1735. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2021.00308.5
S. Priyanka, R. Kirubagaran, J. T. Mary Leema. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of zeaxanthin from marine microalgae Dunaliella tertiolecta (NIOT 141) using response surface methodology. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2021; 14(3):1729-1735. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2021.00308.5 Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2021-14-3-97
1. Murray IJ, Maria Makridaki, Rob LP, Vander Veen, David Carden, Neil RA, Parry and Tos TJM Berendschot. Lutein supplementation over a one-year period in early AMD might have a mild beneficial effect on visual acuity: The CLEAR study. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences. 2013; 54(3): 1781-1788.
2. Priyanka S, Kirubagaran R and Mary Leema JT. Statistical optimization of culture medium composition for enhanced zeaxanthin production by Cyanophycean microalgae Trichodesmium thiebautii (NIOT 152). Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 13(41): 4307-4318..
3. Pascolini D and Mariotti SP. Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010. Brazilian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2012; 96: 614–618.
4. Bernstein PS, Li B, Vachali PP, Gorusupudi A, Shyam R, Henriksen BS and Nolan JM. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin: The basic and clinical science underlying carotenoid-based nutritional interventions against ocular disease. Progress in Retinal Eye Research. 2016; 50: 34–66.
5. Moeller SM, Parekh N, Tinker L, Ritenbaugh C, Blodi B, Wallace RB and Mares JA. Associations between intermediate age-related macular degeneration and lutein and zeaxanthin in the carotenoids in age related eye disease study (CAREDS): Ancillary study of the women’s health initiative. Archieves in Ophthalmology. 2006; 124: 1151–1162.
6. Ma L, Dou HL, Wu YQ, Huang YM, Huang XB, Xu XR, Zou ZY and Lin XM. Lutein and zeaxanthin intake and the risk of age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Brazilian Journal of Nutrition. 2012; 107(3): 350-359.
7. Edwards JA. Zeaxanthin: Review of Toxicological Data and Acceptable Daily Intake. Journal of ophthalmology. 2016; 3690140.
8. Joint F.A.O. Evaluation of Certain Food Additives: Sixty-Third Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. World Health Organization; Geneva, Switzerland: 2005. pp. 23–26.
9. European Union Register of Feed Additives pursuant to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003. Annex I: List of additives. Edition 2/2018
10. Sajilata MG, Singhal RS and Kamat MY. The carotenoid pigment zeaxanthin—A review, Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2008; 7: 29–49.
11. Fieder J and Burda K. Potential role of carotenoids as antioxidants in human health and disease. Nutrients. 2014; 6: 466-488.
12. Zhou JJ, Xie GR and Yan XJ. Phytochemistry of Chinese traditional medicine. Beijing, China: Chemical Industry Press. 2004.
13. Sarnaik A and Reena P. Recombinant Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 for improved zeaxanthin production under natural light conditions. Journal of Algal Research. 2018; 36: 139-151.
14. Kim M, Ahn J, Jeon H, and Jeon ES. Development of a Dunaliella tertiolecta strain with increased zeaxanthin content using random mutagenesis. Marine drugs. 2017; 15-6(189): 1-14.
15. Chen CR, Hong SE, Wang YC, Hsu SL, Hsiang D and Chang CMJ. Preparation of highly pure zeaxanthin particles from sea water-cultivated microalgae using supercritical anti-solvent recrystallization. Bioresource Technology. 2012; 104: 828–831.
16. Mohammad Hossein Morowvat and Younes Ghasemi. Studying the Effects of Different Phosphorous Concentrations on Biomass and β-carotene Production in Nitrogen Starved Dunaliella salina. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2018; 11(2): 494-498.
17. Ofori-Boateng C and Lee KT. Response surface optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of carotenoids from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fronds. Food science and nutrition. 2013; 1(3): 209-221.
18. Pasquet V, Cherouvrier JR, Farhat F, Thiery V, Piot JM, Berard JB and Picot L. Study on the microalgal pigments extraction process: Performance of microwave assisted extraction. Process Biochemistry. 2011; 46: 59– 67.
19. Macias-Sanchez MD, Mantell C, Rodriguez M, Martinez de la Ossa E, Lubian LM and Montero O. Supercritical fluid extraction of carotenoids and chlorophyll a from Synechococcus sp. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 2007; 39: 323–329.
20. Macias-Sanchez MD, Mantell C, Rodriguez M, Martinez de la Ossa E, Lubian LM and Montero O. Comparison of supercritical fluid and ultra-sound-assisted extraction of carotenoids and chlorophyll a from Dunaliella salina. Talanta. 2009; 77 (3): 948-952.
21. Wilkhu K, Mawson K, Simons L and Ates BD. Applications and opportunities in ultrasound assisted extraction in the food industry- a review. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. 2008; 9: 161-169.
22. Walne PR. Studies on the food value of nineteen genera of algae to juvenile bivalves of the genera Ostrea, Crassostrea, Mercenaria and Mytilus. Fishery Investigations. London, Series 2, 1970; 26, 1¬62.
23. Chen F, Li HB, Wong RN, Ji B and Jiang Y. Isolation and purification of the bioactive carotenoid zeaxanthin from the microalga Microcystis aeruginosa by high-speed countercurrent chromatography. Journal of Chromatography. 2005; 1064(2): 183–189.
24. Priyanka S, Kirubagaran R and Mary Leema JT. Statistical optimization of BG11 medium for enhanced zeaxanthin productivity in Synechococcus marinus (NIOT-208). International Journal of Pharma and Biological Sciences. 2019; 10: 58-70.
25. Cernelic K, Prosek M, Golc-Wondra A, Rodic, Z, Simonovska B and Puklavec M. Influence of synthetic antioxidants on extraction of all-trans-lutein from spinach under air and nitrogen atmosphere. Food and Nutrition Sciences. 2013; 4(2): 195.
26. Priyanka S, Kirubagaran R and Mary Leema JT. Optimization of process parameters for enzyme assisted ultrasonication extraction (EAUE) of zeaxanthin from Trichodesmium thiebautii (NIOT 152). Proceedings of II. International agricultural, biological & life science conference (AGBIOL). 2020; 1169-1187.
27. Priyanka S, Kirubagaran R and Mary Leema JT. Optimization of algal culture medium for zeaxanthin production by Dunaliella tertiolecta: An RSM based approach. Current Science. 119(12): 1997-2005.
28. Dilip Singh, Colin J Barrow, Anshu S Mathur, Deepak K Tuli and Munish Puri. Optimization of zeaxanthin and β-carotene extraction from Chlorella saccharophila isolated from New Zealand marine waters. Biocatalysis Agriculture Biotechnology. 2015; 4(2): 166-173.
29. Juin C, Bonnet A, Nicolau E, Berard JB, Devillers R, Thiery V, Cadoret JP and Picot L. UPLC-MSE profiling of phytoplankton metabolites: application to the identification of pigments and structural analysis of metabolites in Porphyridium purpureum. Marine Drugs. 2015; 13: 2541–2558.
30. Li Y, Naghdi FG, Garg S, Adarme-Vega TC, Thurecht KJ, Ghafor WA, Tannock S and Schenk PM. A comparative study: the impact of different lipid extraction methods on current microalgal lipid research. Microbial Cell Factories. 2014; 13:14.
31. Dey S and Rathod VK. Ultrasound assisted extraction of B carotene from Spirulina Platensis. Ultrasonics sonochemistry. 2013; 20(1): 271-6.
32. Layug DV, Ohshima M, Ostrowski-Meissner HT and Yokota H. Effect of antioxidants and storage conditions on the retention of carotenoids in Alfaalfa (Medicago sativa) leaf extract. Journal of Japan Grassl Sciences. 1994; 40 (4): 410-41.
33. Shi XM, Chen F, Yuan JP and Chen H. Heterotrophic production of lutein by selected Chlorella strains. Journal of Applied Phycology. 1997; 9: 445–450.
34. Wang L, Lu W, Li J, Hu J, Ding R, Lv M and Wang, Q. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction and purification of zeaxanthin and lutein in corn gluten meal. Molecules. 2019; 24(16): 2994.