Author(s): Rania S. Salah, Hanaa H. Ahmed, Somia H. Abd-Allah, Rasha E. Hassan, Wagdy K.B. Khalil, Ahmed A. Abd-Rabou, Gilane M. Sabry

Email(s): rose_r1985@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2021.00223.7   

Address: Rania S. Salah1,2,*, Hanaa H. Ahmed1,2, Somia H. Abd-Allah3, Rasha E. Hassan4, Wagdy K.B. Khalil5, Ahmed A. Abd-Rabou1,2, Gilane M. Sabry4
1 Hormones Department, Medical Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
2 Stem cell Lab., Centre of Excellence for Advanced Science, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
3 Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
4 Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
5 Cell Biology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 14,      Issue - 3,     Year - 2021


ABSTRACT:
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with unsatisfactory treatment options requires alternative therapeutic approaches. Stem cells have been recognized as one of the potential curative candidates in various diseases following numerous tests in animals and clinical trials. This study investigated the influence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow (BM-MSCs) or adipose tissue (AD-MSCs) on biochemical, molecular and histopathological variations implicated in epileptogenesis of pilocarpine model. Seventy-five adult male Wistar rats were allocated into five groups: (1) placebo group, (2) acute epileptic group, (3) acute epileptic group treated with BM-MSCs, (4) acute epileptic group treated with AD-MSCs and (5) acute epileptic group treated with carbamazepine (CBZ). Brain heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70), S100 calcium binding protein B (S100ß) and caspase-8 levels were assayed by ELISA. Hippocampal toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4) gene expression level was investigated by sqRT-PCR. Histopathological examinations of hippocampal and cortical tissues were carried out. BM-MSCs or AD-MSCs infusion elicated significant decline in HSP-70, S100ß, caspase-8 levels and TLR-4 gene expression level. Micrograph of brain tissue section of acute epileptic rat displayed nucleus pyknosis, while MSCs-treated rats showed almost intact brain histological organization. The outcomes of this research reveal the crucial role of MSCs in seizure control and neural repair via their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. Besides, their potentiality in the regulation of blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Thus, the present attempt provides critical insights into the mechanism of MSCs therapy in TLE to facilitate the development of cell-based therapy in epileptic patients.


Cite this article:
Rania S. Salah, Hanaa H. Ahmed, Somia H. Abd-Allah, Rasha E. Hassan, Wagdy K.B. Khalil, Ahmed A. Abd-Rabou, Gilane M. Sabry. The Anti-epileptic Efficiency of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Against Pilocarpine Model of Acute Epilepsy. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2021; 14(3):1255-1266. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2021.00223.7


REFERENCES:    
1.    Pandeya SN, Kumar R and Pathak AK. Natural Anticonvulsants: A Review. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2009; 2(4):670-679.
2.    Geller EB. Responsive neurostimulation: review of clinical trials and insights into focal epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2018; S1525-S5050(18): 30492-9.
3.        Zubareva OE, et al. Alterations in mRNA expression of glutamate receptor subunits and excitatory amino acid transporters following pilocarpine-induced seizures in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2018; 686: 94-100.
4.    Divya, et al. Anti-epileptic activity of carica papaya seed extract in experimental animals. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(12): 6007-6012.
5.    Sawant RL and Bhatia MS. Application of topliss modified approach in the design and synthesis of gaba-nergic anticonvulsants. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2008; 1(3): 273-278.
6.    Luna-Munguia H, et al. Chemical biomarkers of epileptogenesis and ictogenesis in experimental epilepsy. Neurobiol Dis. 2018; 121: 177-86.
7.    Zhang H, et al. Ectopic expression of Miro 1 ameliorates seizure and inhibits hippocampal neurodegeneration in a mouse pilocarpine epilepsy model. Biochem Cell Biol. 2018; 96:468-74.
8.    Dutra MRH, et al. Protective role of UCP2 in oxidative stress and apoptosis during the silent phase of an experimental model of epilepsy induced by pilocarpine. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018; 2018: 6736721.
9.    Jiang Y, et al. Abnormal hippocampal functional network and related memory impairment in pilocarpine-treated rats. Epilepsia. 2018; 59: 1785-95.
10.    Chimakurthy J, Murthy T and Upadhyay L. Effect of curcumin on sub-therapeutic doses of AED’s and long-term memory in MES induced GTC type of seizures in rats. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2008; 1(4): 401-404.
11.    Balaji S. Umbilical cord blood as a source of stem cells. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2015; 8(8): 1093-1095.
12.    Patyar DS. Role of stem cells in treatment of different diseases. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2018; 11(8):3667-3678.        
13.    Nikolaeva LP. The ionic balance of bone marrow. Research J.Pharm.and Tech. 2020; 13(2):877-881.
14.    Papazian I, et al. Mesenchymal stem cell protection of neurons against glutamate excitotoxicity involves reduction of NMDA-triggered calcium responses and surface GluR1 and is partly mediated by TNF. Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19: pii: E651.
15.    Boregowda SV, Krishnappa V and Phinney DG. Isolation of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Methods Mol Biol. 2016; 1416: 205-23.
16.    Musina RA, et al. Differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells of different origin. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2006; 141: 147-51.
17.    Alhadlaq A and Mao JJ. Mesenchymal stem cells: isolation and therapeutics. Stem Cells Dev. 2004; 13: 436-48.
18.    Francis MP, et al. Isolating adipose-derived mesen-chymal stem cells from lipoaspirate blood and saline fraction. Organogenesis. 2010; 6: 11-4.
19.    Rada T, Gomes ME and Reis RL. A novel method for the isolation of subpopulations of rat adipose stem cells with different proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potentials. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2011; 5:655-64.
20.    Moretti A, et al.  Mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells as a source for multipotent Isl1+ cardiovascular progenitors. FASEB J. 2010; 24:700-11.
21.    Wang HS, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells in the Wharton's jelly of the human umbilical cord. Stem Cells. 2004; 22: 1330-7.
22.    Qin H, et al. The differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into inner ear hair cell-like cells in vitro. Acta Oto-Laryngologica. 2011; 131: 1136-41.
23.    Muñoz-Fernández R, et al. Follicular dendritic cells are related to bone marrow stromal cell progenitors and to myofibroblasts. J Immunol. 2006; 177: 280-9.
24.    Sreekumar TR, et al. Isolation and characterization of buffalo wharton’s jelly derived mesenchymal stem cells. J Stem Cell Res Ther. 2014; 4: 207.
25.    Wu D, et al. The role of the TLR-4 / NF-κB signaling pathway in Aβ accumulation in primary hippocampal neurons. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2015; 67: 319-28.
26.    Wallace PK, et al. Tracking antigen-driven responses by flow cytometry: monitoring proliferation by dye dilution. Cytometry A. 2008; 73:1019-34.
27.    He XP, et al. Conditional deletion of TrkB but not BDNF prevents epileptogenesis in the kindling model. Neuron. 2004; 43: 31-42.
28.    Guli X, et al. Status epilepticus enhances depotentiation after fully established LTP in an NMDAR-dependent but gluN2B-independent manner. Neural Plast. 2016; 2016: 6592038.
29.    Feng S, et al. Sonic hedgehog is a regulator of extracellular glutamate levels and epilepsy. EMBO Rep. 2016; 17:682-94.  
30.    Racine RJ. Modification of seizure activity by electrical stimulation. II. Motor seizure. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1972; 32:281-94.
31.    Kim YJ, et al. Reduction in heat shock protein 90 correlates to neuronal vulnerability in the rat piriform cortex following status epilepticus. Neuroscience. 2013; 255: 265-77.
32.    Tögel F, et al. Vasculotropic, paracrine actions of infused mesenchymal stem cells are important to the recovery from acute kidney injury. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007; 292: 1626-35.
33.    Yao W, et al. Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells repair cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury through antiapoptotic pathways. Experimental and therapeutic medicine. 2015; 10: 468-76.
34.    Cunha AO, et al. Anticonvulsant effects of the wasp polybia ignobilis venom on chemically induced seizures and action on GABA and glutamate receptors. Comp Biochem Physiol Toxicol Pharmacol. 2005; 141:50-7.
35.    Tsakiris S, et al. Protective effect of L-cysteine and glutathione on the modulated suckling rat brain Na+, K+, -ATPase and Mg2+ -ATPase activities induced by the in vitro galactosaemia. Pharmacol Res. 2004; 49: 475-9.
36.    Lowry OH, et al. Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem. 1951; 193: 265-75.
37.    Banchroft JD, Stevens A and Turner DR. Theory and practice of histological techniques. Fourth Ed. Churchil Livingstone, New York, London, San Francisco, Tokyo.1996
38.    Armitage P and Berry G. Comparison of several groups. 1987.
39.    Sonal D'Souza, et al. Antiepileptic activity of ethanolic and aqueous leaves extract of Annona reticulata linn. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019;12(1):241-244.
40.    Song CG, et al. Stem cells: a promising candidate to treat neurological disorders. Neural Regen Res. 2018; 13:1294-304.
41.    Masoud MA, et al. Effect of Bone marrow and adipose mesenchymal stem cells on rat intestinal injury induced by methotrexate. Journal of tissue repair and regeneration. 2018; 1:1-11.
42.    Bucan V, et al. In vitro enhancement and functional characterization of neurite outgrowth by undifferentiated adipose-derived stem cells. Int J Mol Med. 2019; 43:593-602.
43.    Miyagi-Shiohira C, et al. Induction of expandable adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells from aged mesenchymal stem cells by a synthetic self-replicating RNA. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19: 3489.
44.    Lin W, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells homing to improve bone healing. J Orthop Translat. 2017; 9: 19-27.
45.    Chen DK, So YT and Fisher RS. Use of serum prolactin in diagnosing epileptic seizures: report of the therapeutics and technology assessment subcommittee of the american academy of neurology. Neurol. 2005; 65: 668-75.
46.    Turturici G, Sconzo G and Geraci F. Hsp70 and its molecular role in nervous system diseases. Biochem Res Int. 2011; 2011:618127.
47.    Yang T, et al. Heat shock protein-70 expression in epilepsy suggests stress rather than protection. Acta Neuropathol. 2008;115: 219-30.
48.    Dericioglu N, et al. Cell death and survival mechanisms are concomitantly active in the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal sclerosis. Neuroscience. 2013; 237: 56–65.
49.    Dvoriantchikova G, et al. Putative role of protein kinase C in neurotoxic inflammation mediated by extracellular heat shock protein 70 after ischemiareperfusion. J Neuroinflammation. 2014; 11:81.
50.    Rejdak K, et al. Neurofilament heavy chain and heat shock protein 70 as markers of seizurerelated brain injury. Epilepsia. 2012; 53:922-7.
51.    Carrasco-Pozo C, Tan KN and Borges K. Sulforaphane is anticonvulsant and improves mitochondrial function. J Neurochem. 2015; 135: 932-42.
52.    Kristensen TN, et al. HSP-72 is present in plasma from Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle, and the concentration level is repeatable across days and age classes. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2004; 9: 143-9.
53.    Timothy CN, Samyuktha PS and Brundha MP. Dental pulp stem cells in regenerative medicine. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(8):4052-4056.
54.    Vanella L, et al. Oxidative stress and heme oxygenase-1 regulated human mesenchymal stem cells differentiation. Int J Hypertens. 2012; 2012: 890671.
55.    Chen YT, et al. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell protects kidneys against ischemia-reperfusion injury through suppressing oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction. J Transl Med. 2011; 9:51.
56.    Martinc B, Grabnar I and Vovk T. The role of reactive species in epileptogenesis and influence of antiepileptic drug therapy on oxidative stress. Current Neuropharmacology. 2012; 10: 328- 43.
57.    Pradhan DP and Annapurna MM. Oxcarbazepine - An Anticonvulsant. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(2):723-728.
58.    Wang CH, et al. Carbamazepine attenuates inducible nitric oxide synthase expression through Akt inhibition in activated microglial cells. Pharm Biol. 2014; 52:1451-9.
59.    Vezzani A. Epilepsy and inflammation in the brain: overview and pathophysiology. Epilepsy Currents. 2014; 14: 3–7.
60.    Kacin´ski M, et al. Level of S100B protein, neuron specific enolase, orexin A, adiponectin and insulin-like growth factor in serum of pediatric patients suffering from sleep disorders with or without epilepsy. Pharmacological Reports. 2012; 64: 1427–33.
61.    Marchi N, et al. The etiological role of blood-brain barrier dysfunction in seizure disorders. Cardiovasc Psychiatry Neurol. 2011; 2011: 482415.
62.    Zhao J, et al. Regulation of transplantation of human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cellson secretion of neural biochemistry marker after traumatic brain injury in rats. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2015; 32:152-6.
63.    Costa-Ferro ZS, et al. Transplantation of bone marrow mononuclear cells decreases seizure incidence, mitigates neuronal loss and modulates pro-inflammatory cytokine production in epileptic rats. Neurobiol Dis. 2012; 46: 302- 13.
64.    Posel C, et al. Density gradient centrifugation compromises bone marrow mononuclear cell yield. PLoS One. 2012; 7: e50293.
65.    Chen M, et al. The inhibitory effect of mesenchymal stem cell on blood-brain barrier disruption following intracerebral hemorrhage in rats: contribution of TSG-6. J. Neuroinflammation. 2015; 12: 61
66.    Iwamoto T, et al. Antinociceptive action of carbamazepine on thermal hypersensitive pain at spinal level in a rat model of adjuvant-induced chronic inflammation. J Anesth. 2011; 25: 78-86.
67.    Dambach H, et al. Glia and epilepsy: experimental investigation of antiepileptic drugs in an astroglia/microglia co-culture model of inflammation. Epilepsia. 2014; 55:184-92.
68.    Pavone A and Cardile V. An in vitro study of new antiepileptic drugs and astrocytes. Epilepsia. 2003; 44: 34-9.
69.    Li T, et al. Inhibition of caspase-8 attenuates neuronal death induced by limbic seizures in a cytochrome c-dependent and Smac/DIABLO-independent way. Brain Res. 2006; 1098: 204-11.  
70.    Ravizza T, et al.  Inflammatory response and glia activation in developing rat hippocampus after status epilepticus. Epilepsia. 2005; 46:113–7.
71.    Yamamoto A, et al. Evidence of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 signaling in human temporal lobe epilepsy. Exp Neurol. 2006; 202:410-20.
72.    Tummers B and Green DR. RIPped for neuroinflammation. Cell Res 2017; 27:1074.
73.    Ettcheto M, et al. mice lacking functional fas death receptors are protected from kainic acid-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus. Mol Neurobiol. 2015; 52:120-9.
74.    Wei G, et al. Muscone exerts neuroprotection in an experimental model of stroke via inhibition of the fas pathway. Nat Prod Commun. 2012; 7:1069-74.
75.    Yang J, et al. Extracellular vesicles derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells protect against experimental colitis via attenuating colon inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. PLoS One. 2015; 10: e0140551.
76.    Ohkouchi S, et al. Mesenchymal stromal cells protect cancer cells from ROS-induced apoptosis and enhance the Warburg effect by secreting STC1. Mol Ther. 2012; 20: 417-23.
77.    Wang SP, et al. Therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells in rats with intracerebral hemorrhage: Reduced apoptosis and enhanced neuroprotection. Mol Med Rep. 2012; 6:848-54.
78.    Pan GZ, et al. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injuries via inactivation of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway in rats. J Surg Res. 2012; 178: 935-48.
79.    Song N, et al. Mood stabilizers commonly restore staurosporine-induced increase of p53 expression and following decrease of Bcl-2 expression in SH-SY5Y cells. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2012; 38:183-9.
80.    Gómez CD, Buijs RM and Sitges M. The anti-seizure drugs vinpocetine and carbamazepine, but not valproic acid, reduce inflammatory IL-1β and TNF-α expression in rat hippocampus. J Neurochem. 2014; 130: 770-9.
81.    Chiavegato A, et al. The inflammatory molecules IL-1β and HMGB-1 can rapidly enhance focal seizure generation in a brain slice model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Front Cell Neurosci. 2014; 8:155.
82.    Uludag IF, et al.  IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-1Rα levels in temporal lobe epilepsy. Seizure. 2015; 26: 22-5.
83.    Yamada H, et al. Interferon-gamma up-regulates toll-like receptor 4 and cooperates with lipopolysaccharide to produce macrophage-derived chemokine and interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 in human bladder cancer cell line RT4. J Urol. 2005; 174:1119-23.
84.    Ravizza T, et al. Innate and adaptive immunity during epileptogenesis and spontaneous seizures: Evidence from experimental models and human temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurobiol Dis. 2008; 29:142-60.
85.    Trotta T, et al. Biological role of toll-like receptor-4 in the brain. Journal of Neuroimmunology. 2014; 268: 1-12.
86.    Han D, et al. Anti-inflammatory mechanism of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in rat model of spinal cord injury. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2015; 71:1341-7.  
87.    Chiavegato A, et al. The inflammatory molecules IL-1β and HMGB-1 can rapidly enhance focal seizure generation in a brain slice model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Front Cell Neurosci. 2014; 8:155.
88.    Uccelli A, et al. Neuroprotective features of mesenchymal stem cells. Best Practice & Research Clinical Haematology. 2011; 24:59-64.
89.    Brodie MJ. Sodium channel blockers in the treatment of epilepsy. CNS Drugs. 2017; 31: 527-34.
90.    Lee PY, et al. Inhibition of toll-like receptor-4, nuclear factor-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinase by lignocaine may involve voltage-sensitive sodium channels. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2008; 35:1052-8.
91.    Craner MJ, et al. Sodium channels contribute to microglia/macrophage activation and function in EAE and MS. Glia. 2005; 49:220–9.
92.    Gao F, et al. Alteration of plasma cytokine in patients with active epilepsy. Acta Neurol Scand. 2017; 135:663-9.
93.    Moor E, et al. A novel approach for studying septo-hippocampal cholinergic neurons in freely moving rats: a microdialysis study with dual-probe design. Brain Res. 1994; 648:32-8.
94.    Knopp A, et al. Loss of GABAergic neurons in the subiculum and its functional implications in temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain. 2008; 131:1516-27.
95.    Kuruba R, et al. Differential susceptibility of interneurons expressing neuropeptide Y or parvalbumin in the aged hippocampus to acute seizure activity. PLoS One. 2011; 6: e24493.
96.    Cunha AO, et al. Neuroprotective effects of diazepam, carbamazepine, phenytoin and ketamine after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009; 104: 470-7.
97.    Chung TN, et al. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells reduce neuronal death after transient global cerebral ischemia through prevention of blood-brain barrier disruption and endothelial damage. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2015; 4: 178-85.
98.    Hao L, et al. Stem cell-based therapies for ischemic stroke. Bio Med Res Int. 2014; 2014: 468748.
99.    Bao X, et al. Transplantation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promotes behavioral recovery and endogenous neurogenesis after cerebral ischemia in rats. Brain Res 2011; 1367:103-13.
100.    Capella HM and Lemos T. Effect on epileptogenesis of carbamazepine treatment during the silent period of the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2002; 43:110-1.
101.    Willmore JL. Antiepileptic drugs and neuroprotection: current status and future roles. Epilepsy Behav. 2005; 7: S25-S28.

Recomonded Articles:

Author(s): Priya P. Munshi, D.S. Mohale, R. Akkalwar, A.V. Chandewar

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Manju Rawat, SJ Daharwal, Deependra Singh

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Muhammad Hamdan, Noorhamdani AS, Masruroh Rahayu, Mohammmad Hasan Machfoed

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.01020.5         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Deepak Karki, Gururaj S. Kulkarni, Shivakumar Swamy, Sheeba FR

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00750.8         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): S. R Suseem, Dhanish Joseph

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00067.2         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Hayat M. Mukhtar, Vandna Kalsi

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00395.5         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Sandesh More, Javed Mirza, Nanasaheb Kale, Mayur Gandhi, Rakesh Chaudhari

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Som K. Madhvi, Manik Sharma, Javaid Iqbal, Mohd Younis

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00785.6         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): B. Thawkar, M. Kale, M. Oswal, K. Maniyar, K. Kadam, S. Kamat

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00044.5         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): D. Benito Johnson, Appalaraju Gorle

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Fathima Mariyam Niyas

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2015.00182.1         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Rupesh Pandey, Priyanka Upadhayay, Shiv Shankar Shukla

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Bharti Ahirwar, Dheeraj Ahirwar, Alpana Ram

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Gopinath G, Thirumal M, P. R. Kumar

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00362.5         Access: Closed Access Read More

Author(s): Inshah Ahmed, Nishat Ahmed, Saleha Ahmed, Fazil Ahmad, Abeer Mohammed Al-Subaie

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00451.5         Access: Closed Access Read More

Author(s): R. Manikandan, A. Vijaya Anand

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2015.00056.6         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Karanje Abhijit Sampatrao, Kandale Jitendra Bhalchandra, Jadhav Ravindra, Patil Manohar

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Yasmin A, Vijaya Bharathi R, Radha R

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00429.3         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Charde RM, Charde MS, Fulzele SV, Satturwar PM, Kasture AV, Joshi SB

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

0.38
2018CiteScore
 
56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus


SCImago Journal & Country Rank


Recent Articles




Tags