Archana Gururajbhat, Girish Pai Kulyadi, Vamshi Krishna Tippavajhala
Archana Gururajbhat, Girish Pai Kulyadi, Vamshi Krishna Tippavajhala*
Department of Pharmaceutics, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal - 576104, Karnataka, India.
Volume - 14,
Issue - 3,
Year - 2021
Scientific and technological advances have been made in recent years in researching and developing the oral drug delivery mechanism. The explanations for this success gained by the oral route can be attributed to the convenience of administration. One of the most common oral products is chewing gum. Chewing gums are systems for the oral delivery of drugs. Medicated gums cannot be swallowed, as compared to chewable pills and can be removed without resorting to invasive means from the application site and the Medicated Chewing Gum (MCG) preparation is solid, one-dose product. It is discreet and easy way to administer without water that promotes higher patient compliance. This comprises of single or many active components which are chewed and made available for absorption by the buccal mucosa for local mouth disease like dental cavities treatment or for systemic supply. Here in this review, various formulation aspects and manufacturing processes of MCG are explored along with their advantages and drawbacks of MCG. MCG is one of the newest tools with a future potential in pharmaceuticals, OTC medicinal products and nutraceuticals.
Cite this article:
Archana Gururajbhat, Girish Pai Kulyadi, Vamshi Krishna Tippavajhala. A Comprehensive Review on Formulation, Preparation, Evaluation and Applications of Medicated Chewing Gum. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2021; 14(3):1760-1766. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2021.00313.9
Archana Gururajbhat, Girish Pai Kulyadi, Vamshi Krishna Tippavajhala. A Comprehensive Review on Formulation, Preparation, Evaluation and Applications of Medicated Chewing Gum. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2021; 14(3):1760-1766. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2021.00313.9 Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2021-14-3-102
1. Chien YW, Novel Drug Delivery Systems, IInd edition, Revised and expanded, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1992, 139-40.
2. Surana AS. Chewing gum: A friendly oral mucosal drug delivery system. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 2010; 4(2): 68-71.
3. Lee WW. Chewing gum as a delivery vehicle for Pharmaceutical and Nutraceutical Substances. Pharm Tech. 2001; 2: 1-1.
4. Pagare PK, Satpute CS, Jadhav VM, Kadam V. Medicated chewing gum: A novel drug delivery system. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2012; 2(06): 40-54.
5. Kumar R, Solanki P, Chandra A. Medicated chewing gum-a novel drug delivery system: An updated review. American Journal of Advanced Drug Delivery. 2014; 2(3): 434-50.
6. Khanekar P, Mhatre S, Momin M. Medicated chewing gum: A potential drug delivery system. Int J Front Res. 2012 Oct; 2: 64-75.
7. Heema N, Stuti G. Medicated chewing gums-updated Review. Int J Pharm Res Dev. 2010; 2: 66-76.
8. Morjaria Y, Irwin WJ, Barnett PX, Chan RS, Conway B. In vitro release of nicotine from chewing gum formulations. Dissolution Technologies. 2004; 11(2): 12-5.
9. Jacobsen J, Christrup LL, Jensen NH. Medicated chewing gum. American journal of drug delivery. 2004; 2(2): 75-88.
10. Goldberg LD, Ditchek NT. Chewing gum diarrhea. The American journal of digestive diseases. 1978; 23(6): 568
11. Addy M, Roberts WR. Comparison of the bisbiguanide antiseptics alexidine and chlorhexidine. II. Clinical and in vitro staining properties. Journal of clinical periodontology. 1981; 8(3): 220-30.
12. Munksgaard EC, Nolte J, Kristensen K. Adherence of chewing gum to dental restorative materials. American Journal of Dentistry. 1995; 8(3): 137-9.
13. Weil AT. Coca leaf as a therapeutic agent. The American Journal of Drug and alcohol abuse. 1978; 5(1): 75-86.
14. Edgar WM, O'Mullane DM, Dawes C, editors. Saliva and oral health. London: British Dental Association; 2004.
15. Sharma NS, Arjariya PA, Jat RC, Fiza F, Sharma G, Rathore SA, Tiwari R. An overview on medicated chewing gum and its applications. Int J Pharma F Res. 2013; 4(3): 3158-73.
16. Zyck DJ, Greenberg MJ, Barkalow DG, Marske SW, Schnell PG, Mazzone P, inventors; Wm Wrigley Jr Co, assignee. Method of making coated chewing gum products containing various antacids. United States patent US 2003; 6,645, 535.
17. Kahtani D. Chewing gum: Trick or treat. The Saudi Dental Journal. 1999;11(1): 27-34.
18. Athanikar NK, Gubler SA, inventors; Josman Laboratories Inc, Deseret Laboratories Inc, assignee. Process for Manufacturing a pharmaceutical chewing gum. United States patent US 2001; 6, 322,828.
19. Subraman CR, Kirshnayya B. Tableted chewing gum composition and method of preparation. US Patent 1988; 4: 753-805.
20. Chaudhary SA, Shahiwala AF. Medicated chewing gum–a potential drug delivery system. Expert opinion on drug delivery. 2010; 7(7): 871-85.
21. Shah KR, Mehta TA. Medicated chewing gum-A mobile oral drug delivery system. International Journal of Pharm Tech Research. 2014; 6(1): 35-48.
22. European Pharmacopoeia. Strasbourg: European directorate for the quality of medicines. Chewing gums: Medicated.5th ed. 2004: 260, 601.
23. Lieberman HA, Lachman L, Schwartz JB, editors. Pharmaceutical dosage forms: Tablets. M. Dekker; 1980.
24. Jacobsen J, Bjerregaard S, Pedersen M. Cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of antimycotics intended to act in the oral cavity–drug supersaturation, toxicity on TR146 cells and release from a delivery system. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics. 1999; 48(3): 217-24.
25. Yang RK, inventor; Warner Lambert Co LLC, assignee. Encapsulation composition for use with chewing gum and edible products. United States patent US 1988; 4, 740,376.
26. Gudas VV, Reed MA, Schnell PG, Tyrpin HT, Russell MP, Witkewitz DL, inventors; Wm Wrigley Jr Co, assignee. Method of controlling release of caffeine in chewing gum. United States patent US 6, 165, 516. 2000.
27. Kvist LC, Andersson SB, Berglund J, Wennergren B, Fors SM. Equipment for drug release testing of medicated chewing gums. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. 2000; 22(3): 405-11.
28. Kumar R, Solanki P, Chandra A. Medicated chewing gum-a novel drug delivery system: An updated review. American Journal of Advanced Drug Delivery. 2014; 2(3): 434-50.
29. European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines, Council of Europe, European Pharmacopoeia. Suppl. General Chapter 2.9.25: Chewing Gum, Medicated Release from. 3rd Ed. Strasbourg, France; European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines, Council of Europe; 2000; 104.
30. European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines, Council of Europe. European Pharmacopoeia. Suppl. 5.2. General Monograph 2.9.25: Dissolution Test for Medicated Chewing Gums. 5th Ed. Strasbourg, France 2005; 3116–17
31. Kvist C, Andersson SB, Fors S, Wennergren B, Berglund J. Apparatus for studying in vitro drug release from medicated chewing gums. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 1999 Oct 28; 189(1): 57-65.
32. Vries ME, Bodde HE, Verhoef JC, Junginger HE, Crit Rev Ther Drug Carr Sys, 1991.
33. Mochizuki K, Yokomichi F, inventors; Meiji Seika Kaisha Ltd, assignee. Process for the preparation of chewing gum. United States patent US 1976; 4, 000,321.
34. Subraman R, John M, Jack E, Edward J, Carlos D, Gitchell Joe. Medicated chewing gum delivery system for nicotine, US Patent 2002; 6344222
35. Amir.H; Shojaei; Bret.Berner Xiaoling. Li. Pharma Res 1998; 15(8): 1182-88
36. Imfeld T. Chewing gum-facts and fiction: a review of gum-chewing and Oral Health. Critical Reviews in oral Biology and Medicine. 1999; 10(3): 405-19.
37. Pedersen M, Rassing MR. Miconazole chewing gum as a drug delivery system test of release promoting additives. Drug development and industrial pharmacy. 1991 Jan 1; 17(3): 411-20.
38. Christrup LL, Rasmussen SN, Rassing MR. Chewing gum as a drug delivery system IV: Excretion of ascorbic acid in urine after administration in chewing tablets and chewing gum. Farmaci Sci Ed. 1988;16: 44-7.
39. Stead LF, Perera R, Bullen C, Mant D, Hartmann‐Boyce J, Cahill K, Lancaster T. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2012(11).
40. Woodford DW, Lesko LJ. Relative bioavailability of aspirin gum. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 1981; 70(12): 1341-3.
41. Seibel K, Schaffler K, Reitmeir P. A Randomised, placebo-controlled study comparing two formulations of dimenhydrinate with respect to efficacy in motion sickness and sedation. Arzneimittelforschung. 2002; 52(07): 529-36.
42. Tyrpin HT, Russell MP, Witkewitz DL, Johnson SS, Ream RL, Corriveau CL, inventors; Wm Wrigley Jr Co, assignee. Caffeine coated chewing gum product and process of making. United States patent US 2002; 6,444, 241.
43. Imfeld T. Chewing gum—facts and fiction: a review of gum-chewing and oral health. Critical reviews in oral biology and medicine. 1999; 10(3): 405-19.
44. Oliveby A, Ekstrand J, Lagerlöf F. Effect of salivary flow rate on salivary fluoride clearance after use of a fluoride-containing chewing gum. Caries Research. 1987; 21(5): 393-401.
45. Wertalik F, Bonorden R. Salivary levels of antibiotics from use of neomycin‐gramicidin Chewing Troches. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 1968; 57(3): 530-1.
46. Etemadzadeh H. Plaque‐growth inhibiting effect of chewing gum containing urea hydrogen peroxide. Journal of clinical periodontology. 1991 May; 18(5): 337-40.
47. Finn SB, Jamison HC. The effect of a dicalcium phosphate chewing gum on caries incidence in children: 30-month results. The Journal of the American Dental Association. 1967; 74(5): 987-95.
48. Smith AJ, Moran J, Dangler LV, Leight RS, Addy M. The efficacy of an anti‐gingivitis chewing gum. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 1996; 23(1): 19-21.
49. Pedersen M, Rassing MR. Miconazole and miconazolenitrate chewing gum as drug delivery systems-a practical application of solid dispersion Technique. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy. 1990; 16(1): 55-74.
50. Kumar R, Solanki P, Chandra A. Medicated chewing gum-a novel drug delivery system: An updated review. American Journal of advanced drug delivery. 2014; 2(3): 434-50.
51. Imfeld T. Chewing gum—facts and fiction: a review of gum-chewing and oral health. Critical reviews in oral Biology and Medicine. 1999; 10(3): 405-19.
52. Dodds MW, Hsieh SC, Johnson DA. The effect of increased mastication by daily gum-chewing on salivary gland output and dental plaque acidogenicity. Journal of Dental Research. 1991; 70(12):1474-8.
53. Chilcott W. Contraceptive Technology Update on 2004
54. Smith A. Health Note, the Post-Standard (Syracuse, NY) 2003