Nageeb Hassan, Moyad Shahwan, Sahab Alkhoujah, Ammar Jairoun
Nageeb Hassan1,2, Moyad Shahwan1,2*, Sahab Alkhoujah1, Ammar Jairoun3
1College of Pharmacy and Health Science, Ajman University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates.
2Center of Medical and Bio-allied Health Sciences Research, Ajman University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates.
3Health and Safety Department, Dubai Municipality, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
Volume - 14,
Issue - 2,
Year - 2021
Background: Recent studies have shown that metabolic syndrome is associated with increasing in the liver enzymes (ALT, AST, GGT, and albumin). Aims: in this study we will evaluate the association between serum liver enzymes and metabolic syndrome among type 2 diabetic patients. Method: it’s a retrospective cross-sectional study included 291 subjects (124 men and 167 women) with type 2 diabetes Milletus, who attended the diabetic clinic, all are above 18 years old. The analysis included laboratory blood test: fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, ALT, AST, and albumin. Result: diabetic patient with metabolic syndrome presented a statistically significant higher value of age, height, HbA1c, ALT but a lower value of Albumin and female subject showed higher prevalence comparing to male subject. Conclusion: these results suggest that ALT and albumin were jointly highly associated with metabolic syndrome among type 2 diabetes Milletus patients.
Cite this article:
Nageeb Hassan, Moyad Shahwan, Sahab Alkhoujah, Ammar Jairoun. Association between Serum liver Enzymes and Metabolic Syndrome among Type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2021; 14(2):1050-1054. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2021.00188.8
1. Chen S, Guo X, Yu S, Zhou Y, Li Z, Sun Y. Metabolic syndrome and serum liver enzymes in the general chinese population. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2016 Feb 17; 13(2): 223.
2. Yki-Järvinen H. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease as a cause and a consequence of metabolic syndrome. The lancet Diabetes & endocrinology. 2014 Nov 1; 2(11): 901-10.
3. Grundy SM. Metabolic syndrome update. Trends in cardiovascular medicine. 2016 May 1; 26(4): 364-73.
4. Ansari MA, Adineh HA, Zareban I, Iranpour S, Hossein Zadeh A, Kh F. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Middle-East countries: Meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2018 Apr 1; 12(2): 195-201.
5. Al-Sarraj T, Saadi H, Volek JS, Fernandez ML. Metabolic syndrome prevalence, dietary intake, and cardiovascular risk profile among overweight and obese adults 18–50 years old from the United Arab Emirates. Metabolic syndrome and related disorders. 2010 Feb 1; 8(1): 39-46.
6. Liu CF, Zhou WN, Lu Z, Wang XT, Qiu ZH. The associations between liver enzymes and the risk of metabolic syndrome in the elderly. Experimental gerontology. 2018 Jun 1; 106: 132-6.
7. Perera S, Lohsoonthorn V, Jiamjarasrangsi W, Lertmaharit S, Williams MA. Association between elevated liver enzymes and metabolic syndrome among Thai adults. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2008 Sep 1; 2(3): 171-8.
8. Shahwan MJ, Jairoun AA, Farajallah A, Shanabli S. Prevalence of dyslipidemia and factors affecting lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2019 Jun 8.
9. Kälsch J, Bechmann LP, Heider D, Best J, Manka P, Kälsch H, Sowa JP, Moebus S, Slomiany U, Jöckel KH, Erbel R. Normal liver enzymes are correlated with severity of metabolic syndrome in a large population-based cohort. Scientific reports. 2015 Aug 13; 5: 13058.
10. Kim H, Han M. Association between serum liver enzymes and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2018 Aug 5; 15(8): 1658.
11. Zhang L, Ma X, Jiang Z, Zhang K, Zhang M, Li Y, Zhao X, Xiong H. Liver enzymes and metabolic syndrome: a large-scale case-control study. Oncotarget. 2015 Sep 29; 6(29): 26782.
12. Nikniaz L, Nikniaz Z, Tabrizi JS, Sadeghi-Bazargani H, Farahbakhsh M. Is within-normal range liver enzymes associated with metabolic syndrome in adults?. Clinics and research in hepatology and gastroenterology. 2018 Feb 1; 42(1): 92-8.
13. Park EY, Lim MK, Oh JK, Cho H, Bae MJ, Yun EH, Kim DI, Shin HR. Independent and supra-additive effects of alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and metabolic syndrome on the elevation of serum liver enzyme levels. PLoS One. 2013 May 7; 8(5): 63439.
14. Al Amiry A, Shahwan M. Vitamin D Deficiency and Associated Factors among Ajman University Students, United Arab Emirates. Obesity Medicine. 2019 Dec 27:100176.
15. Ali D, Abduelkarem AR, Shahwan M. Evaluation of factors associated with inadequate glycemic control and some other health care indicators among patients with type 2 diabetes in Ramallah. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2013;4(3):445e51.
16. World Medical Association (WMA). Declaration of Helsinki. Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft und Ethik. 2009;14(1).
17. Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabetic medicine. 1998 Jul; 15(7): 539-53.
18. Yamazaki H, Tsuboya T, Tsuji K, Dohke M, Maguchi H. Independent association between improvement of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2015 Sep 1; 38(9): 1673-9.
19. Shahwan MJ, Khattab AH, Khattab MH, Jairoun AA. Association between abnormal serum hepatic enzymes, lipid levels and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity Medicine. 2019 Dec 1; 16: 100137.
20. Music M, Dervisevic A, Pepic E, Lepara O, Fajkic A, Ascic-Buturovic B, Tuna E. Metabolic syndrome and serum liver enzymes level at patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Medical Archives. 2015 Aug; 69(4): 251.
21. Villegas R, Xiang YB, Elasy T, Cai Q, Xu W, Li H, Fazio S, Linton MF, Raiford D, Zheng W, Shu XO. Liver enzymes, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged, urban Chinese men. Metabolic syndrome and related disorders. 2011 Aug 1; 9(4): 305-11.
22. Dall'Alba V, Silva FM, Antonio JP, Steemburgo T, Royer CP, Almeida JC, Gross JL, Azevedo MJ. Improvement of the metabolic syndrome profile by soluble fibre–guar gum–in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised clinical trial. British Journal of Nutrition. 2013 Nov; 110(9): 1601-10.
23. Ballestri S, Zona S, Targher G, Romagnoli D, Baldelli E, Nascimbeni F, Roverato A, Guaraldi G, Lonardo A. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with an almost twofold increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Evidence from a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2016 May; 31(5): 936-44.
24. Forlani G, Di Bonito P, Mannucci E, Capaldo B, Genovese S, Orrasch M, Scaldaferri L, Di Bartolo P, Melandri P, Dei Cas A, Zavaroni I. Prevalence of elevated liver enzymes in Type 2 diabetes mellitus and its association with the metabolic syndrome. Journal of endocrinological investigation. 2008 Feb 1; 31(2): 146-52.
25. Jun JE, Lee SE, Lee YB, Jee JH, Bae JC, Jin SM, Hur KY, Lee MK, Kim JH. Increase in serum albumin concentration is associated with prediabetes development and progression to overt diabetes independently of metabolic syndrome. PloS one. 2017 Apr 21; 12(4): 0176209.