Author(s): S. Niveditha, S.S.M. Umamageswari, D. Aruna, M. Kalyani

Email(s): niveditha1497@gmail.com , dracarys.research@gmail.com , arunajebaraj@gmail.com , kalyanimohanram@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2021.00116.5   

Address: S. Niveditha1, Dr. S.S.M. Umamageswari2, Dr. D. Aruna3, Dr. M. Kalyani4
1C. R. R. I., Saveetha Medical College and Hospital, Saveetha Nagar, Thandalam, Chennai – 602105.
2Professor, Dept. of Microbiology, Saveetha Medical College and Hospital, Saveetha Nagar, Thandalam, Chennai – 602105.
3Assistant Professor, Dept. of Microbiology, Saveetha Medical College and Hospital, Saveetha Nagar, Thandalam, Chennai – 602105.
4Professor (HOD), Dept. of Microbiology, Saveetha Medical College and Hospital, Saveetha Nagar, Thandalam, Chennai – 602105.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 14,      Issue - 2,     Year - 2021


ABSTRACT:
Context: Multidrug Resistant (MDR) organisms transmitted through the hands of Health Care Workers (HCWs) are a major cause of Health Care-Associated Infections (HCAI). Practicing hand hygiene and knowledge regarding the same is essential for reducing HCAI and drug resistance. Aims: To determine the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of microorganisms in the isolates from the hands of HCWs and to assess the extent of knowledge regarding hand hygiene among HCWs. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Department of Microbiology in association with clinical departments for a period of two months. Methods: Glove juice samples were obtained from the hands of 94 HCWs. Bacterial isolates were subjected to Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing. Knowledge about hand hygiene was assessed using WHO Hand Hy¬giene Questionnaire for HCWs (revised August 2009). Statistical analysis used: SPSS software Version 17. Results: Bacterial growth was observed in 33% of the study population. The most common was Staphylococcus aureus (10.6%) followed by CONS (7.4%), Aerobic Spore Bearing bacilli (3.2%), E.coli (3.2%), Pseudomonas spp (1.1%) and Acinetobacter spp (1.1%). Prevalence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 6.4%. Formal training on hand hygiene practices was received by 67% of HCWs in the last 3 years. Good level of knowledge was found among 7 medical (77.77%) and 2 (22.2%) paramedical staff. Conclusions: The most predominant MDR organism to be isolated was MRSA. Significant difference in knowledge regarding hand hygiene was observed among medical and paramedical staff. The results of this study could help us to reduce the burden of HCAIs by strengthening Infection Control surveillance activities, thus improving patient care.


Cite this article:
S. Niveditha, S.S.M. Umamageswari, D. Aruna, M. Kalyani. Study of Hand Carriage of Multi drug resistant bacteria using Glove Juice Technique in Health Care Workers. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2021; 14(2):650-656. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2021.00116.5


REFERENCES:
1.    WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care: First Global Patient Safety Challenge Clean Care Is Safer Care. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009. 21, The WHO Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy.
2.    Ewans TM, Ortiz CR, LaForce FM. Prevention and control of nosocomial infection in the intensive careunit. In: Irwin RS, Cerra FB, Rippe JM, editors. Intensive Care Medicine. 4th ed. New York: LippincotRavan;1999.p. 1074–80.
3.    Lolita S.M. D’Souza., Malarvizhi M., Joicy John. Prevention of Nosocomial infection in NICU. Asian J. Nur. Edu. and Research 4(2): April- June 2014; Page 255-257.
4.    Siegel JD, Rhinehart E, Jackson M, Chiarello L, and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee, 2007 Guideline for Isolation Precautions: Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings.
5.    Sreeja. M.K, Gowrishankar N.L, Adisha. S, Divya. K.C. Antibiotic Resistance-Reasons and the Most Common Resistant Pathogens – A Review. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2017; 10(6): 1886-1890.
6.    Visalachy S, Palraj KK, Kopula SS, Sekar U. Carriage of Multidrug Resistant Bacteria on Frequently Contacted Surfaces and Hands of Health Care Workers. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research : JCDR. 2016;10(5):DC18-DC20. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2016/19692.7772.
7.    Shanthi M, Uma S. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus at Sriramachandra Medical Centre. Sri Ramachandra Journal of medicine. 2009;2(2):1–4.
8.    Adherence M.H.H., 2009. Overcoming the challenges. Ohio : The Joint Commission.
9.    Maheshwari V, Kaore NCM, Ramnani VK, Gupta SK, Borle A, Kaushal R. A Study to Assess Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Hand Hygiene amongst Residents and Nursing Staff in a Tertiary Health Care Setting of Bhopal City. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research : JCDR. 2014;8(8):DC04-DC07. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/8510.4696.
10.    Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. 27thed.CLSI supplement M100 (ISBN 1-56238-804-5 [Print];ISBN 1-56238-805-3 [Electronic]). Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Road, Suite 2500,Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087 USA,2017.
11.    Infection control as a major World Health Organization priority for developing countries Pittet, D. et al. Journal of Hospital Infection , Volume 68 , Issue 4 , 285 – 292.
12.    Mahl MC. New method for determination of efficacy of health care personnel hand wash products. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 1989;27(10):2295-2299.
13.    American Society for Testing and Materials International. “ASTM E 1174-06: Standard test method for evaluation of the effectiveness of healthcare personnel handwash formulations”. West Conshohocken, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials; 2006
14.    Kampf G, Ostermeyer C, Heeg P, Paulson D. Evaluation of Two Methods of Determining the Efficacies of Two Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs for Surgical Hand Antisepsis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2006;72(6):3856-3861. doi:10.1128/ AEM.02746-05.
15.    Kaltenthaler EC, Pinfold JV. Microbiological methods for assessing handwashing practice in hygiene behaviour studies. J Trop Med Hyg. 1995;98:101–106.
16.    Malini J, Shruti AH, Padmavathy M, Umapathy BL, Navaneeth BV, Keerthi Mannan J, Girish MS. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among the health care workers in a tertiary care hospital. JCDR. 2012;6(5):791–3.
17.    Morgan DJ, Rogawski E, Thom KA, et al. Transfer of multidrug-resistant bacteria to healthcare workers’ gloves and gowns after patient contact increases with environmental contamination. Critical Care Medicine. 2012;40(4):1045-1051. 19.
18.    Sanderson P.J., Weissler S. Recovery of coliforms from the hands of nurses and patients: activities leading to contamination. Journal of Hospital Infection, 21 (2) 1992., pp. 85-93.
19.    Dulon M, Peters C, Schablon A, Nienhaus A. MRSA carriage among healthcare workers in non-outbreak settings in Europe and the United States: a systematic review. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2014;14:363. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-363.
20.    Gebreyesus A, Gebre-Selassie S, Mihert A. Nasal and hand carriage rate of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among health care workers in mekelle hospital, north ethiopia” Ethiop Med J. 2103;51(1):41–7.
21.    Hira V, Sluijter M, Goessens WHF, et al. Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcal Skin Carriage among Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Personnel: from Population to Infection. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2010;48(11):3876-3881. doi:10.1128/JCM.00967-10.
22.    Seng R, Kitti T, Thummeepak R, et al. Biofilm formation of methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS) isolated from community and hospital environments. De Lencastre H, ed. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(8):e0184172. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0184172.
23.    Harpreet Kaur, Jasbir Kaur. Hand Hygiene Practices among Staff Nurses during Drug Administration at Selected Tertiary Health Care Centre of Ludhiana, Punjab. Asian J. Nur. Edu. and Research 5(2): April-June 2015; Page199-201.
24.    Thakker VS, Jadhav PR. Knowledge of hand hygiene in undergraduate medical, dental, and nursing students: A cross-sectional survey. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2015;4(4):582-586. doi:10.4103/2249-4863.174298
25.    Vigy Elizebth Cherian, Rose Rajesh. A Study to Assess The Knowledge and Practice among Nurse on Infection Control Measures in Pediatric Unit at Pondicherry Institute of Medical Science, Puducherry. Int. J. of Advances in Nur. Management. 2018; 6(3): 215-219.

Recomonded Articles:

Author(s): Rakhi Mehra, Renu Makhija, Neera Vyas

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Mistry Khushboo, Kavya Naik, Vasanthi, Alicia Menezes, Anup Naha, K.B. Koteshwara, K. Girish Pai

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00540.6         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Katare Varsha B., Bhutkar M. A., Kumbhar A. P., Pol S. K., Katare P. B.

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Raj Kumar R, Praveen D, Palani Shanmugasundaram

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00164.5         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Rekha Kallam, Padma Sree K, Srinivas Arutla, MA Bari

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Sandeep DS, Narayana Charyulu R, Prashant Nayak, Aliss Maharjan, Indira Ghalan

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00163.3         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Amutha K*, Ashok Kumar A, Godavari A

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00100.7         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Sajid Ali, Maryam Shabbir, Nabeel Shahid

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2015.00019.0         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Saranya, Parthasarathy V, Hariprasad B, Shobha Rani H

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00233.X         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Martin Ebenezer. C, Goh C.X.H, Jemeela. S, Manoj Abraham. M, Jabbar. M. S

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00283.X         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Mahadeva Rao US, San San Oo, Nurul Liana Sabrin, Norsyahira Syazwana Mohd Razali, Khairunnisa Khalid, Nurul Farihah Mohamed Nadzari, Thant Zin

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00065.8         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Thulasi V. Menon, C.I. Sajeeth

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

0.38
2018CiteScore
 
56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus


SCImago Journal & Country Rank


Recent Articles




Tags