Medicinal plants have been used traditionally by the native inhabitants since the ancient time for the treatment of many diseases. Plum (Prunus domestica L.) is also a medicinal plant generally 6 to 15meters tall and belong to the family Rosaceae. Its origin is thought to be near the Caspian Sea and it is found in Kashmir, Swat division of Pakistan and India as well. In this paper we have tried to through the light on its classification and chemistry. It has many anti-disease activities including antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihaemolytic, cholinesterase inhibitory, cytotoxic (anticancer), hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, larvicidal and repellent activities. Therefore, this review gives a broad view on its classification, pharmacological activities and its phytochemicals.
Cite this article:
Rishi Kumar Shukla, Kishan. A Review on European Plum (Prunus domestica) for its Pharmacological activities and Phytochemicals. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2021; 14(2):1155-1162. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2021.00207.9
1. Mpondo ME and Dibong SD. Traditional Knowledge on Medicinal Plants Use by Ethnic Communities in Douala, Cameroon. European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2012; 2(2): 159-176
2. Bargali SS, Shrivastava SK, Dixit VK and Bargali K. Some less known ethno medicinal plants of Jagdalpur District of Chhattisgarh State. The Botanica. (2003); 53: 192–197.
3. Chopra RN, Nayar SL and Chopra IC. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi.2009; pp. 205.
4. Nakatani N, Kayano SI, Kikuzaki H, Sumino K, Katagiri K and Mitani T. Identification, quantitative determination, and antioxidative activities of chlorogenic acid isomers in prune (Prunus domestica L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2000; 48: 5512-5516.
5. Topp LF, Russell DM, Neumuller M, Dalbo MA and Liu W. Plum: In Fruit Breeding. Springer, New York, USA.1991.
6. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAOSTAT. Available from online: http://faostat. fao.org (accessed on 27 October 2016). 2013.
7. Igwe EO and Charlton KE. A systematic review on the health effects of plums (Prunus domestica and Prunus salicina). Phytotherapy Research. 2016;30(5): 701-731.
8. Dirlewanger E, Cosson P, Tavaud M, Aranzana M, Poizat C, Zanetto A, and Laigret F. Development of microsatellite markers in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and their use in genetic diversity analysis in peach and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2002; 105(1): 127-138.
9. Steven PF. “Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 7, May 2006. Available from: URL: http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/ research/AP web. Accessed on 22 June 2007.
10. Heywood VH. Flowering plants of the world. Oxford University Press, New York. 1993.
11. Judd SW, Campbell CS, Kellogg EA and Stevens PF. Plant Systematics a phylogenetic approach. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Sunderland, MA. 1999; pp.290–306.
12. Kant R, Shukla RK and Shukla A. A review on Peach (Prunus persica): an asset of medicinal phytochemicals. Int J Res Appl Sci Eng Tech (IJRASET).2018; 6(1): 2186-2200.
13. Khanizadeh S and Cousineau J. Our Plums: Les Pruniers de Chez Nous. Department of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Horticulture Research and Development Centre. 2000.
14. Judd WS and Olmstead RG. A survey of tricolpate (eudicot) phylogenetic relationships. Amer. J. Bot. 2004; 91(10): 1627–1644.
15. Lee Sand Wen J. A phylogenetic analysis of prunus and the amygdaloideae (rosaceae) using its sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. American Journal of Botany. 2001; 88(1): 150–160.
16. Nayudu TS and Sowjanya K. Anti-Diabetic Activity of Methanolic Extract of Prunus Domestica. International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication. 2017; 5(4): 213-220.
17. Natural resources conservation services, United states department of agriculture, Available from: URL: https://plants.usda.gov/java/ Classification Servlet? source=display & classid=PRDO
18. Rehder A. Manual of cultivated trees and shrubs Hardy in North America exclusive of the subtropical and warmer temperate regions. The Macmillan Company, New York. 1940; 2nd ed.
19. Hanelt P. European wild relatives of Prunus fruit crops. Bocconea. 1997; 7:401-408.
20. Siew WC, Joey S, Rosemarie H, Jun W and Dan P. Diversification of almonds, peaches, plums and cherries- Molecular systematics and biogeographic history of Prunus (Rosaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 2014; 76: 34-48.
21. De Tournefort JP. Institutiones rei herbariae. Paris, France.1700; 1st ed.
22. Linnaeus C. Genera Plant arum. Stockholm, Sweden. 1754; 5th ed.
23. Bentham G and Hooker JD. Genera Plant arum. Reeve and Co., London, UK. 1865.
24. Focke WO. Rosaceae. In Engler A and Prantl K [eds.], Die naturlichen pflanzenfamilien. Engelmann, Leipzig, Germany.1894; 3: pp.1–61.
25. Koehne BAE. Die Gliederung von Prunus subgen. Padus. Verhandhunben des botanischen Vereins der Provinz Brandenburg. Berlin.1911; 52: pp.101–108.
26. Hutchison J. The genera of flowering plants. Vol. 1. Clarendon press, Oxford, UK.1964.
27. Komarov VL. Rosaceae: Rosoideae, Prunoideae. In: Flora of the U.S.S.R. (English translation). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. 1971; 10: pp.1-512.
28. Yü TT, Lu LT, Ku TC, Li CL and Chen SX. Rosaceae (3), Prunoideae. In: Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae. Beijing: Science Press.1986; 38: pp.1–133.
29. Ghora C and Panigrahi G. The family Rosaceae in India. Bishen Singh and Mahandra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun. 1995.
30. Santapau H and Henry AN. A dictionary of the flowering plants in India. Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi, India. 1973; pp.139.
31. Ghora C and Panigrahi G. Fascicles of flora of India. Rosaceae: genus Prunus. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, India. 1984; 18: pp.1-44.
32. Pandey A, Nayar ER, Venkateswaran K and Bhandari DC. Genetic resources of Prunus (rosaceae) in India. Genetic resources and crop evolution. 2008; 55(1): 91-104.
33. Gupta VK. Wealth of India. 2003;4: pp.406–409.
34. Krishnamurthi A. The wealth of India. Publication and information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi, India. 1969; 8: pp.269.
35. Kritkar KR and Basu BD. Indian Medicinal Plants. 1975.
36. García-Fraile P, Silva LR, Sánchez-Márquez S, Velázquez E and Rivas R. Plums (Prunus domestica L.) are a good source of yeasts producing organic acids of industrial interest from glycerol. Food chemistry. 2013; 139(1-4): 31-34.
37. Jaiswal R, Karaköse H, Rühmann S, Goldner K, Neumüller M, Treutter D and Kuhnert N. Identification of phenolic compounds in plum fruits (Prunus salicina L. and Prunus domestica L.) by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and characterization of varieties by quantitative phenolic fingerprints. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2013; 61(49): 12020-12031.
38. Routray W and Orsat V. MAE of phenolic compounds from blueberry leaves and comparison with other extraction methods. Industrial Crops and Products. 2014; 58: 36-45.
39. Scherer R, Rybka ACP, Ballus CA, Meinhar AD, Teixeira-Filho J and Godoy HT. Validation of a HPLC method for simultaneous determination of main organic acids in fruits and juices. Food Chemistry. 2012; 135(1): 150-154.
40. Gonzalez-Garcia E, Marina ML and García MC. Plum (Prunus Domestica L.) by-product as a new and cheap source of bioactive peptides: Extraction method and peptides characterization. Journal of functional foods.2014; 11: 428-437.
41. Hassanein MM. Studies on non-traditional oils: Detailed studies on different lipid profiles of some Rosaceae kernel oils. Grasas y Aceites. 1999; 50(5): 379-384.
42. Chopra RN, Nayar SC and Chopra IC. Glossary of Indian Medical Plants. C.S.I.R., New Delhi, India, 1956; pp.205.
43. Parihaar RS, Bargali K and Bargali SS. Diversity and uses of Ethno-medicinal plants associated with traditional agro forestry systems in Kumaun Himalaya. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2014; 84(12): 1470-1476.
44. Shahidi S, Setareye S and Mahmoodi M. Effects of the Prunus domestica L. (Mirabelle) on learning and memory in mice. Ancient Science of Life. 2013; 32(3): 139-143.
45. Raynal J, Moutounet M and Souquet JM. Intervention of phenolic compounds in plum technology: Changes during drying. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1989; 37(4): 1046-1050.
46. Kayano SI, Yamada NF, Suzuki T, Ikami T, Shioaki K, Kikuzaki H, ... and Nakatani N. Quantitative evaluation of antioxidant components in prunes (Prunus domestica L.). Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2003; 51(5): 1480-1485.
47. Mahmood A, Ahmed R and Kosar S. Phytochemical screening and biological activities of the oil components of Prunus domestica Linn. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society. 2009; 13(3): 273-277.
48. Kayano SI, Kikuzaki H, Ikami T, Suzuki T, Mitani T and Nakatani N. A new bipyrrole and some phenolic constituents in prunes (Prunus domestica L.) and their oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry. 2004; 68(4): 942-944.
49. Kikuzak H, Kayano SI, Fukutsuka N, Aoki A, Kasamatsu K, Yamasaki Y, and Nakatani N. Abscisic acid related compounds and lignans in prunes (Prunus domestica L.) and their oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2004; 52(2): 344-349.
50. El-Beltagi HS, El-Ansary AE, Mostafa MA, Kamel TA and Safwat G. Evaluation of the Phytochemical, Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Anticancer Activity of Prunus domestica Fruit. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca. 2019; 47(2): 395-404.
51. Bi Y, Zhu C, Wang Z, Luo H, Fu R, Zhao X, ... and Jiang L. Purification and characterization of a glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase from black plum seed and its structural changes in ionic liquids. Food chemistry. 2019; 274: 422-428.
52. Bonesi M, Tenuta M, Loizzo M, Sicari V and Tundis R. Potential Application of Prunus armeniaca L. and P. domestica L. Leaf Essential Oils as Antioxidant and of Cholinesterase’s Inhibitors. Antioxidants. 2018; 8(2):1-8.
53. Miljić U, Puškaš V, Velićanski A, Mašković P, Cvetković D and Vujić, J. Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of plum (Prunus domestica L.) wine. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 2016; 122(2): 342-349.
54. Lenchyk LV. Determination of phenolic compounds in prunus domestica leaves extract. Scripta Scientifica Pharmaceutica. 2016; 2(2): 31-35.
55. Mehta S, Soni N, Satpathy Gand Gupta RK. Evaluation of nutritional, phytochemical, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of dried plum (Prunus domestica). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2014; 3(2): 166-171.
56. Kayano SI, Kikuzaki H, Fukutsuka N, Mitani T and Nakatani N. Antioxidant activity of prune (Prunus domestica L.) constituents and a new synergist. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2002; 50(13): 3708-3712.
57. Nagarajan GR and Parmar VS. Chemical examination of the heartwood of Prunus domestica. Planta Med. 1977; 31: 146.
58. Nagarajan GR and Seshadri TR. Flavonoid components of the heartwood of Prunus domestica linn. Phytochemistry. 1964; 3: 477-484.
59. Wollenweber E, Dietz VH, Schilling G, Favre-Bonvin J and Smith DM. Flavonoids from chemotypes of the goldback fern, Pityrogramma triangularis. Phytochemistry; 1985; 24(5): 965-971.
60. Malterud KE, Bremnes TE, Faegri A, Moe T, Dugstad EKS, Anthonsen T and Henriksen LM. Flavonoids from the wood of Salix caprea as inhibitors of wood-destroying fungi. Journal of Natural Products. 1985; 48(4): 559-563.
61. Proksch P, Breuer M, Mitsakos A and Budzikiewicz H. New dihydroflavonols from Enceliopsis and Geraea. Planta medica. 1987; 53(04): 334-337.
62. Parmar SV, Vardhan A, Nagarajan GR and Jain R. Dihydroflavonols from Prunus domestica. Phytochemistry. 1992; 31(6):2185-2186.
63. Nagarajan GR and Parmar SV. Phloracetophenone derivatives in Prunus domestica. Phytochemistry. 1977;16: 615-616.
64. Cardador-Martínez A, Loarca-Piña G and Oomah BD. Antioxidant activity in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2002; 50(24): 6975-6980.
65. Prior RL and Cao G. Antioxidant phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables: diet and health implications. Hort Science. 2000; 35(4): 588-592.
66. Wu X, Beecher GR, Holden JM, Haytowitz DB, Gebhardt SE and Prior RL. Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities of common foods in the United States. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2004; 52(12): 4026-4037.
67. Donovan JL, Meyer AS and Waterhouse AL. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of prunes and prune juice (Prunus domestica). Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 1998; 46(4): 1247-1252.
68. Wang H, Cao G and Prior RL. Total antioxidant capacity of fruits. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 1996; 44(3): 701-705.
69. “Antimicrobial”, Available from URL; https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/antimicrobial. Accessed on 27/09/2019.
70. Belhadj J and Marzouki MN. Antioxidant, Antihemolytic and Antibacterial effects of dried and fresh Prunus domestica L. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Bio-Science. 2014; 3(6): 191-207.
71. Ikehata H, Wakaizumi Mand Murata K. Antioxidant and antihemolytic activity of a new isoflavone, “Factor 2” isolated from tempeh. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 1968; 32(6): 740-746.
72. Adewusi EA, Moodley N and Steenkamp V. Medicinal plants with cholinesterase inhibitory activity: a review. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2010; 9(49): 8257-8276.
73. Nath R, Roy S, De B and Choudhury MD. Anticancer and antioxidant activity of croton: a review. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013; 5(2); 63-70.
74. Soni M, Mohanty PK and Jaliwala YA. Hepatoprotective activity of fruits of Prunus domestica. Int J Pharm Biosci. 2011;2(2): 439-453.
75. Tinker LF, Davis PA and Schneeman BO. Prune fiber or pectin compared with cellulose lowers plasma and liver lipids in rats with diet-induced hyperlipidemia. J. Nutr. 1994; 124: 31-40.
76. Tinker LF, Schneeman BO, Davis PA, Gallaher DD and Waggoner CR. Consumption of prunes as a source of dietary fiber in men with mild hypercholesterolemia. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1991; 53: 1259-1265.
77. Gallaher CM, Gallaher DD (2009). Dried plums (prunes) reduce atherosclerosis lesion area inapolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Br. J. Nutr. 2009; 101: 233-239.
78. Andrade LN and De-Sousa DP. A review on anti-inflammatory activity of monoterpenes. Molecules. 2013; 18(1): 1227-1254.
79. Hooshmand S, Kumar A, Zhang JY, Johnson SA, Chai SC and Arjmandi BH. Evidence for anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of dried plum polyphenols in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Food and function. 2015; 6(5): 1719-1725.
80. Bu Young S, Lerner M, Stoecker BJ, Boldrin E, Brackett DJ, Lucas AE and Smith BJ. Dried Plum Polyphenols Inhibit Osteoclastogenesisby Downgrading NFATc1 and Inflammatory Mediators. Calcif Tissue Int. 2008; 82: 475-488.
81. Bnouham M, Ziyyat A, Mekhfi H, Tahri A and Legssyer A. Medicinal plants with potential antidiabetic activity-A review of ten years of herbal medicine research (1990-2000). International Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism. 2006; 14(1): 1-25.
82. Nowika P, Wojdylo A and Samoticha J. Evaluation of phytochemicals, antioxidant capacity and antidiabetic activityof novel smoothies from selected Prunusfruits. Journal of Functional Foods. 2016; 25: 397-407.
83. Mahn HD and Tuyet OT. Larvicidal and Repellent Activity of Mentha arvensis L. Essential Oil against Aedes aegypti. Insects. 2020; 11(3): 198.
84. Shehata AZI. Biological Activity of Prunus Domestica (Rosaceae) and Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) leaves extracts against the Mosquito Vector, Culex Pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Egypt. Acad. J. Biolog. Sci. 2019; 11(1): 65-73.