Author(s): Efris Kartika Sari, Titin Andri Wihastuti, Priska Rizqi Afenia, Wahyu Ardiansyah


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.01092   

Address: Efris Kartika Sari*, Titin Andri Wihastuti, Priska Rizqi Afenia, Wahyu Ardiansyah
School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, University of Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 14,      Issue - 12,     Year - 2021

Escherichia coli bacterial infection (E. coli) is the cause of sepsis in critically ill patients. Consumption of probiotic is one attempt to increase endurance against bacterial infections. This study aimed to determine the effect of probiotic Lactobacillus spp. on pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 (IL-1)), sepsis markers (procalcitonin (PCT) and white blood cell (WBC) count in rats (Rattus norvegicus) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) E. coli. Twenty-one rats were divided into three groups: (1) group of healthy control rats, (2) group of rats induced by LPS E. coli, and (3) group of rats treated by Lactobacillus spp. and induced by LPS E. coli. The group of rats treated by Lactobacillus spp. and induced by LPS E. coli was treated with additional Lactobacillus spp. probiotic on day 1-14, then induced with LPS E. coli on day 15. All blood samples were taken on the 16th day. IL-1 and PCT levels were analyzed with the ELISA method, the WBC count was measured with improved Neubauer hemocytometer. The group of rats induced by LPS E. coli had the highest IL-1, PCT, and WBC count. The statistical analysis of IL-1 did not show a significant difference (p > 0.05), but PCT and WBC count showed significant difference when compared with group of rats treated by Lactobacillus spp. (p < 0.05). Probiotic Lactobacillus spp. can prevent sepsis in rats induced by LPS E. coli.

Cite this article:
Efris Kartika Sari, Titin Andri Wihastuti, Priska Rizqi Afenia, Wahyu Ardiansyah. Probiotic can Prevent Sepsis in Rats Induced by Lipopolysaccharide Escherichia coli. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(12):6315-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.01092

Efris Kartika Sari, Titin Andri Wihastuti, Priska Rizqi Afenia, Wahyu Ardiansyah. Probiotic can Prevent Sepsis in Rats Induced by Lipopolysaccharide Escherichia coli. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(12):6315-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.01092   Available on:

1.    Ozer B, Akkurt CO, Duran N, Onlen Y, Savas L, Turhanoglu S. Evaluation of nosocomial infections and risk factors in critically ill patients. Med Sci Monit. 2011;17(3):PH17-22.
2.    Mehrad B, Clark NM, Zhanel GG, Lynch JP. Antimicrobial resistance in hospital-acquired gram-negative bacterial infections. CHEST 2015;147(5):1413-1421.
3.    Allocati N, Masulli M, Alexeyev MF, Ilio CD. Escherichia coli in Europe: An overview. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013;10:6235-6254.
4.    Crooks NH, Snaith C, Webster D, Gao F, Hawkey P. Clinical review: Probiotics in critical care. Critical Care 2012;16:237.
5.    Esteban E, Ferrer R, Alsina L, Artigas A. Immunomodulation in sepsis: The role of endotoxin removal by polymyxin B-Immobilized cartridge. Mediators of Inflammation. 2013;2013:1-12.
6.    Burkovskiy I, Sardinha J, Zhou J, Lehmann C. Cytokine release in sepsis. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology 2013;4:860-865.
7.    Machairas N, Pistiki A, Droggiti D-I, et al. Pre-treatment with probiotics prolongs survival after experimental infection by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in rodents: An effect on sepsis-induced immunosuppression. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2015;45:376-384.
8.    A SK, V V, V NS, et al. Anti-arthritic activity of Annona squamosa leaves methanolic extract on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. Res. J. Pharmacology & Pharmacodynamics. 2017;9(2):45-56.
9.    Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases (8th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders; 2015.
10.    Kibe S, Adams K, Barlow G. Diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of sepsis in critical care. J Antimicrob Chemother 2011;66(Suppl 2):ii33–ii40.
11.    Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Rhodes A, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2012. Crit Care Med. 2013;41:580-637.
12.    Osuchowski MF, Craciun F, Weixelbaumer KM, Duffy ER, Remick* DG. Sepsis chronically in MARS: Systemic cytokine responses are always mixed regardless of the outcome, magnitude, or phase of sepsis. J Immunol 2012;189:4648-4656.
13.    Ge Y, Huang M, Yao Y-m. Recent advances in the biology of IL-1 family cytokines and their potential roles in development of sepsis.
14.    Prabha JL, Sankari M. Role of Il-1 in atherosclerosis. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2018;11(7):3163-3166.
15.    Pierrakos C, Vincent J-L. Sepsis biomarkers: a review. Critical Care 2010;14:R15.
16.    Nath SR, Jayapalan S, Nair H, et al. Comparative diagnostic test evaluation of serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein in suspected bloodstream infections in children with cancer. Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017;66:622-627.
17.    Sarowska J, Choroszy-Król I, Regulska-Ilow B, Frej-Mądrzak M, Jama-Kmiecik A. The therapeutic effect of probiotic bacteria on gastrointestinal diseases. Adv Clin Exp Med 2013;22(5):759-766.
18.    Faujdar SS, Mehrishi P, Bishnoi S, Sharma A. Role of Probiotics in human health and disease: An update. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci 2016;5(3):328-344.
19.    Achanta H, V. S. Isolation and biochemical characterization of probiotic Lactobacillus species isolated from curd samples of southern regions of Vellore, Tamil Nadu. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2017;10(6):1734-1741.
20.    Lokhande S, More S, Raje V. A systematic study of probiotics- an update review. Asian J. Pharm. Tech. 2018;8(3):149-157.
21.    Goyal R, Dhingra H, Bajpai P, Joshi N. Characterization of the Lactobacillus isolated from different curd samples. African Journal of Biotechnology 2012;11(79):14448-14452.
22.    Proborini A, Sumarno, Sumakto. Probiotic does not influence the profile of adaptive immune cell in escherichia coli infection. Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya. 2013;27(4):185-191.
23.    Popov D, Pavlov G. Sepis models in experimental animals. Trakia Journal of Sciences. 2013;11(1):13-23.
24.    V.E.O.Ozougwu, Christian NU. Effect of Izol contaminated feed on the heamatological profile of albino rats. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 2014;3(2):691-704.
25.    Couper KN, Blount DG, Riley EM. IL-10: The master regulator of immunity to infection. J Immunol. 2008;180:5771-5777.
26.    Burkovskiy I, Zhou J, Lehmann C. Use of Escherichia coli toxins in sepsis models. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology. 2013;4:424-429.
27.    Karlsson I. Cytokines as Diagnostic Biomarkers in Canine Pyometra and Sepsis. Uppsala: Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; 2015.
28.    McAllister SK, Bland LA, Arduino MJ, Aguero SM, Wenger PN, Jarvis WR. Patient cytokine response in transfusion-associated sepsis. Infection and Immunity, May 1994, p. 2126-2128. 1994;62(5):2126-2128.
29.    Peñailillo AK, Sepulveda MA, Palma CJ, et al. Haematological and blood biochemical changes induced by the administration of low doses of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide in rabbits. Arch Med Vet. 2016;48:315-320.
30.    Henriquez-Camacho C, Losa J. Biomarkers for Sepsis. BioMed Research International. 2014;2014:1-6.
31.    Nanda SK, Dinakaran A, Bhat S, Ravichandran, Kanungo R. Diagnostic and prognostic role of Procalcitonin in sepsis in a tertiary care hospital. Biomedical Research. 2016;27(1):79-83.
32.    Parnham MJ. Immunomodulatory approaches to the treatment of infections. Croatian Journal of Infection 2011;31(1):15-27.
33.    Shlomai NO, Deshpande G, Rao S, Patole S. Probiotics for preterm neonates: What will it take to change clinical practice? Neonatology 2014;105:64-70.
34.    Sugiyartono, Purwanti T, Isnaeni, Asega DRF. Influence of emcompress concentration on the physical properties of tablet containing Lactobacillus spp. and guava leaves extract. Asian J. Pharm. Res. . 2014;4(4):189-194.
35.    Hossain MK, Nahar K, Shokryazdan P, Abdullah N, Hamid K, Jahromi MF. Probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from cheese, yogurt and poultry faeces. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2017;10(9):2991-2998.
36.    Samanje, Jaleel, Kiliç AO. Antimicrobial action of isolated probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum from different fermented dairy products from Trabzon City. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2020;13(5):2445-2451.
37.    Namasivayam SKR, Kumar SN, Mohan C, S VG. Biocompatible formulation of probiotic bacteria Bacillus subtilis with agriculture based products for the effective acid tolerance properties and synergistic activity with antibiotics. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. . 2018;11(1):73-78.
38.    Indira M, Venkateswarulu TC, Chakravarthy K, Reddy AR, Prabhakar KV. Isolation and characterization of bacteriocin producing lactic acid bacteria from diary effluent. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2015;8(11):1560-1565.
39.    Dey A, Ragavan ML, Mandal SK, Das N. Isolation, identification and In vitro characterisation of probiotic yeast strains. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2017;10(3):726-732.
40.    Iannitti T, Palmieri B. Therapeutical use of probiotic formulations in clinical practice. Clinical Nutrition 2010;29:701-725.
41.    Barraud D, Blard C, Hein Fo, et al. Probiotics in the critically ill patient: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Intensive Care Med 2010;36:1540-1547.
42.    Gao K, Wang C, Liu L, et al. Immunomodulation and signaling mechanism of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and its components on porcine intestinal epithelial cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection 2017;50:700-713.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available