Author(s): Tan LF, Mogana R, Sasikala Chinnappan, Venkatalakshmi R, Yap VL

Email(s): mogana@ucsiuniversity.edu

DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.01061   

Address: Tan LF1, Mogana R1*, Sasikala Chinnappan1, Venkatalakshmi R2, Yap VL1
1Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, No:1, Jalan Menara Gading, UCSI University (South Campus), Taman Connaught, Cheras, 56000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
2Department of Dosage Form Design, School of Pharmacy, MAHSA University, Bandar Saujana Putra, 42610 Jenjarom Selangor, Malaysia.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 14,      Issue - 11,     Year - 2021


ABSTRACT:
Hyperpigmentation disorders caused by excessive melanin synthesis may significantly affect the psychosocial aspect of an individual. Being the current gold standard used for the treatment of hyperpigmentation disorders, hydroquinone is associated with several adverse effects including skin irritation, contact dermatitis, mutagenic to mammalian cells, cytotoxic to melanocytes as well as exogenous ochronosis in darker-complexioned individuals. Botanically derived agents have received increased attention in treating hyperpigmentation as they are perceived to be milder, safer, healthier and more cost-effective. Several herbs, plant extracts and phytochemicals with multitude mechanisms of action have been reported to be effective depigmenting agents with milder side effects. Some of the agents were studied in combination and their hypopigmentation effects may be resulting from synergistic effects of the various components. Mechanisms involved in depigmentation include tyrosinase inhibition, inhibition of a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-induced melanogenesis and antioxidant properties. Use of plant-derived agents for the treatment of hyperpigmentation disorders is promising with the need for more rigorous clinical studies to support the use of these agents. This review summarizes the use of various plants and bioactive constituents and their effectiveness in the control of pigmentation.


Cite this article:
Tan LF, Mogana R, Sasikala Chinnappan, Venkatalakshmi R, Yap VL. Various Plants and Bioactive Constituents for Pigmentation Control: A Review. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(11):6106-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.01061

Cite(Electronic):
Tan LF, Mogana R, Sasikala Chinnappan, Venkatalakshmi R, Yap VL. Various Plants and Bioactive Constituents for Pigmentation Control: A Review. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(11):6106-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.01061   Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2021-14-11-86


REFERENCES:
1.    Zolghadri S, et al. A comprehensive review on tyrosinase inhibitors. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2019; 34(1): 279–309.
2.    Masum MN, et al. Tyrosinase inhibitors from natural and synthetic sources as skin-lightening agents. Rev Agric Sci. 2019; 7: 41–58.
3.    Costin G-E, Hearing VJ. Human skin pigmentation: melanocytes modulate skin color in response to stress. FASEB J. 2007; 21(4): 976–94.
4.    Boo YC. Human skin lightening efficacy of resveratrol and its analogs: From in vitro studies to cosmetic applications. Antioxidants. 2019; 8(9): 1–22.
5.    Serre C, et al. Intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of human skin melanogenesis and pigmentation [Internet]. Vol. 40, International Journal of Cosmetic Science. Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2018; [cited 2020 Oct 11]: 328–47. Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ ics.12466
6.    Maranduca MA, et al. Synthesis and physiological implications of melanic pigments (review). Oncol Lett [Internet]. 2019 May 1 [cited 2020 Oct 11]; 17(5): 4183–7. Available from: http:// www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/ol.2019.10071/abstract
7.    Sarkar R, et al. Cosmeceuticals for hyperpigmentation: What is available? J Cutan Aesthet Surg. 2013; 6(1): 4.
8.    Ortonne JP, Passeron T. Melanin pigmentary disorders: Treatment update. Vol. 23, Dermatologic Clinics. W.B. Saunders; 2005; 209-26.
9.    Fisk WA, et al. The use of botanically derived agents for hyperpigmentation: A systematic review. J Am Acad Dermatol [Internet]. 2014; 70(2): 352–65. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.jaad.2013.09.048
10.    Oettel H. Die Hydrochinonvergiftung. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Exp Pathol Pharmakol [Internet]. 1936 Mar [cited 2020 Oct 11]; 183(2–5): 319–62. Available from: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/ BF01867498
11.    Martin GJ, Ansbacher S. Confirmatory evidence of the chromotrichial activity of p-aminobenzoic acid. J Bid Chem [Internet]. 1941 [cited 2020 Oct 11]; 138: 441. Available from: https://www.cabdirect.org/ cabdirect/abstract/19411401115
12.    Bhattar P, et al. Exogenous Ochronosis. Indian J Dermatol [Internet]. 2015 Nov 1 [cited 2020 Jun 27]; 60(6): 537–43. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26677264/
13.    Al-Saleh I, et al. The dangers of skin-lightening creams. Toxicol Environ Chem [Internet]. 2012 Jan [cited 2020 Oct 11];94(1):195–219. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/ 02772248.2011.631925
14.    Pillaiyar T, et al. Skin whitening agents: Medicinal chemistry perspective of tyrosinase inhibitors. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2017; 32(1): 403–25.
15.    Kanlayavattanakul M, Lourith N. Plants and Natural Products for the Treatment of Skin Hyperpigmentation - A Review [Internet]. Vol. 84, Planta Medica. Georg Thieme Verlag; 2018 [cited 2020 Jun 24]. p. 988–1006. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ 29506294/
16.    Morelli JG, Norris DA. Influence of inflammatory mediators and cytokines on human melanocyte function. J Invest Dermatol [Internet]. 1993 [cited 2020 Jun 27]; 100(2 SUPPL.). Available from: https:// pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8381839/
17.    Lynde CB, et al. Topical treatments for melasma and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. [Internet]. Vol. 11, Skin therapy letter. 2006 [cited 2020 Jun 27]; p. 1–6. Available from: https:// www.skintherapyletter.com/hyperpigmentation/treatments-melasma-pih/
18.    Hormozi M, et al. 5′-(N-ethylcarboxamido) adenosine improves angiogenesis in transplanted human ovarian tissue. Fertil Steril [Internet]. 2011 Jun 30 [cited 2020 Jun 28]; 95(8). Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21704211/
19.    Ghafarzadeh M, Eatemadi A. Clinical efficacy of liposome-encapsulated Aloe vera on melasma treatment during pregnancy. J Cosmet Laser Ther [Internet]. 2017 Apr 3 [cited 2020 Jun 24]; 19(3): 181–7. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ 28139161/
20.    Zhang Q, et al. A cream of herbal mixture to improve melasma. J Cosmet Dermatol [Internet]. 2019 Dec 1 [cited 2020 Jun 24]; 18(6): 1721–8. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC6916559/ ?report=abstract
21.    Khosravan S, et al. The effect of topical use of petroselinum crispum (parsley) versus that of hydroquinone cream on reduction of epidermal melasma: A randomized clinical trial. Holist Nurs Pract [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2020 Jun 24]; 31(1): 16–20. Available from: https:// pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27902522/
22.    Tadokoro T, et al. Whitening efficacy of plant extracts including orchid extracts on Japanese female skin with melasma and lentigo senilis. J Dermatol [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2020 Jun 24]; 37(6): 522–30. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ 20536665/
23.    Sivamani R, Clark A. Phytochemicals in the treatment of hyperpigmentation. Bot Targets Ther. 2016; Volume 6: 89–96.
24.    Funayama M, et al. Effects of α- and β-Arbutin on Activity of Tyrosinases from Mushroom and Mouse Melanom. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem [Internet]. 1995 [cited 2020 Jun 25]; 59(1): 143–4. Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/ 10.1271/bbb.59.143
25.    Polnikorn N. Treatment of refractory melasma with the MedLite C6 Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and alpha arbutin: A prospective study. J Cosmet Laser Ther [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2020 Jun 23]; 12(3): 126–31. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ 20482238/
26.    Morag M, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of Serratulae quinquefoliae folium, a new source of β-arbutin, in selected skin hyperpigmentations. J Cosmet Dermatol [Internet]. 2015 Sep 1 [cited 2020 Jun 24]; 14(3): 185–90. Available from: https:// pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26119285/
27.    Kamatou GPP, Viljoen AM. A review of the application and pharmacological properties of α-bisabolol and α-bisabolol-rich oils [Internet]. Vol. 87, JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. Springer; 2010 [cited 2020 Jun 25]; p. 1–7. Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11746-009-1483-3
28.    Lee J, et al. Whitening effect of α-bisabolol in Asian women subjects. Int J Cosmet Sci [Internet]. 2010 Aug [cited 2020 May 5]; 32(4): 299–303. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/20642768
29.    Kim S, et al. Mechanisms of depigmentation by α-bisabolol. Vol. 52, Journal of Dermatological Science. Elsevier; 2008. p. 219–22.
30.    Sabancilar E, et al. Treatment of melasma with a depigmentation cream determined with colorimetry. J Cosmet Laser Ther [Internet]. 2011 Oct [cited 2020 Jun 24]; 13(5): 255–9. Available from: https:// pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21774660/
31.    Han EB, et al. Melanogenesis inhibitory effect of aerial part of Pueraria thunbergiana in vitro and in vivo. Arch Dermatol Res [Internet]. 2014 Jul 26 [cited 2020 Jun 24]; 307(1): 57–72. Available from:/pmc/articles/PMC4282881/?report=abstract
32.    Vashi NA, Kundu R V. Facial hyperpigmentation: Causes and treatment [Internet]. Vol. 169, British Journal of Dermatology. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd; 2013; [cited 2020 Jun 25]: p. 41–56. Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/bjd.12536
33.    Chaudhuri RK, Bojanowski K. Bakuchiol: A retinol-like functional compound revealed by gene expression profiling and clinically proven to have anti-aging effects. Int J Cosmet Sci [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2020 Jun 28]; 36(3): 221–30. Available from: https:// pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24471735/

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

0.38
2018CiteScore
 
56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus


SCImago Journal & Country Rank


Recent Articles




Tags


Not Available