Arif Nur Muhammad Ansori, Viol Dhea Kharisma, Amaq Fadholly, Martia Rani Tacharina, Yulanda Antonius, Arli Aditya Parikesit
Arif Nur Muhammad Ansori1, Viol Dhea Kharisma2,3, Amaq Fadholly1, Martia Rani Tacharina4, Yulanda Antonius5*, Arli Aditya Parikesit6
1Doctoral Program in Veterinary Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.
2Computational Virology and Complexity Science Research Unit, Division of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Generasi Biologi Indonesia Foundation, Gresik, Indonesia.
3Master Program in Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia.
4Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.
5Department of Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia.
6Department of Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Indonesia International Institute for Life Sciences, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Volume - 14,
Issue - 10,
Year - 2021
Known as the causal factor of the recent global COVID-19 pandemic, any SARS-CoV-2 is not the only coronavirus that has constituted a menace to society and taken thousands of human lives. Two previous pandemics were also led by coronaviruses; such as the MERS-CoV in 2012 and another SARS-CoV in 2002. Only five months into existence, SARS-CoV-2 transmitted infection to approximately 75 million people and it has led to more than 1.5 million of deaths all over the world. Unfortunately, there has not been any specific treatment yet for COVID-19 yet and its control is purely empirical. The examinations of the parity between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, in terms of their genomics, origin, epidemiology, and pathogenesis, suggested that we may use the previous data of MERS-CoV or SARS-CoV as a guideline for uncovering the effective approach to strive against SARS-CoV-2. Various studies have reported the positive effects of numerous phytochemical compounds against SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Interestingly, this idea has been emplyed for SARS-CoV-2, and in silico screening of phytochemical compounds has been performed for identifying the potential candidates for COVID-19 treatment. Curcumin is an example of a natural compound which was demonstrated as potent candidate contrary to SARS-CoV-2 protease derived from the in silico studies. Herein, the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 and the aplication of alternative medicines for treating coronavirus diseases are briefly reviewed.
Cite this article:
Arif Nur Muhammad Ansori, Viol Dhea Kharisma, Amaq Fadholly, Martia Rani Tacharina, Yulanda Antonius, Arli Aditya Parikesit. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 Emergence and Its Treatment with Alternative Medicines: A Review. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2021; 14(10):5551-7. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00967
Arif Nur Muhammad Ansori, Viol Dhea Kharisma, Amaq Fadholly, Martia Rani Tacharina, Yulanda Antonius, Arli Aditya Parikesit. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 Emergence and Its Treatment with Alternative Medicines: A Review. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2021; 14(10):5551-7. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00967 Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2021-14-10-85
1. Guo YR, Cao QD, Hong ZS, et al. The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak - an update on the status. Military Medical Research. 2020; 7(1): 11.
2. Jain RS, Awad BB, Patil SB, et al. Review on coronovirus its different types. Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Science. 2020; 10(2): 2231-5659.
3. Rokade M, Khandagale P. Coronavirus disease: A review of a new threat to public health. Asian J Pharm Res. 2020; 10(3): 241-244.
4. Ansori ANM, Kharishma VD, Muttaqin SS, et al. Genetic variant of SARS-CoV-2 isolates in Indonesia: Spike glycoprotein gene. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology. 2020; 14: 971-978.
5. Kharisma VD and Ansori ANM. Construction of epitope-based peptide vaccine against SARS-CoV-2: Immunoinformatics study. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology. 2020; 14: 999-1005.
6. Nugraha AS, Keller PA. Revealing indigenous indonesian traditional medicine: Anti-infective agents. Natural Product Communications. 2011; 6(12): 1953-1966.
7. Ansori ANM, Fadholly A, Hayaza S, et al. A review on medicinal properties of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.). Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020; 13(2).
8. Fadholly A, Ansori ANM, Jayanti S, et al. Cytotoxic effect of Allium cepa L. extract on human colon cancer (WiDr) cells: In vitro study. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2019; 12(7): 3483-3486.
9. Husen SA, Ansori ANM, Hayaza S, et al. Therapeutic effect of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) pods extract on streptozotocin-induced type-2 diabetic mice. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2019; 12(8): 3703-3708.
10. Husen SA, Wahyuningsih SPA, Ansori ANM, et al. The effect of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) pods extract on malondialdehyde and cholesterol level in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Ecology, Environment and Conservation. 2019; 25: S50-S56.
11. Wu F, Zhao S, Yu B, et al. A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China. Nature. 2020; 579: 265-269.
12. Mor S, Saini P, Wangnoo SK, et al. Worldwide spread of COVID-19 pandemic and risk factors among Co-morbid conditions especially diabetes mellitus in India. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020; 13(5): 2530-2532.
13. Callaway E. The race for coronavirus vaccines: A graphical guide. Nature. 2020; 580: 576-577.
14. Shang W, Yang Y, Rao Y, et al. The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia calls for viral vaccines. NPJ Vaccines. 2020; 5: 18.
15. Yadav AR, Mohite SK. A novel approach for treatment of COVID-19 with convalescent plasma. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Technology. 2020; 12(3): 227-230.
16. Turista DDR, Islamy A, Kharisma VD, et al. Distribution of COVID-19 and phylogenetic tree construction of SARS-CoV-2 in Indonesia. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology. 2020; 14: 1035-1042.
17. Payne S. Family Coronaviridae. Viruses. 2017; 149‐158.
18. Derouiche S. Current review on herbal pharmaceutical improve immune responses against COVID-19 infection. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Technology. 2020; 12(3): 181-184.
19. Su S, Wong G, Shi W, et al. Epidemiology, genetic recombination and pathogenesis of coronaviruses. Trends in Microbiology. 2016; 24: 490-502.
20. Forni D, Cagliani R, Clerici M, et al. Molecular evolution of human coronavirus genomes. Trends in Microbiology. 2017; 25: 35-48.
21. Kumar R, Chawla A, Gaganpreet, Diksha. A valuable insight to the novel deadly COVID-19: A review. Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2020; 12(3): 111-116.
22. Song HD, Tu CC, Zhang GW, et al. Cross-host evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in palm civet and human. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 2005; 102: 2430-2435.
23. Müller MA, Corman VM, Jores J, et al. MERS coronavirus neutralizing antibodies in camels, Eastern Africa, 1983–1997. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014; 20: 2093-2095.
24. Andersen KG, Rambaut A, Lipkin WI, et al. The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2. Nature Medicine. 2020; 26: 450-452.
25. Zhang T, Wu Q, Zhang Z. Probable pangolin origin of SARS-CoV-2 associated with the COVID-19 outbreak. Current Biology. 2020; 30(7): 1346-1351.e2.
26. Ansori ANM, Kharisma VD, Antonius Y, et al. Immunobioinformatics analysis and phylogenetic tree construction of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): Spike glycoprotein gene. Journal of Laboratory Technology. 2020; 9(1): 13-20.
27. Lam TT, Jia N, Zhang YW, et al. Identifying SARS-CoV-2 related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins. Nature. 2020.
28. Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature. 2020; 579(7798): 270-273.
29. Yang Y, Islam MS, Wang J, et al. Traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of patients infected with 2019-New Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): A review and perspective. International Journal of Biological Sciences. 2020; 16(10): 1708-1717.
30. Jo S, Kim H, Kim S, et al. Characteristics of flavonoids as potent MERS-CoV 3C-like protease inhibitors. Chemical Biology and Drug Design. 2019; 94(6): 2023-2030.
31. Pyrc K, Berkhout B, van der Hoek L. Antiviral strategies against human coronaviruses. Infectious Disorders – Drug Targets. 2007; 7: 59-66.
32. Wu CY, Jan JT, Ma SH, et al. Small molecules targeting severe acute respiratory syndrome human coronavirus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA. 2004; 101(27): 10012-10017.
33. Gong SJ, Su XJ, Yu HP, et al. A study on anti-SARS-CoV 3CL protein of flavonoids from Litchi chinensis sonn core. Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin. 2008; 24: 699-700.
34. Nguyen TT, Woo HJ, Kang HK, et al. Flavonoid-mediated inhibition of SARS coronavirus 3C-like protease expressed in Pichia pastoris. Biotechnology Letters. 2012; 34: 831-838.
35. Jo S, Kim S, Shin DH, et al. Inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease by flavonoids. Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry. 2020; 35: 145-151.
36. Lin CW, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH, et al. Anti-SARS coronavirus 3C-like protease effects of Isatis indigotica root and plant-derived phenolic compounds. Antiviral Research. 2005; 68: 36-42.
37. Lin LT, Lin WC, Lin CC. Antiviral natural products and herbal medicines. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine. 2014; 4(1): 24-35.
38. Luo W, Su X, Gong S, et al. Anti-SARS coronavirus 3C-like protease effects of Rheum palmatum L. extracts. BioScience Trends. 2009; 3(4): 124-126.
39. Fung KP, Leung PC, Tsui KW, et al. Immunomodulatory activities of the herbal formula Kwan Du Bu Fei Dang in healthy subjects: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Hong Kong Medical Journal. 2017; 17(Suppl 2): 41-43.
40. Lau KM, Lee KM, Koon CM, et al. Immunomodulatory and anti-SARS activities of Houttuynia cordata. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2008; 118: 79-85.
41. Yu MS, Lee J, Lee JM, et al. Identification of myricetin and scutellarein as novel chemical inhibitors of the SARS coronavirus helicase, nsP13. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 2012; 22: 4049-4054.
42. Deng YF, Aluko RE, Jin Q, et al. Inhibitory activities of baicalin against renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2012; 50: 401-406.
43. Chen Z, Nakamura T. Statistical evidence for the usefulness of Chinese medicine in the treatment of SARS. Phytotherapy Research. 2004; 18: 592-594.
44. Pyrc K, Bosch BJ, Berkhout B, et al. Inhibition of human coronavirus NL63 infection at early stages of the replication cycle. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2006; 50(6): 2000-2008.
45. Keyaerts E, Vijgen L, Pannecouque C, et al. Plant lectins are potent inhibitors of coronaviruses by interfering with two targets in the viral replication cycle. Antiviral Research. 2007; 75(3): 179‐187.
46. De Clercq E. Potential antivirals and antiviral strategies against SARS coronavirus infections. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy. 2006; 4(2): 291‐302.
47. Schwarz S, Wang K, Wenjing Y, et al. Emodin inhibits current through SARS-associated coronavirus 3a protein. Antiviral Research. 2011; 90: 64-69.
48. Ho TY, Wu SL, Chen JC, et al. Emodin blocks the SARS coronavirus spike protein and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 interaction. Antiviral Research. 2007; 74: 92-101.
49. Cinatl J, Morgenstern B, Bauer G, et al. Glycyrrhizin, an active component of liquorice roots, and replication of SARS-associated coronavirus. Lancet. 2003; 361(9374): 2045-2046.
50. Chen F, Chan KH, Jiang Y, et al. In vitro susceptibility of 10 clinical isolates of SARS coronavirus to selected antiviral compounds. Journal of Clinical Virology. 2004; 31: 69-75.
51. Yi L, Li Z, Yuan K, et al. Small molecules blocking the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus into host cells. Journal of Virology. 2004; 78: 11334-11339.
52. Park JY, Kim JH, Kwon JM, et al. Dieckol, a SARS-CoV 3CL(pro) inhibitor, isolated from the edible brown algae Ecklonia cava. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry. 2013; 21: 3730-3737.
53. Ryu YB, Jeong HJ, Kim JH, et al. Biflavonoids from Torreya nucifera displaying SARS-CoV 3CL(pro) inhibition. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry. 2010; 18(22): 7940-7947.
54. Chen CJ, Michaelis M, Hsu HK, et al. Toona sinensis Roem tender leaf extract inhibits SARS coronavirus replication. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2008; 120: 108-111.
55. Li SY, Chen C, Zhang HQ, et al. Identification of natural compounds with antiviral activities against SARS-associated coronavirus. Antiviral Research. 2005; 67: 18-23.
56. Jain MS, Barhate SD. Corona viruses are a family of viruses that range from the common cold to MERS corona virus: A review. Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020; 10(3): 204-210.
57. Sindhu TJ, Arathi KN, Akhilesh KJ, et al. Antiviral screening of Clerodol derivatives as COV 2 main protease inhibitor in novel corona virus disease: In silico approaches. Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020; 10(2): 60-64.
58. Das S, Sarmah S, Lyndem S, et al. An investigation into the identification of potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 main protease using molecular docking study. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics. 2020; 1-11.
59. Zhang DH, Wu KL, Zhang X, et al. In silico screening of Chinese herbal medicines with the potential to directly inhibit 2019 novel coronavirus. Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2020; 18: 152-158.
60. Nasrollahzadeh M, Sajjadi M, Soufi GJ, et al. Nanomaterials and nanotechnology-associated innovations against viral infections with a focus on coronaviruses. Nanomaterials. 2020; 10: 1072.
61. Singh L, Kruger HG, Maguire GEM, et al. The role of nanotechnology in the treatment of viral infections. Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease. 2017; 4(4): 105-131.
62. Galdiero S, Falanga A, Vitiello M, et al. Silver nanoparticles as potential antiviral agents. Molecules. 2011; 16(10): 8894-8918.
63. Markwalter CF, Kantor AG, Moore CP, et al. Inorganic complexes and metal-based nanomaterials for infectious disease diagnostics. Chemical Reviews. 2019; 119(2): 1456-1518.
64. Shankhdhar PK, Mishra P, Kannojia P, et al. Turmeric: Plant immunobooster against COVID-19. Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2020; 12(3): 174-177.
65. Ahmad S, Shoaib A, Ali MS, et al. Epidemiology, risk, myths, pharmacotherapeutic management and socio economic burden due to novel COVID-19: A recent update. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020; 13(9): 4435-4442.
66. Patil PA, Jain RS. Theoretical study and treatment of novel COVID-19. Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2020; 12(2): 71-72.
67. Yang N, Shen HM. Targeting the endocytic pathway and autophagy process as a novel therapeutic strategy in COVID-19. International Journal of Biological Sciences. 2020; 16(10): 1724-1731.
68. Baden LR, Rubin EJ. COVID-19 – The search for effective therapy. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2020; 382: 1851-1852.
69. Grein J, Ohmagari N, Shin D, et al. Compassionate use of remdesivir for patients with severe COVID-19. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2020; 382: 2327-2336.